Administrations tend to confront alterations invariably in one signifier or the other ( Irani et al, 2002 ) . If administrations want to go on lasting, they must alter in order to last ( Partington, 1996 ) . To derive the benefits of alteration means an administration has to successfully implement the alteration. To implement a alteration is non a one twenty-four hours thing, it is really hard, expensive and clip consuming.
Failure to implement a alteration can do an administration to prostration. Many administrations have successfully implemented a alteration and likewise, have besides failed ( Partington, 1996 ) and this has brought up the inquiry “ What are the factors to successfully implement an Organizational alteration? ” There have been tonss of research and several critical success factors have being identified. For illustration, Kuang et Al ( 2001 ) and Wagner & A ; Poon ( 2001 ) have identified some major factors which involve Top Management support, Project Management and opposition to alter, Vendor spouses, Communication and Conflict declaration.
The following subdivision of this paper is the literature reappraisal which will explicate the critical success factor for a successful execution of an organizational alteration identified by Kuang et Al ( 2001 ) and Wagner & A ; Poon ( 2001 ) and besides, the Lewin ‘s theoretical account of alteration. After the literature reappraisal, comes the concluding subdivision, which demonstrates an organizational alteration instance survey and its execution. The critical success factor and the Lewin theoretical account of alteration explained in the literature reappraisal will be used to analyze the instance survey, to demo the importance of the critical success factors in implementing an Organizational alteration.
2. Literature Reappraisal
Change is taking topographic point at the fastest rate in the history of the universe ( Miler, 1982 ) due to internal and external factors. As a consequence of these alterations, Organisations embark on tremendous accommodations to be able to accommodate and fulfill the turning demands of their organizational demands.
Adaptation to altering fortunes is cardinal to survival ( Dainty & A ; Kakabadse, 1990 ) . Harmonizing to the Paper written by Kakabadse & A ; Dainty ( 1990 ) , it has shown clearly the countries proposed by Leavitt ( 1947 ) in which alterations are directed towards. They are engineering, people, undertaking and construction.
To implement a alteration in these countries, there are some critical success factors that need to be present.
2.1. Lewin ‘s theoretical account of alteration
Schein ( 1996 ) in his paper describes the Lewin theoretical account of alteration. Harmonizing to him, Lewin, in the 1950s, proposed a theoretical account to understand an organizational alteration, which is still being used today. In his theoretical account of alteration, Lewin identifies three alteration processes. These are unfreezing, altering and refreezing.
Unfreeze: This phase involves fixing the administration for alteration. Stating the employees why there is a demand for a alteration. It involves utilizing the administration ‘s vision to back up the alteration. This phase normally brings dissatisfaction amongst the members of the administration. One of the most hard undertakings is acquiring people to accept a alteration ( Miller, 1982 ) .
Change: In this phase, new Organisational behavior is been created. It takes batch of clip for people to accept a alteration. At this phase, it is the responsibility of the Top Management to explicate to the employees the demand for the alteration and its benefit to the administration.
Refreezing: When a alteration is implemented, people have to larn the new transmutations it has brought. In this phase a batch of preparation and support is needed for the employees to larn the new behavior required.
Harmonizing to this theoretical account, an organisation prepares for a alteration, implements the alteration, and so strives to recover stableness every bit shortly as possible ( Orlikowski, 1993 ) .
2.2 Critical Success Factors
2.2.1 Top Management Support and Commitment
A alteration is largely supported by the Top Management when it has a strategic benefit on the administration. The Top Management will exercise a greater support to alter expected to give greater parts to the house ( Green, 1995 ) . The value of a alteration is non ever obvious, and failure to joint the expected final payment will badly cut down the Top Management ‘s involvement in a undertaking ( Mooney et al, 2008 ) .
Harmonizing to Mintzberg ( 1994, pg 109 ) , he states that “ The Top Directors with a perpetrating manner engage people in a journey ” . When the Top Management are committed to a alteration, so it shows how much they are in support of that alteration. This motivates employees to work hard to accomplish that alteration. Their support for it means resources will be to the full and decently allocated for implementing the alteration. Investing in Organisational alteration, which is supported by the CEO, tends to hold a stronger positive impact on the Firm ‘s public presentation ( Li and Richard, 1999 ) .
More CEO committedness means that more resources are available in developing and implementing the needed alteration ( Zhuang & A ; Lederer, 2004 ) . Lack of the needed resources for the alteration undertaking, delays the undertaking and this can take to project forsaking. The Top Management are the cardinal procedure histrions. It should non be a surprise that the successful execution of a alteration was as a consequence of active committedness and relentless engagement of the Top Managements ( Eccles, 1996, pg 41 ) .
2.2.2. Vendor choice and support
An Administration may non hold the required adult male power or substructure to ship on a technological alteration and as a consequence, it seeks the aid of an outside provider. Vendor support is an of import factor when undergoing a technological alteration. It involves seeking Technical helper, Maintenance, and User preparation ( Somers & A ; Nelson, 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Sumner ( 1999 ) , successful undertakings sometimes require the usage of outside expertness.
2.2.3. Undertaking direction
Harmonizing to Jurison ( 1999 ) , he states that undertaking direction is a series of activities carried out on a undertaking every bit efficaciously as possible. The chief focal point of undertaking direction is to “ acquire the occupation done ” and to make the aims within clip, cost and public presentation ( Jurison, 1999 ) . For undertakings to be successful, they need a good undertaking direction in a topographic point with an experience undertaking director, and choice of squad members with important old work relationships ( Sumner, 1999 ) .
Somers and Nelson ( 2001 ) identified the importance of undertaking direction in a undertaking with squads dwelling of maneuvering commissions made up of senior direction from different corporate maps and senior undertaking direction representatives of the undertaking. Slevin and Pinto ( 1987 ) argued that in order to pull off project executions successfully, the undertaking directors must hold both strategic and tactical undertaking direction capablenesss.
2.2.4 New Organisation construction and procedures
When an organizational alteration occurs, alterations in administration construction may besides happen. Change affects the whole Administration and its construction. Organizational construction is likely to alter as organizational size additions ( Senior & A ; Fleming, 2006, pg 105 ) . A major ground why most undertakings fail is that the Management normally underestimates the extent of the alteration and the re-engineering already bing concern procedures need to undergo to suit the new engineering ( Zhang et al, 2003 ) . So it is the occupation of the Top Management to suit the new size into the new construction. Administrations should hold alteration scheme, and the Top Management should modify the bing construction to suit into the alteration scheme.
2.2.5 Dispute Resolution
Dispute may originate as a consequence of outsourcing, misconstruing in squads or even opposition to alter from employees or clients. It is of import for the Top Management of the Organization to analyze the cause of the differences and struggles. The Top Management must use the appropriate set of schemes to counter them ( Aladwani, 2001 ) . The Top Management ‘s function is to settle difference and struggles that occur within the Organisation because struggles can halt hold and change a alteration ( Bemmels & A ; Reshef, 1991 ) .
3. Case Study Analysis ( Fitzgerald G, 2000 )
Halifax Building Society is a fiscal establishment that is owned by its members. They provide mortgage loaning services to the populace. Halifax was the largest edifice society in the UK and they had a vision of going a major bank in the UK. In 1995, they merged with another edifice society called Leed permanents, which was at so the fifth largest edifice society. In order to raise capital and compete on an equal terms with the bing Bankss, they decided to abandon their traditional common position, being owned by their members, and convert to a Public Limited Company ( plc ) , with stockholders having the equity.
An component of its transition was portion issue and covering. Halifax had a job about how the dealing and portion issue was traveling to be done the right manner. Harmonizing to John Miller, the Halifax Director of Business Strategy and Operations, he said “ We had about twenty million clients keeping 30 two million merchandises, and acquiring the portion distribution right was perfectly critical. Our advisers said the City establishments could work to 99 % truth, but that is still about two full Wembley Stadiums worth of member jobs, which was excessively much… and the manner they were traveling to make it fundamentally would hold brought the Stock Exchange to its articulatio genuss ” ( Fitzgerald, 2000, pg 2 ) . Miller says that “ Oklahoman or subsequently sense prevailed, and they ( the Board ) came along to our manner of thought. And so all of a sudden a coney comes out of the chapeau, that there is another manner of making it… Not merely that but it was nine million lbs inexpensive, I suppose that had a small spot to make with it! ” ( Fitzgerald, 2000, pg 2 ) . This brought about the new vision of holding a portion covering service – Halifax portion covering service limited with its AIRES system. By and large the two alterations were involved in Halifax, foremost was to change over it into a bank as a populace limited Company. The second was to develop and implement a portion covering system.
3.1. Lewin ‘s theoretical account of alteration
The Lewin ‘s three alteration procedure will be used to explicate the Halifax edifice society transition into a bank.
Dissolving: Halifax Building Society ‘s vision was to go a major bank in the UK. So an Administration alteration was needed. Though non stated in the instance survey, Halifax communicated the demand for a alteration to fit its vision to it members. At first, about all its members were against it but Halifax told its members that after the transition, the members would acquire free portions deserving & A ; lb ; 2,200 which was attractive. A ballot was made, and about 70 % of its members voted in favor of the alteration while 30 % per centum were dissatisfied.
Changing: In this phase, Halifax started incorporating its files with that of Leeds Permanent. They set up their ain portion covering service. They started developing a new engineering called the AIRES system to back up the portion covering service in the allotment of portions. In this phase, Halifax recruited new staffs and involved its ain employees in making the new engineering to cut down employees ‘ opposition to alter.
Refreezing: Halifax was converted into a bank with a Public Limited Company position. They offered each of its members portions deserving & A ; lb ; 2,200. Halifax did a batch of enlisting and preparation of its employees to utilize the new portion covering system installed. Halifax celebrated its success with all its employees and thanked them for all the attempts they had made to see the alteration come through.
3.2. Critical Success Factor
3.2.1. Top Management Support
Halifax ‘s thought to change over into a Bank with a Public Limited Company position had a full support from the CEO because the transition procedure matched the company ‘s vision of going a major bank in the UK. Harmonizing to the instance survey, an component of its transition was portion issue and covering. Halifax had a job about how the dealing and portion issue was traveling to be done the right manner. The Top Management showed a great support for the transition procedure by making a separate entity called the Halifax portion covering limited ( HDSL ) to manage the portion covering and allotment. Halifax ‘s Top Management appointed cardinal people to head this separate entity. Harmonizing to the instance survey, HDSL needed a system to back up the portion covering and allotment. This system will do certain the portion covering and allotment was done the right manner. The Top Management showed great committedness and support for the Halifax portion covering system by delegating the undertaking to the IT section to plan and make the systems.
Their committedness in the undertaking motivated the IT staffs. Besides Halifax board made certain the substructure needed to develop this system was made available. The board provided their “ Halifax Direct ” a telephone banking system, which they already had, to be reused. This substructure was made available to the IT section to develop the portion covering service on it. If this transition procedure fails, it would hold had a profound consequence on the Halifax. Therefore, the Top Management had to back up the transition procedure to avoid failure.
3.2.2. Vendor choice and support
Halifax was more of a concern company and could n’t develop the Halifax portion covering system all on its ain. Harmonizing to the instance survey, the original undertaking had been set up as a joint activity and partnership between the Business and IT people. It was a concern undertaking but engineering was the cardinal.Halifax identified a figure of cardinal external providers and/or spouses to supply the necessary major constituents together with a figure of internally developed bespoke elements and interfaces. The cardinal spouses were the Royal Bank of Scotland, who was responsible for keeping Halifax portion registry, Merrill Lynch who was the chief retail Market shaper for Halifax portions and TCA Synergo who was responsible for package supply.
Though covering with external sellers complicated direction issues and would hold caused jobs. Harmonizing to Miller, he says that “ It was indispensable to acquire everybody ( both Internal and External ) on the same wavelength with the Programme direction reappraisal. We had to acquire them to recognize that they had a duty which was portion of a larger project. They had to appreciate that larger project, and to play their portion, along with other operations, so that everyone was efficaciously working together. Programme direction forced that co-operation. We had to acquire the civilization right. A civilization of field speaking and stating it as it was. That manner you do n’t acquire surprises. We solved a batch of jobs in this manner. Everyone finally recognised that there was no such thing as an single win ” ( Fitzgerald, 2000, pg 2 ) .
3.3.3. Undertaking direction
Harmonizing to the instance survey, the transition procedure was a multi-site, multi-supplier, multi-system undertaking, with a deadline that merely could non be missed. To accomplish this extremely formalistic programme, a undertaking direction system was put in topographic point. A maneuvering group for the whole transition undertaking oversaw and coordinated all facets of the undertaking. A figure of programme charters were established for each major portion of the undertaking and programme offices were established to coordinate and program the programmes and all the diverse elements of the overall undertaking. The first programme concerned client informations quality ( the clean-up of the member files ) , another concerned floatation and the portion registry, and yet another concerned portion covering. The Programme Office developed the high degree programs and mileposts for each programme and so each programme developed their ain undertakings and programs within that.
3.3.4. New Organisation construction and procedures
New administration construction was being created harmonizing to the instance survey. The transition procedure resulted in Halifax making a different entity called the Halifax portion covering limited to assist in allotment of portions in which it recruited approximately 140 new staffs to cover with the new procedures. Besides, because of the development of the new portion covering systems, things that were done manually will be done automatically. Harmonizing to the instance survey, there was no signifier of downsizing ; alternatively a batch of preparation was given to the staffs to larn about the new engineering and the new procedure it will convey approximately.
3.3.5. Dispute Resolution
Harmonizing to the instance survey, the struggle highlighted was that of opposition to alter and dissatisfaction amongst clients. The immune to alter encountered was when Halifax foremost proposed to its members about change overing from a edifice society to a bank with a Public Limited Company position. Halifax members at first resisted the alteration. To cover with this opposition, Halifax told its members it will publish free portions deserving & A ; lb ; 2,200 per member. At the long tally, 70 % were in favor of the alteration, and about 30 % resisted the alteration. Halifax was able to cut down the opposition to alter. Another struggle highlighted in the instance survey was that of the clients, who were dissatisfied due to incorrect allotment of portions made to them by Halifax. Halifax made certain that the 167 disgruntled clients were decently allocated the right portions.
This paper highlights the different critical success factors that are of import for a successful execution of an organizational alteration with the usage of the Halifax instance survey. The critical success factors have been identified every bit much as possible. For successfully transition into a bank, Halifax made certain it had the support of the board and aid from outside expertness to decide struggles that may originate and besides put a undertaking direction squad to pull off the undertaking.
Harmonizing to the instance study 8 million portions were issued to members in the UK but more than 55,000 members of Halifax who were eligible for portions but were non occupants in the UK during the period of the transition, were non issued portions because it was expensive and illegal to direct portions abroad and this resulted to a immense dissatisfaction from the clients populating abroad ( UNHAV, 2006 ) . As a point of contemplation, Halifax would hold contacted its clients populating abroad about the jobs directing portions abroad and the cost of it during the transition instead than non reaching them and non apportioning portions to them. This would hold reduced client ‘s dissatisfaction and difference between Halifax and its clients non shacking in the UK.
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