This study provides an rating of the operations and constructs adopted by ASOS and Primark, and how both companies can follow a mix of constructs based on their operations. The research draws attending to ASOS and Primark ‘s current operations and constructs. It shows how Primark process their clients in shop from the minute they walk in, to the point of payment, and how ASOS process their clients online from site trial to online check-out procedure. Besides some constructs are seen to give rise to cost which will hold an impact on the operations of both companies.
The study finds that both ASOS and Primark already follow some constructs such as stock list direction, capacity planning and supply concatenation design. It besides looks at how they could follow a mix of constructs to accommodate their operations such as ASOS developing a system which will enable the mix work together, for illustration the optimal sum of stock in stock list direction could trip the supply concatenation where demand would hold to be made to the providers, and Primark besides mensurating cost involved in each construct to guarantee they maintain their low cost scheme.
Recommendations discussed include ; client relationship direction in order to continuously aim their operations to run into the demands of their clients, good provider relationship to guarantee effectual bringing of merchandises at the criterion required, operations supervising for uninterrupted betterment and acceptance of value concatenation analysis to extinguish non value activities.
Table of contents
Executive summary 2
Types of Operations and Transformation procedure in Primark 5
Stock petition 5
Stock refilling 5
Tax returns 6
Customer Service 6
Types of Operations and Transformation procedure in ASOS 7
Guided merchandising 7
Site monitoring 8
Site care 8
Oder processing 9
Delivery and returns 9
Customer service 10
Payment Processing 10
Stock petition 11
Comparison of Operations and Transformation procedure in Primark 11
Theoretical Principles, Concepts and Frameworks 14
Capacity planning 14
Inventory direction 14
Supply concatenation design 15
Performance steps 16
Entire quality direction ( TQM ) 16
Mix of constructs in ASOS 17
Mix on constructs in Primark 19
Appendix 1 Primark 23
2 ASOS 24
1.0 Types of Operations and Transformation Process in Primark
Primark processes clients in their shops. From the minute a client walks into the shop, the client is directed to their required subdivision through the manner their merchandises are displayed in shop and can choose their required points before heading to do payments for their purchases. The following are portion of their operations and transmutation procedures:
1.1 Stock Request
This involves the shop requesting for stock from the caput office who so processes the petition. The stock petition system is used when merchandises have reached a certain degree which is the reorder degree of the shop and would be recognised by their Management Information System.
As Primark has a warehouse, they hold stock there which allows for faster bringing to their shops. This ensures that merchandises are readily available in shop so that clients can buy them.
1.2 Stock Replenishment
Staff of Primark on a regular basis monitor the merchandises displayed in shop on a day-to-day footing non merely to place fast merchandising merchandises but besides to refill the merchandises on show. During this procedure, merchandises which have been moved around by clients are returned back to their appropriate subdivision in order non to misdirect other clients.
If the stocks are non replenished on a regular basis, clients would hold no manner of cognizing if the merchandises are really available for purchase which could potentially take to loss of gross revenues.
1.3 Tax returns
Primark operates a returns policy where certain merchandises could be returned to the shop in the status in which they were sold provided the reception of purchase is besides made available by the client. This involves processing clients through the returns desk where refunds would be issued to clients or exchanges made depending on the client ‘s demands.
There is normally a waiting line which is formed by clients in forepart of the returns desk and each client in the waiting line is called to the desk by the following available staff who would so cover with their question.
This means that clients know where to travel to for their returns without being mixed up with other clients doing purchases which would let for faster processing.
1.4 Customer Service
Primark shops do non hold a particular desk which deals with client service. Normally clients have to near staff that happen to be rolling the shops to manage their query/queries. This procedure could take to holds or dissatisfaction of clients.
However all staff are on a regular basis trained on client service accomplishments in order to cover with the demands of their clients.
Customers are being processed through the payments waiting line and are called upon by the following available staff unto the payment desk. Primark shops normally have more than one payment subdivision to procedure clients rapidly.
At the payments desk, recognition or debit cards, hard currency and Primark gift cards are accepted as a agency of payments. This allows clients to be flexible in their payments as the methods of payments listed supra could be combined to pay for a individual dealing.
2.0 Types of Operations and Transformation Process in ASOS
ASOS processes clients through their web sites. The web site is divided into different subdivisions such as Women, Men, Marketplace and Blogs which all have their ain bomber subdivisions in order clients to voyage through and choice points into their basket before heading to the payment page. The following are portion of their operations and transmutation procedures:
2.1 Guided Selling
This is done by proposing other merchandises to clients which is dependent on the current merchandise being viewed by the clients. This gives the client an penetration or how to blend and fit their selected point with other merchandises while besides enabling them do more purchases.
Electronic mails are besides sent out on a regular basis to clients incorporating merchandises and trades based on their shopping wonts. This system is achieved with the usage of a Management Information system which identifies merchandise and client tendencies.
With this tool, clients can salvage clip traveling through the web site and besides use the suggestions as a usher to their shopping.
2.2 Site Monitoring
This is carried out on a regular footing in order to supervise the activities of clients. This procedure enables information to be gathered about merchandises and clients. Information such as the figure of visits per twenty-four hours on the web site could be gathered here. Besides other jobs could be identified such as pilotage jobs which the clients might confront while seeking to do purchases.
This procedure enables ASOS to repair jobs which the site is confronting in order to treat their clients efficaciously.
New merchandise lines are updated into the web site and merchandises which are no longer available to buy are being removed from the web site so that clients know what is available for purchase and what is n’t.
2.3 Site Care
As ASOS merely trades online, their web sites are on a regular basis maintained and updated in order for them to run efficaciously.
2.4 Order Processing
After an order has been placed on their web site, an order is being generated which has to be processed by a staff. Here the points ordered would be sorted and so sent out for transportation.
An electronic mail would so be sent out to the client to allow them cognize that their order has been processed and tracking inside informations are besides attached. This allows the client to cognize when the point would be with them every bit good as besides check that the order which has been processed was the order being requested and paid for by the client.
2.5 Delivery and returns
ASOS allows for flexibleness of bringing of merchandises. Different bringing options are made available to clients during check-out procedure which range from different monetary values and figure of yearss it would take for the point to get.
ASOS besides operates a free returns policy where clients can return certain merchandises within 28 yearss after purchase at no excess cost. The returns are being processed upon reception and exchanges or refunds are being issued depending on the client ‘s demand.
Since clients can non see the physical merchandise, this procedure allows them to shop with assurance knowing that if they are dissatisfied with certain merchandises they can be easy returned at no excess cost.
2.6 Customer Service
ASOS does non hold a line which clients can peal up in order to decide their questions and there is besides no blink of an eye chat installation on their web site which could enable clients chat with staff of the company.
However they have other media which they use to cover with their day-to-day client questions such as ASOS assistants which is on facebook, chirrup and other ASOS web logs where clients can reach them refering their questions and a response is gotten within the hr. Customers can besides utilize the contact us installation which is on the ASOS web site.
They besides have detailed replies to regular inquiries being asked by clients on their web site to enable some clients resolve their questions without holding to reach them.
This means that ASOS has to guarantee that they have adequate trained staff available to virtually cover with client questions.
2.7 Payment Processing
This is done during check-out procedure on the web site where registered clients can utilize their recognition or debit cards, gift verifiers, pupil price reduction, Paypal every bit good as other verifier codifications to do payments.
The check-out procedure installation enables clients to salvage their card inside informations for faster processing on their following purchase. This means that ASOS would protect their client ‘s inside informations so their clients can experience secured.
2.8 Stock Request
ASOS has a warehouse where they store their merchandises. Orders are made to their providers when stocks reach their reorder degrees. This is where client orders are being sorted.
By refilling their stocks they can run into their client ‘s orders and non turn them down because stocks are non available. The handiness of stock besides forms the footing of their updates on merchandises on their web sites in order for clients to do purchases.
3.0 Comparison of Operations and Transformation processes in ASOS and Primark
Both companies adopt the same manner of stock petition and as such can garner information about fast merchandising merchandises and decelerate moving merchandises and can utilize this to do determinations which involve measure being ordered from their providers.
As they both have warehouse installations, they would be able to maintain stock for distribution to relevant shops and clients.
Both companies replenish their stocks in shop with Primark and online with ASOS. However, staff of Primark physically have to travel through the shop in order to place what merchandises need to be replenished which would affect more labor which could sometimes be inefficient whereas ASOS has an electronic system which updates their merchandises on their web site based on the handiness of stock in their warehouse.
This means ASOS is able to avoid the labor cost that Primark incurs but Primark besides avoids the cost of utilizing an electronic system which ASOS uses.
Tax returns and Delivery
Both companies deal with returns, nevertheless the clients of Primark can walk into any of their shop and do a return which makes it faster when compared to ASOS which involves the client transporting the merchandises back to them.
As Primark clients can see their merchandises in shop, returns would be less compared to ASOS where clients can non physically see or seek on the merchandise until arrival which would cut down the figure of returns which they have to treat.
Primark can salvage cost on place bringing as they merely operate in shop ; nevertheless ASOS has managed to avoid the cost of operating in shop by runing online which is cheaper compared to hive away operations as less staff would be used and store leasing or purchase is avoided.
ASOS has an assigned squad which deals with client questions which means their clients would cognize who to direct their inquiries to, while Primark trains all staff to cover with their client questions and this could be seen as multi-skilling in order to increase flexibleness in their procedures.
However ASOS merely offers mail communicating in response to questions and so clients would hold to wait for a response.
Both companies are flexible as to what signifier of payments their clients could utilize. However, since Primark pursues a low cost scheme they do non offer price reductions to their clients because of their low monetary values whereas ASOS allows for price reductions which could be used by clients and this could be seen as a gross revenues scheme as it would pull more purchases.
ASOS uses this procedure to hive away information about their clients to let for faster processing on their following purchase which Primark does non hold.
Both companies do this but Primark does it by dressing up their mannikins and uniting other outfits in shop. However ASOS do more in the manner of directing out electronic mails to their clients with merchandises tailored made for them based on their shopping wonts on their web site.
4.0 Theoretical Principles, Concepts and Frameworks
4.1 Capacity Planning
Harmonizing to Nigel, Stuart and Robert ( 2004 ) , this is ”the undertaking of puting the effectual capacity of the operation so that it can react to demands placed upon it. ”
It could be hard to put an effectual capacity as sometimes the demand placed on their operation can non ever be predicted accurately.
This would be appropriate for both companies. For illustration, Primark normally takes on more staff during the Christmas season to cover with the seasonal demand and more staff are placed in shop to help with operations. This would intend using and developing new staff beforehand.
ASOS besides does more bringing during the Christmas season as they besides have high bringing to cover with which means utilizing more bringing companies as they outsource their bringing.
4.2 Inventory Management
As supply and demand are non normally in harmoniousness with each other, inventory direction facilitates smoothing of supply and demand, harmonizing to Nigel, Stuart and Robert ( 2004 ) .
Companies would hold to find the optimal sum of stock to be held which could be based on public presentation of certain merchandises in the past or premise that certain merchandises would make good or with the acceptance of economic order measure.
ASOS uses this method as they invariably update their web site on the handiness of their merchandises. Fast merchandising merchandises are identified during site monitoring and more orders are generated to their providers.
Primark besides uses this construct as they replenish their stock in shop regularly and rhenium order stock when they have reached their reorder degree.
4.3 Supply Chain Design
Harmonizing to Slack, Chambers and Johnston ( 2004 ) , supply concatenation is ”a linkage or strand of operations that provides goods and services through to stop clients. ”
In other for this construct to be effectual, value concatenation has to besides be considered so client ‘s demands can be met such as taking into history what they want, the monetary value they want it at, and where and when they want it.
Both companies can follow this method as they both already adopt disintermediation where they eliminate the in-between work forces between them and their providers which allows them to straight put orders to their providers and shop in their warehouses upon bringing before distribution to shops or clients.
As ASOS is a practical company, their bringing companies will organize portion of their supply concatenation and their activities would hold to be monitored by ASOS which they already do as they can track bringing of points and clients besides contact ASOS when there has been a job with their bringing.
4.4 Performance Measures
As defined by Slack, Chambers and Johnston ( 2004 ) , ”performance measuring is the activity of measurement and measuring the assorted facets of a procedure or whole operation ‘s public presentation. ”
This would be appropriate for both companies ; nevertheless what should acquire measured would differ. Primark could mensurate the figure of payment treating staff as a per centum of clients processed while ASOS could mensurate the figure of gross revenues made as a consequence of electronic mails sent out to clients.
By following appropriate steps they can potentially repair failings in their procedures ; nevertheless it could be clip devouring and if the incorrect procedures are measured so staff would move in the incorrect manner.
This construct sometimes gives rise to dysfunctional determination devising as client ‘s demands might non be taken into history when finding what get ‘s measured.
For illustration Primark does n’t hold a forum where clients can give feedback other than ailments made in shop. ASOS on the other manus has entree to such information through their web logs and societal media pages and they could utilize this as a footing to find what gets measured with respects to fulfilling client demands.
4.5 Entire Quality Management ( TQM )
Slack, Chambers and Johnston ( 2004 ) , define TQM as ”a holistic attack to the direction of quality that emphasises the function of all parts of an administration and all people within an administration to influence and better quality. ”
As inexpensive is normally associated with quality, Primark would guarantee a certain degree of quality compared to the cost of their merchandises. Besides Primark as a trade name is known to be cheaper than other high street shops and so their degree of quality would differ and so investing in TQM could increase cost in Primark which could potentially hold an impact on their monetary values.
ASOS on the other manus could follow TQM as they are still seeking to construct a trade name that would vie with high manner. They ‘ve already adopted steps such as bettering their response clip from six hours to one hr, Harmonizing to The Times 100 ( 2007 ) , which would hold involved taking on more staff and developing them suitably.
TQM could be extended to providers and distributers in order to accomplish overall quality with respects to the activities of a company.
5.0 Mix of Concepts in ASOS
ASOS could follow all the constructs discussed supra. For illustration, by utilizing stock list direction, they can find the sum of stock which would necessitate to be ordered from their providers and so trip the supply concatenation design.
Based on the demand already made to their provider, ASOS can utilize that as one of the determiners in puting an effectual capacity.
Besides TQM could be extended to parties in their supply concatenation which would besides include their providers and bringing companies whereby marks would be set for them and their public presentation measured to see if they meet the needed mark.
The mix does hold an impact on fight as other companies may already follow these schemes which would intend ASOS would be viing on the same degree with them ; nevertheless if non applied suitably in line with their operation so they may be viing below the criterion.
For illustration by the clip demand of merchandises is passed on to their providers and being delivered to ASOS, the merchandises could go out of manner as ASOS follows manner tendencies and this would no longer be required by their clients and new merchandises would hold to be introduced. Good provider relationship is cardinal in guaranting faster bringing of these merchandises.
With respects to invention, the mix gives room for it as the processs behind the mix could be changed if it does better efficiency in the company.
For illustration ASOS could develop a system which links the constructs as mentioned earlier where stock list direction starts the supply concatenation procedure and this could be achieved with effectual cognition direction in ASOS.
The mix can besides be sustained, nevertheless utilizing all of the mix could impact on cost. As entire quality direction takes a piece before it can be to the full achieved, other quality techniques could be used.
As engineering continues to better, most of the mix could be automated but the cost besides has to be considered. However ASOS has continued to turn quickly since they began merchandising and so these costs could be covered without holding an impact on their overall public presentation. Although growing like this can non be sustained, and as such ASOS would hold to go on to incur operations costs even when growing diminutions.
6.0 Mix of Concepts in Primark
Primark could besides follow the constructs discussed, nevertheless as they operate a low cost scheme, prosecuting all the construct may non turn out sustainable for them as their costs would lift and would intend higher monetary values would be passed on to their clients and as this is non their scheme, it could take to loss of some clients.
Primark could follow some facet of the mix, for illustration one could state they have eliminated most none value activities in order to derive lower cost such as extinguishing in-between work forces in their supply concatenation which enables them to vie as cost leaders.
The mix could let for invention in Primark as choice of some facets of the constructs can let them come up with an effectual mix which meets their low cost scheme.
As they use thin operations, they can go on to guarantee optimal usage of their resources where all staff are trained on these constructs which meet their scheme and this would besides affect some degree of cognition direction.
For illustration with the mix, cost could be the footing for public presentation measuring because if their cost could be reduced so they can go on to merchandise at lower monetary values while still keeping their client base.
ASOS and Primark both have operations that deal with treating their clients. Their procedures do non differ as much but their executing of these procedures do in order to run into both their demands and that of their clients such as ASOS directing out electronic mails as portion of selling to trip purchases while Primark displays their merchandises on mannikins in shop to pull clients.
Both companies already follow some models such as capacity planning ; where Primark take on more staff during seasonal periods and ASOS uses more bringing companies to run into the demand of their merchandises, stock list direction ; where ASOS updates their merchandises on their web sites and Primark replenish their stocks in shop, and supply concatenation design ; where they both deal straight with their providers.
Although ASOS can follow a mix of the constructs, in order to vie they have to guarantee they are run intoing the demands of their clients. Sustainability of the mix can besides be maintained but as ASOS is turning quickly, they would hold to still incur operational cost when growing diminutions.
Primark following all the constructs will hold an impact on their low cost scheme ; nevertheless they can follow some facets of the constructs which fit into their low cost scheme such as utilizing public presentation measuring as a tool to mensurate cost.
Both ASOS and Primark can go on to better their operations through acceptance of relevant constructs which relate to their operations and uninterrupted incorporation of their client ‘s demands in their operations.
Both ASOS and Primark have a figure of operations and constructs which enable them run into the demands of their clients, nevertheless more could be done to guarantee effectual usage of their resources such as ;
Customer relationship direction where ASOS can make a forum where their clients can acquire an instant response to their questions, this could intend taking on more staff and developing them.
Good provider relationship where both companies improve supplier relationships in order to guarantee bringing of merchandises on clip every bit good as run intoing the lower limit demands of the merchandises.
Continuous monitoring of their operations will enable them place failings in their operations and suggest ways to better those failings.
Value concatenation analysis could besides be adopted to guarantee that clients really get what they need and this could take to be nest eggs in both companies as good.
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Primark is a retail manner company which foremost started trading in June 1969 under the name Penneys in Dublin. The company pursues a low cost scheme which enables them to go through this on to their clients in signifier of cheaper monetary values.
Since origin Primark has continued to spread out, first traveling into Great Britain and now traveling into Europe. They presently have 215 shops of which 150 are in the UK, 38 in Ireland and the remainder in some parts of Europe. They besides acquired other shops such as BHS and Co-op which increased their figure of shops.
Due to their acceptance of a low cost scheme, Primark does really small in the manner of selling ; nevertheless they have been able to pull clients as a consequence of their inexpensive monetary values. Their success has been due to uniting fast manner with thin operations.
Although they are a subordinate, Primark has continued to spread out. Their public presentation in the retail industry has won them a figure of awards such as multi market retail merchant of the twelvemonth and shop interior decorator of the twelvemonth. They aim to go on enlargement while keeping their low cost scheme.