Organisational Behavior Project Report Essay

Content page Introduction :page 1 Task A: Answer 2 :Page 2-4 Answer 3:page 5-9 Answer 4:Page 9-13 Answer 5:Page 13-14 Answer 6:Page 14-18 Task B: Answer 1:Page18-21 Answer 2:Page 21-23 Organisations & behaviour Introduction:

Over the last ten years we have seen a dramatic increase in the utilization of part-time workers by the United Parcel Service (UPS). This increase has been coupled with a stunningly high turnover rate of 150 percent among these workers. This study documents the deteriorating work environment for part-time workers at UPS and finds that a lack of full-time opportunities, a pervasive pattern of management mistreatment, and an alarmingly high injury rate are the primary determinants of the high turnover rate. Task A: Answer. 2

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High turnover often means that employees are unhappy with the work or compensation, but it can also indicate unsafe or unhealthy conditions, or that too few employees give satisfactory performance (due to unrealistic expectations or poor candidate screening). The lack of career opportunities and challenges, dissatisfaction with the job-scope or conflict with the management have been cited as predictors of high turnover. Low turnover indicates that none of the above is true: employees are satisfied, healthy and safe, and their performance is satisfactory to the employer.

However, the predictors of low turnover may sometimes differ than those of high turnover. Aside from the fore-mentioned career opportunities, salary, corporate culture, management’s recognition, and a comfortable workplace seem to impact employees’ decision to stay with their employer. Many psychological and management theories exist regarding the types of job content which is intrinsically satisfying to employees and which, in turn, should minimise external voluntary turnover. Examples include Hertzberg’s Two factor theory, McClelland’s Theory of Needs, and Hackman & Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model .

Employee turnover can cost companies big money. The amount of people leaving and being hired into a company can show the overall competitiveness of the work environment when compared to similar level work in the job market. Knowing your turn over rates, the cost of hiring and training new employees, as well as the reasons why employees are leaving helps you make strategic employee decisions. Turn over is often defined by the amount of people that are leaving your organization and the amount of people that are being hired.

For example, you have 100 employees but annually you hire 30 new employees because of vacancies being created by employees leaving. Your turn over rate is then 30%. Comparing your turnover rate to other businesses within your industry will likely be beneficial in gauging the attractiveness of your work environment. For example if your industry average is 10% but you are at 30% something is pushing employees to leave your business. In the same train of thought it costs you more do business. Now that you know the level of turnover in your company you also need to know the costs associated with turn over.

Such costs can include advertisements, drug screens, training, hiring bonuses, relocation packages, and anything else you might be spending on new employees. Take all of these costs and divide the by the amount of employees you hired over the year to come to a cost per hire value. You might also want to take this cost and spread it out over each piece of item you manage, hour of service, or sales product. This will give you a general picture of the burdens your business must face. For example, if you find that adding up all of your business expenses and dividing it per product your total cost is $8. 0 on each $10 product you build then you know that you are only making $2. 00. Knowing this number helps you make key decisions in managing your opportunities, costs and future growth. Perhaps you could make a commitment to reduce this $8. 00 per product by reducing overall operational costs, increasing efficiency and reducing turnover costs. Turnover is a piece of the overall puzzle. If you’ve ever worked for a company where your colleagues kept coming and going, you know how disruptive high employee turnover can be.

In addition to ruining the sense of workplace community, a recent study reveals that high turnover also can be very, very costly. High turnover has reduced earnings and stock prices by an average of 38 percent in four industries where it is common, according to research by Sibson & Company, a talent management company. These industries are specialty retailing, call centers, high-tech and fast food. According to the survey, turnover rates range from 31 percent annually in call centers – the places that answer your 800-number calls when you order merchandise – to 123 percent a year in fast food.

Sibson estimates it costs companies in these industries more than $75 billion a year just to replace the 6. 5 million employees who leave. And direct employee replacement costs are just the tip of the iceberg, says Seymour Burchman, a principal of the firm. Employee turnover has a significant impact on revenue at these companies because they find it hard to keep current customers, attract new ones, increase productivity or pursue growth opportunities. And the rest of the economy is not immune to these costs, either. Overall, Burchman notes, among U. S. ompanies as a whole, turnover has climbed to 15 percent a year. Working to cut turnover isn’t just an effort to keep low-paid employees happy, he says. The costs are immense. Consider this: * To recoup the cost of losing just one crew member, a fast food restaurant must sell 7,613 children’s combo meals at $2. 50 each. * A typical information technology company incurs a cost of $34,100 for each lost worker. * To recoup the cost of losing just one sales clerk, a clothing store must sell almost 3,000 pairs of khakis at $35. Reducing turnover can push a company’s stock price higher, too.

At one call center company, reducing turnover by half would increase profits so significantly that the price of the company’s stock would rise by more than 30 percent. Each industry has different tools at its disposal to cut turnover, Burchman says. Among stockbrokers, his company found, hiring the right people in the first place is more important than any kind of incentive firms could pay to keep brokers. At UPS, the giant package delivery company, truck driver turnover was cut when some of the responsibility for loading and unloading trucks was shifted to loading dockworkers. In most companies, turnover realistically can be reduced by as much as 50 percent, even if some managers don’t believe it can be accomplished,” said Jim Kochanski, another principal of the firm. He said that managers should be creative in thinking of ways to attack the problem. One call center company, for example, put trailers containing what in effect were portable call centers on college campuses so that students working part time didn’t need a car to get to their jobs. Preventations: Employees are important in any running of a business, without them the business would be unsuccessful.

However, more and more employers today are finding employees remain for approximately 23 to 24 months, according to the 2006 Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Employment Policy Foundation states it costs a company on an average of $15,000 per employee, including separation costs, paperwork, unemployment; vacancy costs, including overtime or temporary employees and replacement costs including advertisement, interview time, relocation, training and decreased productivity when colleagues depart.

Providing a stimulating workplace environment in which fosters happy, motivated and empowered individuals, which lowers employee turnover and absentee rates. Promoting a work environment that fosters personal and professional growth promotes harmony and encouragement on all levels, so the effects are felt company wide. Continual training and reinforcement develops a work force that is competent, consistent, competitive, effective and efficient. Beginning on the first day of work, providing the individual with the necessary skills to perform their job is important.

Before the first day, it is important the interview and hiring process expose new hires to an explanation of the company, so individuals know if the job is the best choice. Providing ongoing performance management by networking within the company to share the best practices, helps build relationships among co-workers. Motivating employees to focus on customer success, profitable growth and the company well being is important. Including employees in on future plans, new purchases, policy changes, introducing new employees and employees who have gone above and beyond at meetings keeps employees informed and involved.

Early engagement and engagement along the way, shows employees they are wanted through information or recognition rewards, making them feel included. When companies hire the best people, new talent hired and veterans are enabled to reach company goals, maximizing the investment of each employee. Taking the time to listen to employees and making them feel involved will create loyalty, in turn reducing turnover allowing for growth. Answer 3: In most cases, part-time employees present a special challenge when it comes to motivation.

They do the “grunt” work, have little career choices, are often focused on other goals outside of your organization (college, hobbies, etc. ), and are treated as outsiders by full-time employees. So what’s a manager to do? How do we turn our part-time employees into outstanding employees? The following are eight proven techniques to motivate your part-time employees: 1. Orient them properly. Take time to describe job duties and go over what is allowed and not allowed, e. g. , personal telephone calls, use of organization property, etc. Avoid confusion by designating one person to orient and give assignments to part-timers.

This will eliminate the “well he told me one thing and she said something else” situation that can lead to a demoralized part-time employee. 2. Find Out What Motivates Them. Ask your part-timers questions so that you can find out how to best motivate them. In my teambuilding and leadership programs, I discuss the “Sykes Seven Questions of Motivation” that you need to have the answers to if you are truly motivating your employees. One question you can ask your part-timer is, “What do you want to do in the future? ” By asking the question, you can relate their future goals to your present needs.

For example, the part-timer says he/she wants to be an artist. Listen, acknowledge, and embrace the answer and realize that you can possibly apply their skills now by allowing them to create recognition posters (I know you are already doing these, right? ), work on the organization newsletter, or any other art project that will benefit your organization. If you don’t ask, you won’t know what the hidden talents of these part-timers are. 3. Check Yourself When Communicating Sometime part-timers are looked at as an unnecessary evil. It may be great to have the extra hands, but not so great to deal with them.

First, realize you are fortunate enough to have the extra help. Most people are anxious to have the extra help. Second, it is your job to develop them. Third, only communicate the positive when communicating with them. Remember, for your part-timers, this may be their first experience in the workplace. They may be a little scared and may show it in a number of different ways (rebelling against requests, not working with others, or showing up late or not at all). Our job is to check ourselves whenever we communicate with part-timers so that they feel welcome.

Check yourself when communicating requests so that they are always discussed with positive expectations. Check yourself when communicating with part-timer and full-timers so that both groups know you are glad to have them. It will go a long way to letting the part-timer feel motivated to be there. 4. Assign a mentor Even after proper orientation, part-time workers will be confused. Assign them a full-time worker to be a mentor. The part-time worker will feel more like part of the team, and the mentor will feel good about the added responsibility.

Important: Pick someone who is patient, has good communication skills, is motivated to do the task, and has the time to answer questions. 5. Mix up the workload. Don’t overload part-time workers with “grunt” tasks only. It’s a common temptation to assign all low-level work to part- time employees. Don’t do it! It’s demoralizing. Remember, “Variety is the spice of work life. ” This is where you would apply the information learned in technique number two to mix up the assignments. 6. Eliminate any Hard Feelings Eliminate any perceived or real hard feelings between part- timers and ull-timers immediately. Explain to full-time employees why you’re bringing in part-time help and that their jobs are not being threatened. Important: Sell them on the benefits of bringing in part-timers (make jobs easier, allow them to learn management skills, etc. ) 7. Offer Flexible Hours Many part-time employees are working part-time to meet special situations (College, family health situations, childcare issues, transportation issues, etc. ). Use that to your advantage. By allowing flexible work hours, you’ll retain your part-time workers longer, eliminating the need for costly retraining.

Important: Make sure part-time employees communicate and clear all scheduling conflicts in advance to avoid confusion. 8. Offer Incentives Most companies don’t offer part-time employees incentives. Believe me, the part-time employee knows and resents this policy right away. That’s a big mistake. Set up an incentive program based on your organization’s revenue or behavior you need to see from the part-time employee. In the case of incentives for behavior, give a bonus or incentive for the following: • Perfect attendance Perfect on time attendance • Working well with others • Working well with full-time employees • Taking initiative to solve problems • Great customer service UPS also using offering part time college employees then after they finish their college they are doing full time work. for example: high pay, flexible work hours, full benefits & substantial aid for college. For example Faculty in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest. Despite the historical role played by part-time instructors in community colleges, research on part-time faculty is relatively new.

This article provides a brief review of the current literature on the topic of part-time faculty in community colleges. It examines the growth of part-time faculty since 1960, and the advantages and disadvantages of using part-timers to deliver instruction. PART-TIME FACULTY AS THE MAJORITY The number of part-time faculty instructors at two-year colleges has grown steadily since the early 1960s. According to Lombardi (1992), part-time faculty constituted 38. 5% of the instructors in 698 junior colleges in 1962.

This number increased moderately to 40% in 1971, and three years later grew to nearly 50%. By 1980, nearly 60% of the faculty in two-year colleges were employed part-time, and 65% in 1993 (National Center for Education Statistics in American Association of Community Colleges, 1995). Clearly, community colleges rely heavily on part-time faculty for the delivery of instruction, and the trend is certain to continue. ADVANTAGES TO EMPLOYING PART-TIME FACULTY Part-time faculty are employed in community colleges for a variety of reasons. First, part-time faculty save an institution money.

Within an environment of shrinking financial resources, institutions of higher education are forced to seek alternative methods for delivering costly services (Avakian, 1995; Monroe & Denman, 1991). Adjunct faculty are less costly than full-time faculty in both salaries and benefits. They are paid one-third of the salary of full-time faculty, have limited rights to raises, and are rarely promoted to higher-paid, more prestigious positions (Twigg, 1989). Second, the use of part-time faculty in community colleges increases institutional flexibility in matching the demands of varying enrollments (Lankard, 1993; McGuire, 1993).

Adjuncts are contracted to teach at the beginning of each term and must have their contracts renewed to teach each subsequent term. Therefore, when matriculation drops, the number of part-time faculty are easily adjusted by not renewing contracts. Third, part-time faculty are advantageous because they bring “real world vocational experience” to the community college environment (Cline, 1993, p. 26). In other words, they enrich academic preparation for the professions (Phelan, 1986). Fourth, part-time faculty themselves benefit from teaching part-time at community colleges.

According to Reed (1985), “professionals in fields other than teaching are grateful for being able to teach part-time because of the prestige and fulfillment it adds to their work lives” (p. 40). Further, adjuncts see part-time work as a method by which to secure full-time employment (Silvers, 1990). DISADVANTAGES TO EMPLOYING PART-TIME FACULTY Although recent research suggests that the incentives for employing part-timers are obviously strong, critics contend that the costs of employing a majority of faculty on a part-time basis far outweigh any benefits.

First, critics argue that increased use of part-time faculty harms full-time faculty by taking away full-time positions and extra pay for course overloads (Twigg, 1989). Second, critics claim that part-timers themselves suffer as a result of their overuse for the delivery of instruction. Monroe and Denman (1991) argue that part-time faculty roles are unclear and that as a result, adjunct faculty experience considerable role ambiguity. According to McGuire (1993), part-time faculty roles are unclear because “too often, colleges fail to integrate part-time faculty into their institutions” (p. ). Role ambiguity also makes part-timers vulnerable to exploitation. Part-time faculty have no guarantee of continued employment from term to term, no health insurance or other benefits, few raises or opportunities for promotions, and no voice in decisions that affect them (Twigg, 1989). These conditions can lead to frustration (Lankard, 1993). A third reported disadvantage of employing a large number of part-timers is a concern that the integrity of the two-year college teaching profession is severely undermined. However, there is lack of consensus on how integrity is undermined.

Some argue it leads to differentiated teaching services (Samuel, 1989; Thompson, 1992). Research suggests that part-timers rely on traditional pedagogy. Therefore, they often fail to incorporate new methods of teaching (Digranes & Digranes, 1995). Contradictory to the claim that part- and full-time faculty use different teaching methods, data drawn from national studies of professional development programs for two-year college faculty revealed that part-timers who engage in professional development activities use the same methods of teaching as full-timers (Impara, Hoerner, Clowes, and Alkins, 1991; Kelly, 1992).

Some research appears to conclude that part-timers are less effective teachers than are full-timers (Spangler, 1990). Yet, other studies conclude that there are virtually no differences in the type or quality of instruction delivered by part- and full-time faculty. For example, the results of a study conducted by the Chancellor’s Office of the California Community Colleges to examine current policies and practices regarding the use of part-time faculty in the California system, revealed inconclusive evidence regarding differences in the quality of instruction provided by full- and part-time faculty (California Community Colleges, 1987).

DISCUSSION A large proportion of the faculty at many community colleges teach part time. There are both advantages and disadvantages to employing part-time faculty for delivering instruction. The strongest disadvantage of using part-time faculty appears to be that they are less effective teachers than full-timers. However, studies that support the contention that part-timers are less (or for that matter more) effective teachers than full-timers are inconclusive. At this time, and until further evidence to the contrary, it seems that the advantages to employing part-timers may override the disadvantages.

Both Leslie and Gappa (1993) and Roueche, Roueche, and Milliron (1995) believe that integration of part-time faculty into college communities is not only possible, but necessary. In their respective books, both sets of authors offer recommended practices and models for integrating part-time faculty into community college organizational cultures. The perspective is that “institutions that employ part-time faculty strengthen themselves when they adopt a positive, fair, and investment-oriented stance toward their part-time faculty” (Leslie and Gappa, 1993, p. 289). Answer 4:

The impact of the labour shortage is real, both immediate and longer-term. While 83% of Canada’s medium-to-large companies are already experiencing a shortage of skilled labour, more than 60% expect the problem to become more pronounced in the future. The three common market misconceptions about the problem are: * The impending labour shortage will have a huge impact on everyone–According to Deloitte, the reality is that different industries and job sectors will be affected in very different ways. For example, the financial services and information tech sectors will be hit less than the public, manufacturing and construction sectors. The greatest challenge will be finding highly educated professionals–The reality is that there will also be a chronic shortage in blue-collar and skilled trades. * The only way to deal with the labour shortage is to fight aggressively for talent when the time comes–The reality is that the key to success is cultivating talent now. There is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution to the dilemma, but Deloitte points to six questions every CEO needs to address as a starting point: 1. Workforce Value: Which segments of the workforce create value for which the organization is most rewarded?

What measures are in place to protect those segments? 2. Impact of Retirement: Which areas of the business will be most impacted by impending waves of retirement? What is the organization doing to prepare successors? Impact of retirement on skills and productivity necessary to meet future demand? 3. Demand for Talent: In which areas is the talent issue heating up most? Where is pressure for demand outpacing supply the most? Which segments of the organization’s workforce will be impacted? What are potential implications? 4. Skills Gap: What skills will the organization need over the next five years not already possessed?

How can this capacity be created? Consequences if they are not? 5. Turnover: What is the turnover within critical areas? Cost to the organization in customers, productivity, innovation and quality? Actions to resolve the root of the cause? 6. Understand & Communicate Financial Consequences: Is the organization actively developing talent portfolios or workforce plans to help understand and communicate the financial consequences of talent decisions (both internally and to external stakeholders)? Recent studies warn that the U. S. conomy might soon experience widespread job vacancies that can’t be filled due to a shortfall of workers. Do these arguments have merit, and if so, what are the implications for HR managers? The demographic phenomenon behind these predictions is the “baby bust” cohort, the age group just behind the baby boomers. This group is roughly 16% smaller than the baby boom, and the assumption is that this smaller cohort will not be able to staff all the jobs now filled by the baby boomers. In fact, the baby bust cohort has been in the labor force for some time. Their average age is about 32.

And just behind it is another, larger cohort that some call the echo of the baby boom, the children of boomers, which is the group just now entering the labor market. In large part due to the echo group, government projections indicate that the labor force not only will continue to grow but also will actually increase at a rate slightly faster than that of the 1990s, at least through 2014. The rate of increase will then begin to slow, although the labor force will still be growing. If baby boomers decide to delay retirement or to work part-time after they retire from their main jobs, then the labor force could grow even faster.

Labor shortage is unlikely Nothing about changing demographics, therefore, suggests anything like a labor shortage in the near future. Tight labor markets like those of the late ’90s are certainly possible, but they would require a sustained economic expansion similar to that of the ’90s, the longest economic expansion in U. S. history. Betting on a labor shortage, therefore, requires betting on a long-term economic boom. Long-term economic forecasts are about as accurate as long-term weather forecasts, and no prudent HR manager should base the organization’s employment policy on such a long-term bet.

So should anything about the changing demographics of the labor force be of concern to a prudent HR manager? Yes. Monitor internal demographics First, an organization’s own demographics, which are separate from the demographics of the labor force as a whole, are worth examining carefully. Few employers have an even distribution of workers across age groups. Because most employers disproportionately hire younger workers for entry-level jobs and do so in fits and starts — hiring quickly when they are expanding, stopping when growth stops — many organizations have demographic bulges in their age distributions.

Due to entry-level hiring done in the economic boom of the 1960s, many companies employ a disproportionate number of 60-year-olds. Age concentrations matter because potential retirement waves can cause a substantial loss of talent in a few crucial jobs. Retired boomers provide labor, bring skills Second, changing labor demographics allow employers to tap into a huge pool of skilled workers who have been largely neglected by employers: retirees, a group whose ranks will swell enormously as baby boomers reach retirement age. The baby boom cohort will be healthier, more active, and longer lived than any previous older age group.

Many boomers will want to keep working as a way to stay engaged; many more will need to keep working to pay for the much longer retirements that increased life expectancy allows. The question is this: Can employers tap into this “new” pool of labor? Many organizations, including most corporations, filled their staffs with young and inexpensive workers who then advanced through the ranks earning seniority-based pay to become experienced and expensive workers. Efforts to restructure costs, therefore, often meant — at least implicitly — replacing older workers with younger ones.

When employers considered using older workers, they saw problems because the pay for those workers — tied to seniority — was high. Flexible workplaces attract retirees The days of lifetime employment and seniority-based wages are largely over now as companies have moved toward models of contingent work, independent contracting, and free market–based arrangements. Flexible employment models allow for a tremendous fit with the large pool of labor market re-entrants. Employers can draw from that pool by implementing policies and practices that accommodate older workers.

Doing so might require more flexibility than some employers are comfortable allowing: Older workers might not want to work the long schedules of their younger counterparts, and they might be less willing to manifest the commitment and rah-rah spirit that some organizations require. But these workers also offer desirable skills and competence and are often willing to work for less money and fewer benefits than their younger, career-minded counterparts. The challenge for HR managers is how to engage retirees in cost-effective ways. If retirees want reater control over their schedules and tasks in return for lowering employment costs, then HR managers can add value by creating workplace arrangements that offer retirees that control. Manage performance effectively to capture competitive advantage The problem is ensuring that the organization gets the right work done according to its schedule. The solution begins with effective performance management: • Define performance criteria precisely and explicitly. • Communicate expectations clearly. • Have a large-enough pool of workers available to match skills and schedules with organizational needs.

HR managers might feel as if they are running their own temp agencies when they use retirees. But those HR managers who can adapt to embrace this new pool of workers can capture a significant source of competitive advantage. For example: I am starting to get annoyed with the constant lament that we can’t find mechanics. When will you start taking some responsibility and attack this problem head on? Time is passing us by and it’s starting to get serious. In most of the dealerships I visit and talk with, I hear a constant refrain: The market is larger than we can handle.

We’re turning work away daily because we don’t have enough mechanics. Our backlog is too large. We can’t get to the customer in a timely manner and they go elsewhere. Imagine letting a machine sale get away because you couldn’t find a machine? The first order of business is to deal with the truth of managing the labor inventory. The inventory of mechanics is the only inventory in the dealership where you can’t have any underutilized inventory. Too much unapplied time elicits a “get rid of someone” response. I don’t hear that about machines that haven’t sold in over a year, or parts that haven’t met company stocking parameters.

Yet have an extra hour of labor lying around and you’ll be told you have too many people. Service managers have learned how to deal with this situation. They would rather use overtime than have the right number of mechanics because each of the mechanics on the payroll is a person and service managers don’t like to let people go. Who does? You need to break this cycle or you’ll continue to lose customers. Research for AED’s Product Support Opportunities Handbook found customers saying that 44 percent of them had chosen someone other than the OEM dealer for repairs and maintenance during a five-year period.

The customers said price, responsiveness, convenience and quality were the reasons for their selection of a source for labor other than the OEM dealer. You’ll notice the number of technicians in the dealership impacts two of those reasons. So,how about doing something? • Hire helpers to work with your journeymen. • Work with technical schools. • Send young starting mechanics to college. • Pay more. • Establish incentives based on performance. • Have regular testing for the mechanics. • Provide more than 40 hours of training to the mechanics you employ. • Accept more unapplied time to sustain responsiveness. Reduce overtime and increase safety • Review your labor backlog daily. Your service department: differentiates you from the competition, it generates a lot of parts business, and it has the highest gross profit of the sales, rentals, parts and service departments. And let’s get more serious. Check out the ages of your best mechanics. What about your field staff? How many are over 50? How about your best mechanics: How many are over 50? It’s not about age discrimination; this is a physical job. How about using some of these talented people as trainers in the department?

I believe each dealership should be hiring at least an additional 10 percent of their current staff each quarter. There is clearly enough business out there to absorb that additional capacity. You might need to get serious about product support sales at the same time. Do you have as many product support salespeople as equipment salespeople? The picture will not change until you address the workforce issues. You need more mechanics, you need to pay them better, and you need to continuously train them – in short you need them much more than you realize. Answer 5: Supervisor interest in the workers as individual :

As most of the employees in UPS organization was interested in learning new skills, they were content to keep working at UPS so shroeger began offering them Saturday classes for computer-skill development and career planning discussions. Many new UPS employees in buffalo are intimated by the huge ware house in which they had to work. Lessen that intimidation, shroeger improved lighting throughout the building and upgraded break rooms to make them more user friendly, to further help new employees adjust, she turned some of her best shift supervisors into trained specific guidance during hires’ first week.

Most important, supervisors are taught to demonstrate interest in their workers as individuals. Higher-level managers often spot-quiz supervisors about their new employees: What are his hobbies? Where is she going to school? Show an interest in someone — especially someone who’s new and a bit lost — and for that person, an intimidating workplace can start to feel more like home. Supervisor Carla Wass doesn’t see herself at UPS forever. She wants to get her master’s degree in education and then become a teacher. Jonathan Ziders, a night loader, hopes to be a firefighter after he finishes community college.

William Jaruszewski has been to cooking school and is saving money to start up his own restaurant. And that’s just fine with Shroeger. Not everyone should spend the rest of his life loading and unloading boxes. “People are going to leave,” she says. “Instead of worrying about them leaving, we should be taking an interest in their future. We had to learn that part of making people successful means letting go. ” That was the crucial insight that has helped UPS attract and keep so many young workers in Buffalo. College kids aren’t especially loyal to their jobs, their supervisors, or their employers.

But they are loyal to skills — the kind of skills that they can apply to other work as they build their careers. And that’s why UPS helps pay the college bills and why it offers its employees Saturday classes for computer-skill development and career-planning discussions. A few part-timers will figure out that UPS is where they want to stay. After all, the company offers good pay, stability, and a long-term growth path. “I want this to be my last job,” says Ghee. Even though most others will leave, they will leave after years instead of weeks.

And when they do leave, they’ll depart, Shroeger expects, with a sense of fondness. Her definition of victory? “You know what I’d like? ” she muses. “I’d like all of those part-time workers to graduate from college and start their own businesses — and become UPS customers. ” Answer 6: The contingency approach to management is based on the idea that there is no one best way to manage and that to be effective, planning, organizing, leading, and controlling must be tailored to the particular circumstances faced by an organization. Managers have always asked questions such as “What is the right thing to do?

Should we have a mechanistic or an organic structure? A functional or divisional structure? Wide or narrow spans of management? Tall or flat organizational structures? Simple or complex control and coordination mechanisms? Should we be centralized or decentralized? Should we use task or people oriented leadership styles? What motivational approaches and incentive programs should we use? ” The contingency approach to management (also called the situational approach) assumes that there is no universal answer to such questions because organizations, people, and situations vary and change over time.

Thus, the right thing to do depends on a complex variety of critical environmental and internal contingencies. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW Classical management theorists such as Henri Fayol and Frederick Taylor identified and emphasized management principles that they believed would make companies more successful. However, the classicists came under fire in the 1950s and 1960s from management thinkers who believed that their approach was inflexible and did not consider environmental contingencies.

Although the criticisms were largely invalid (both Fayol and Taylor, for example, recognized that situational factors were relevant), they spawned what has come to be called the contingency school of management. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s focused on situational factors that affected the appropriate structure of organizations and the appropriate leadership styles for different situations. Although the contingency perspective purports to apply to all aspects of management, and not just organizing and leading, there has been little development of contingency approaches outside organization theory and leadership theory.

The following sections provide brief overviews of the contingency perspective as relevant to organization theory and leadership. CONTINGENCY PERSPECTIVE AND ORGANIZATION THEORY Environmental change and uncertainty, work technology, and the size of a company are all identified as environmental factors impacting the effectiveness of different organizational forms. According to the contingency perspective, stable environments suggest mechanistic structures that emphasize centralization, formalization, standardization, and specialization to achieve efficiency and consistency.

Certainty and predictability permit the use of policies, rules, and procedures to guide decision making for routine tasks and problems. Unstable environments suggest organic structures which emphasize decentralization to achieve flexibility and adaptability. Uncertainty and unpredictability require general problem solving methods for non routine tasks and problems. Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch suggest that organizational units operating in differing environments develop different internal unit characteristics, and that the greater the internal differences, the greater the need for coordination between units.

Joan Woodward found that financially successful manufacturing organizations with different types of work technologies (such as unit or small batch; large-batch or mass-production; or continuous-process) differed in the number of management levels, span of management, and the degree of worker specialization. She linked differences in organization to firm performance and suggested that certain organizational forms were appropriate for certain types of work technologies. Organizational size is another contingency variable thought to impact the effectiveness of different organizational forms.

Small organizations can behave informally while larger organizations tend to become more formalized. The owner of a small organization may directly control most things, but large organizations require more complex and indirect control mechanisms. Large organizations can have more specialized staff, units, and jobs. Hence, a divisional structure is not appropriate for a small organization but may be for a large organization. In addition to the contingencies identified above, customer diversity and the globalization of business may require product or service diversity, employee diversity, and even the creation of special units or divisions.

Organizations operating within the United States may have to adapt to variations in local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Organizations operating internationally may have to adapt their organizational structures, managerial practices, and products or services to differing cultural values, expectations, and preferences. The availability of support institutions and the availability and cost of financial resources may influence an organization’s decision to produce or purchase new products. Economic conditions can affect an organization’s hiring and layoff practices as well as wage, salary, and incentive structures.

Technological change can significantly affect an organization. The use of robotics affects the level and types of skills needed in employees. Modern information technology both permits and requires changes in communication and interaction patterns within and between organizations. CONTINGENCY PERSPECTIVE AND LEADERSHIP Dissatisfaction with trait-based theories of leadership effectiveness led to the development of contingency leadership theories. Fred Fiedler, in the 1960s and 1970s, was an early pioneer in this area. Various aspects of the situation have been identified as impacting the effectiveness of different leadership styles.

For example, Fiedler suggests that the degree to which subordinates like or trust the leader, the degree to which the task is structured, and the formal authority possessed by the leader are key determinants of the leadership situation. Task-oriented or relationship oriented leadership should would each work if they fit the characteristics of the situation. Other contingency leadership theories were developed as well. However, empirical research has been mixed as to the validity of these theories. This analytical approach can be found in other areas of management theory too (e. g. eadership styles or strategic management) as well as in studies on the social shaping of technology. For example Mayntz and Schneider in a comparative study of the introduction of videotex in the United Kingdom, France and Germany used a conceptual framework according to which the final design of the technical system and its institutional arrangement was influenced by different constellations of actors in each country which acted in different contexts, defined by the respective legal system, political system, market structure and a different technological pool (Mayntz & Schneider, 1988, p. 282).

Kubicek and Westholm used a contingency model of the deployment of e-democracy tools in their scenarios of the future use of this kind of tools (Kubicek & Westholm, 2005). The map of the socio-technical research landscape employed to map different subjects of research in DEMO-net is based on a contingency approach as well Answer 7: The UPS buffalo organisation have to be careful of the turnover and employees shortage as if the employees leave the organisation they will have a problem as if the employees are in the organisation the production will goes down and after a time company will make lost and it will goes down.

So they have to put more offer on the company to attract more employees. And they have to check the successfulness of business each year for example by : 1. Profit Profitability is probably the first thing people think about when measuring success. Is the business making money? This is fairly common sense — if there is money left after you have paid your monthly operating expenses and debt, then things are looking pretty good. However, if you find your bottom line is continually red, your chances of success begin to dwindle. 2.

A growing customer base In addition to profitability, a growing customer base is a sure sign that you are effectively reaching your target market, and reaching your target market is what your business is all about. Without a vibrant customer base, your success will be limited, at best. The long-term growth of your company is tied directly to your ability to not only reach your customer base, but to expand it to accommodate your long-term goals. All of those long hours spent on the research and development of a marketing strategy prove themselves here.

Did your research pay off? 3. Customer satisfaction Customer satisfaction is an indication that your company understands the needs of your customers. Understanding your customers and being able to satisfy their needs is crucial to the strength of your business. Just remember, one unsatisfied customer can negate the promotional impact of several satisfied customers. Having strong customer service polices will add to the success of your company. 4. Employee satisfaction Employee satisfaction is another key indicator of business success.

Developing a work environment that rewards employees for their hard work is imperative in attracting and retaining quality employees. If workers know they are appreciated, they are much more likely to go the extra mile when needed. Employees are an indispensable part of your business. They are the face that greets your customers. Do everything within your power to make sure that face is a smiling one. 5. Owner satisfaction Perhaps the most important measure of business success is whether you — the owner — are satisfied with the results of business ownership.

Dissatisfaction is contagious. If you’re not happy with your business, it won’t be long before your dissatisfaction begins to affect the employees and even the customers. Every once in a while, carve out time for a reality check. Identify the sources of your dissatisfaction and make the necessary changes before it’s too late. So to see they are gaining profit or losing money compare pervious year if they losing money they have to take serious decision. Task B. Answer 1: Coca cola organization nature of work is producing beverage drink over and ell it word wide Mission, Vision & Values The world is changing all around us. To continue to thrive as a business over the next ten years and beyond, we must look ahead, understand the trends and forces that will shape our business in the future and move swiftly to prepare for what’s to come. We must get ready for tomorrow today. That’s what our 2020 Vision is all about. It creates a long-term destination for our business and provides us with a “Roadmap” for winning together with our bottler partners. Our Mission | |Our Roadmap starts with our mission, which is enduring. It declares our purpose as a company and serves as the standard against | |which we weigh our actions and decisions. | |To refresh the world… | |To inspire moments of optimism and happiness… | |To create value and make a difference. | |Our Vision | |Our vision serves as the framework for our Roadmap and guides every aspect of our business by describing what we need to | |accomplish in order to continue achieving sustainable, quality growth. |People: Be a great place to work where people are inspired to be the best they can be. | |Portfolio: Bring to the world a portfolio of quality beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy people’s desires and needs. | |Partners: Nurture a winning network of customers and suppliers, together we create mutual, enduring value. | |Planet: Be a responsible citizen that makes a difference by helping build and support sustainable communities. | |Profit: Maximize long-term return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities. |Productivity: Be a highly effective, lean and fast-moving organization. | |Our Winning Culture | |Our Winning Culture defines the attitudes and behaviors that will be required of us to make our 2020 Vision a reality. | |Live Our Values | |Our values serve as a compass for our actions and describe how we behave in the world. |Leadership: The courage to shape a better future | |Collaboration: Leverage collective genius | |Integrity: Be real | |Accountability: If it is to be, it’s up to me | |Passion: Committed in heart and mind | |Diversity: As inclusive as our brands | |Quality: What we do, we do well | |Focus on the Market | |Focus on needs of our consumers, customers and franchise partners | |Get out into the market and listen, observe and learn | |Possess a world view | |Focus on execution in the marketplace every day | |Be insatiably curious | |Work Smart | |Act with urgency | |Remain responsive to change | |Have the courage to change course when needed | |Remain constructively discontent | |Work efficiently | |Act Like Owners | |Be accountable for our actions and inactions |Steward system assets and focus on building value | |Reward our people for taking risks and finding better ways to solve problems | |Learn from our outcomes — what worked and what didn’t | |Be the Brand | |Inspire creativity, passion, optimism and fun | Coca cola services The Coca-Cola Company engages in the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups worldwide. It principally offers sparkling and still beverages. The company’s sparkling beverages include nonalcoholic ready-to-drink beverages with carbonation, such as energy drinks, and carbonated waters and flavored waters.

Its still beverages consist of nonalcoholic beverages without carbonation, including non-carbonated waters, flavored waters and enhanced waters, juices and juice drinks, teas, coffees, and sports drinks. The Coca-Cola Company also offers fountain syrups, syrups, and concentrates, such as flavoring ingredients and sweeteners. The company markets its nonalcoholic beverages under the Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite brand names. It sells its finished beverage products primarily to distributors, and beverage concentrates and syrups to bottling and canning operators, distributors, fountain wholesalers, and fountain retailers. The Coca-Cola Company was founded in 1886 and is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. Employees strength

On July 6, 2006, a Coca-Cola employee and two other people were arrested and charged with trying to sell trade secrets information to the soft drink maker’s competitor, PepsiCo for $1. 5 million. The recipe for Coca-Cola, perhaps the company’s most closely guarded secret, was never in jeopardy. Instead, the information was related to a new beverage in development. Coca-Cola executives verified that the documents were valid and proprietary. At least one glass vial containing a sample of a new drink was offered for sale, court documents said. The conspiracy was revealed by PepsiCo, which notified the authorities when they were approached by the conspirators Answer 2:

Warren Buffet, a key investor in the company, believes that ‘no sensible observer… questions that Coca-Cola… will dominate [its field] worldwide for an investment lifetime. Indeed, the dominance will probably strengthen. ‘ However, despite a strong brand, management of change has been necessary at Coca-Cola. The corporate culture involving a super-brand like Coke can result in managers becoming overconfident in the product as well as the processes and procedures that have built up throughout the company over time. The danger is that the public will simply get bored with the brand. Therefore, both Coca-Cola management and Coca-Cola strategy have undergone radical changes over the years.

When former chief executive Robert Goizueta was at the helm, he demonstrated that the company was earning less than its cost of capital. Therefore, he led Coca-Cola through great change in management structure. By adjusting the way the businesses and managers were assessed and by radically reforming key relationships with Coca-Cola bottlers, Goizueta oversaw a spectacular improvement in performance. However, over the years the Coca-Cola brand strategy has not always proved successful. The attempted relaunch of the core product as New Coke in the 1980s was a dangerous risk and proved almost calamitous, requiring a complete rethink in Coca-Cola marketing strategy. The following articles refer to Coca-Cola and Coca-Cola management.

Use them to learn from the past of Coca-Cola and the present of Coca-Cola to build a successful future for you and your own organisation. By centralizing and aggregating demand, CCE would gain the high volume purchasing leverage it lacked. Getting started required a strategic approach. CCE formed an output committee to lead the decision-making process. With its procurement infrastructure aligned, CCE’s output committee looked to establish a consistent set of deployment principles and select the best vendors. The team started with a request for proposal (RFP). Developed by a joint team and issued to several printer manufacturers, CCE’s RFP specified no makes or models, but instead defined a set of pecifications. Vendors were encouraged to modify existing models, adding memory, extra paper trays or other items as necessary to meet CCE’s level-playing-field specification. The RFP required bidders to project a five-year TCO for this vendorneutral standardized environment, including the cost of service, toner, replacement of high-wear parts, cost per page, and other factors. It is this TCO amount that CCE used as its key basis for comparison; the initial product acquisition price was not the sole consideration. “It was eye-opening to us that there were a number of products that had a low acquisition price but a very high five-year TCO,” said Bondi.

Lexmark was able to provide products that met CCE’s specifications and offered the lowest five-year TCO, so CCE chose Lexmark as its sole supplier of monochrome laser printers and a provider of MFP solutions in North America. The initial contract included products, three-year extended warranties on all devices and genuine Lexmark supplies. Each year, The Coca-Cola Scholars Foundation awards achievement-based, four-year college scholarships to 250 outstanding high school seniors from across the United States. Applicants are evaluated based on academic performance, demonstrated leadership and school and community involvement, plus personal character and motivation to serve and succeed.

And so coca cola company trying to more part time workers and they are offering many things so they attract part time workers as most of the coca cola company are from student from colleges they also trying to attract more investors in the company so they will benefit from the investment made by investors. and they also providing training. I think coca cola and company and UPS some similar this as UPS also trying to offer the part time employees because most of their employees are from colleges and they cannot work full time so they try to motivate part time workers so when they finish college they work full time like what coca cola company is doing Reference: Bodie, Zane; Alex Kane and Alan J. Marcus (2004). Essentials of Investments, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Irwin. p. 459. • Ash, M. G. 1992. Cultural Contexts and Scientific Change in Psychology: Kurt Lewin in Iowa. ” American Psychologist, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 198-207. • Hatch, M. J. , “Organization Theory: Modern, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives. ” 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press (2006) ISBN 0-19-926021-4. • Jones, Ishmael, The Human Factor: Inside the CIA’s Dysfunctional Intelligence Culture. New York: Encounter Books (2008) ISBN 978-1594033827. • Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational Behavior – Concepts, Controversies, Applications. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall (2004) ISBN 0-13-170901-1. • Scott, W. Richard. Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems Perspectives. Pearson Prentice Hall (2007) ISBN 0-13-195893-3. • Weick, Karl E.

The Social Psychology of Organizing 2nd Ed. McGraw Hill (1979) ISBN 0-07-554808-9. • Simon, Herbert A. Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations, 4th ed. 1997, The Free Press. • Tompkins, Jonathan R. “Organization Theory and Public Management”. Thompson Wadsworth (2005) ISBN 978-0-534-17468-2 • Kanigel, R. (1997). The One Best Way, Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. London: Brown and Co. • ^ Hatch, M. & Cunliffe, A. , 2006 • ^ Lillian Margaret Simms, Sylvia Anderson Price, Naomi E. Ervin (1994). The professional practice of nursing administration?. p. 121. • ^ Fredric M. Jablin, Linda Putnam (2000).

The new handbook of organizational communication: advances in theory. p. 146. • ^ Michael I. Reed (1985). Redirections in organizational analysis. p. 108. • ^ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Organizational_studies#Further_reading • ^ Baron, Robert A. , and Greenberg, Jerald. Behavior in organizations – 9th edition. Pearson Education Inc. , New Jersey: 2008. p. 248 • ^ Management Communication Quarterly • ^ Journal of Management Studies • ^ Strategic Management Journal • ^ Strategic Organization – SO • ^ International Journal of Knowledge Culture and Change Management • ^ Journal of Organizational Change Management • ^ European Management Review • ^ Anthropology of Work Review

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