Organism Adaptations Essay

1)stimulus: a change in the environment that necessities a response, or adjustment by an organism (ex. swirling dust) response: the adjustment or change you make to a stimulus (ex. blinking your eyes) 2)Protists respond to a negative stimuli by moving away from it. Protists respond to: light, irritating chemicals, temperature, touch, etc. 3)Yes, they grow towards the stimulus (ex. light). photoropism: it means the organism grows towards the light. no geotropism: it means the organism grows towards the ground. no 4)This is because animals have the most highly developed sensory systems of all organisms. 5)Three factors that affect an organism’s response are the type, number, and complexity of an animal’s sense organs. The way they affect the response is determined by the type, number, and complexity of the animal’s sense organs. 6)positive: food, money negative: a man pointing a gun at you neutral: sound of traffic 7)In general, organisms go towards positive stimuli, and go away from negative one. 8)voluntary: eating a bowl of hot chicken soup involuntary: watering of your mouth learned: talking 9)When an animal receives a scare, it can either Fight, Flight (go away from), Freeze the/from organism that is scaring that animal. The animal releases adrenaline that gives it the strength to do one of those things. pg. 136 #3,4,challenger) 3)automatic: i)blinking your eyes when dust gets in them ii)mouth waters when you smell food iii)moving your hand away when it gets burned voluntary: i)eat a bowl of soup ii)drink water iii)watching TV 4)The stimulus. You need the stimulus to make a response. b)No, it is not possible. This is because with an action, there is a reaction. No, you need a stimuli to make a response, otherwise it is not really a response. 5)i)it comes out of the ground ii)it crows iii)it barks and chases the perpetrator iv)it chases and eats a gazelle b)i)the flooding of its home ii)getting light iii)the person breaking in iv)its hunger Challenger It helps to keep the brain and heart from freezing. pg. 146 #1-5) 1)i)taste ii)touch iii)sight iv)smell v)hearing 2)The protists can only sense chemical. 3)This effect is called sensory adaptation. b)An advantage is that you aren’t bothered by the smell. A disadvantage is if you are accustomed to the smell of smoke, the smell of smoke might not alert you if your house is on fire. b)cone: when it is light out rod: when it is dark out c)They aren’t as developed as some other organisms. 5)Eyelid: this is because your hell cells are very tough from being walked on. This causes them not to be very sensitive.5-6-1993 pg.13 #1-6) 1)environment: everything in an organism’s surroundings biotic environment: all living things in an environment abiotic environment: non living things in an environment 2)When you breathe, your body extracts oxygen from the air. b)large animal eatssmaller animal smaller animals larger animal dies andeats plantsfertilizes groundsoil grows plants3)biology,ecology: they are the study of things on earth; ecology is the study of environment, biology is the study of animals b)producers,consumers: they live off the environment; pro. manufactures food, con. can’t manufacture other food, but eat other organisms c)scavenger,decomposer: both live of off dead organisms; decom. break down the bodies of dead organisms d)habitat,niche: have to do with were an animal lives hab.=enviro. space were an organism lives, niche = way an organism reacts with its environment e)environment,ecosystem: were organisms live; enviro.= everything in an organism’s surroundings, eco.= were organisms of a distinct group interact 4)a)auto b)hetro c) auto d)auto e)auto f)hetro 5)biosphere: layer of planet where living things exist and interact b)lithosphere: solid portion of the Earth’s surface c)hydrosphere: layer of water that covers nearly 3/4 of the Earth’s surface d)atmosphere: mass of air surrounding the Earth 6)The scavengers come and totally eat the carcass. The decomposers decompose the carcass and it fertilizes the ditch. pg. 18 #1-6) 1)herbivore: animals that consume only plant material (ex. cattle, sheep) trophic level: how directly a consumer interacts with the producers of its ecosystem food chain: a feeding sequence in which each kind of organism eats the one below it in the chain (ex. grass -> mouse -> wolf) 2)Because the producer provides the food for the consumers. 3)Herbivores, this is because you need the herbivores to feed the carnivores, and if there aren’t enough herbivores, the carnivores will die out. b)Producers, this is because the producers feed the consumers, and consumers will die if there is not enough producers. 4)omnivores,carnivore: they both eat animals; omnivores also eat plants b)primary,tertiary: they both eat other organisms; primary eats at the first level, and tertiary eats at the third level c)food chain,food web: they describe feeding sequences; food chain goes from one level to the next, web is interconnecting 6)There are six food chains. There are more because the three overlap each other. b)grain, grass, berries c)deer, mouse, grasshopper, rabbit d)hawk, snake, owl, wolfwolf is the top carnivore pg.36 #1-8) 1)environment: everything in an organism’s surroundings environmental interaction: interaction within the environment for food and shelter b)They relate to ecology because the purpose of ecology is to study the environment and environmental interaction. 2)pond water: abiotic: pond water is not alive b)plant seeds: biotic: seeds are alive because they have the c)ability to grow d)fossils: abiotic: this is because fossils are fossilized bones of e)dead animals f)soil: abiotic: soil is not alive g)soil organisms: biotic: this is because all organisms are living 3)autotrophheterotroph grassgrasshopper, salmon seaweedgrass snake, starfish b)producer consumer grassgrasshopper, salmonseaweedgrass snake, starfish c)The autotrophs were also the producers, and the heterotrophs were also the consumers. 4)Decomposers are the heterotrophs because they feed off of dead organisms and organism waste. b)Scavengers are consumers because they feed off of dead organisms. c)Because the scavengers and decomposers get rid of the waste and dead organisms. 5)A dead organism is a part of the abiotic environment because it no longer has life in it. b)First, scavengers come and eat the meat of the dead organism, then a decomposer carries out chemical decomposition. Large, complex molecules of living things are broken down to smaller, simpler molecules. c)If the corpses were indestructible, our roads and yards would be carpeted with dead bodies. 6)habitat: the environmental space in which an organism lives niche: all the ways in which an organism interacts with its biotic and abiotic environments b)Grass, plants, and a bison occupy different niches in the same habitat. 7The layer of our planet where living things exist and interact. b)lithosphere: solid portion of the Earth (ex. rocks) hydrosphere: the water portion of the Earth (ex. sea) atmosphere: the air surrounding the Earth (ex. air) c)The zones are different sections were many organisms live, but the ecosystem is a unit of the biosphere in which organisms forming a distinct group interact with each other and with their environment. 8)ecosystem: a unit of the biosphere in which organisms forming a distinct group interact with each other and with their environment (ex. pond) b)Because green plants feed the other organisms in one way or another. c)There would be more plants because they are used to feeding the other animals.5-13-1993Senses Sight: photoreception- cones and rods- location?- function? Hearing: effects of vibrations in the ear? – choclea? – mechanoreception? Smell: olfaction?- chemoreception?- location of receptors Taste: location of chemoreceptors- categories or types- how do we taste spicy food Touch: location of receptors (3 different types)- varying ability- does one receptor in the skin respond to all types oftouch, pressure, and pain? Sight photoreception: direction of light by sensory cells cones: specialized eye cells for bright light and color reception rods: specialized eye cells for vision at low light levels Rods and cones are located on the retina. HearingThe effects of vibrations in the ear is that the vibrations travel through a series of small bones into a coiled, fluid-filled cone. The vibrating fluid moves the hair cells, nerve impulses are sent to the brain where they are interpreted as sound. cochlea: a fluid-filled cone that helps detect sound mechanoreception: the ability to detect motion Smell olfaction: the sense of smell chemoreception: the ability to detect chemical stimuli The olfactory receptors are located high in the nasal cavity in a human TasteThe receptors are located in taste buds situated in crevices in the tongue, in humans.Human taste receptors are limited to just four categories: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter.You taste spicy foods from the interaction of your sense of smell with these four basic taste.TouchIn humans, touch receptors are located in the skin. The three types are Meissner’s corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini corpuscles.There is a variety of touch receptors. They can sense heat, cold, pain, touch, pressure. The ability of touch is different between people.No, different receptors respond to different types of touch, pressure, and pain. Sensory Systems in other Organisms – protists often respond by eating or avoiding like a baby – Euglena have a pigment spot -; sensitive to light – sense organs in organisms can be different from those inhumans e.g. dogs, bats, dolphins respond to higher sound frequencies e.g. birds of prey (ex. hawk) have a better sense of vision e.g. insects have a better sense of smell Coordinating Responses: Movement and Location 3 steps to sense and response: 1) sensory receptors 2) Organisms must be able to respond ex. move away 3) a coordinated system that links sensing and responding -; this is called nervous system5-14-1993 Nervous System – simplest nervous system is found in an organism called theHydra, a fresh water jelly fish – when the Hydra is touched, it contracts – sensory cells in the Hydra relay the message to neurons thatcarry the message to muscle cells – in complex animals, groups of neurons from nerves and sensorycells are grouped together to form sensory organs – the central nervous system consists of a nerve chord and abrain – Ganglia are clumps of nerve cells that coordinate nervesignals in different parts of the body Three Types of Neurons 1) Sensory neurons: carry signals from the sense receptors 2) motor neurons: carry signals to parts of the body (ex. muscle,glands) 3) inter neurons: connect sensory neurons to motor neurons When your hand touches a hot kettle, heat receptors in your fingertips detect this. -; sends the message to receptors in your arm -; brain and spinal chord’s inter neurons -> motor neurons -> arm muscles Movement and Locomotion – for protists and animals, responses usually involves some formof movement – all animals are capable of some sort of movement – an animal’s movement is controlled by its nervous systemlocomotion: movement from one location to another – Most animals have some form of locomotion. Locomotion can bedifficult to study because some animals move very quickly Nervous and Locomotory Systems of the Earthworm – earthworms respond to light, touch, moisture, and chemicals – sense receptors are located under the skin – central nervous systems of the earthworm is a double spinalchord – nerve chord is connected to two larger ganglia in the worm’shead – this is the brain – there are smaller ganglia for each segment of the worm’s body5-18-1993 Nervous and Locomotory systems of the Earthworm – continued – Part II – the ganglia enables the earthworm to move each segmentindependently – earthworm also has 2 sets of muscles -one perpendicular tothe other -1) longitudinal muscles: when contracted, the worm becomesshorter and fatter -2) circular muscles: when contracted, the worm becomes thinnerand longer – when the worm is moving forward, you can see a wave ofmotion passing along the body of the worm5-19-1993 Locomotion in other Organisms – different types of locomotion: running, swimming, gliding, jumping,hopping, crawling or pseudopodia (false feet) amoeba- animals have different body parts that aid in locomotion -e.g. spider monkey – tail, kangaroo – hind legs, bat – wings Sensory Systems of Other Organisms Protists: have chemoreceptors in cell membrane- these receptors can also detect the presence ofother organisms Euglena: have a pigment spot: sensitive to light – Euglena can’t see, but it will move towards the light – when there is enough light, the Euglena will performphotosynthesis – different organisms possess sense organs that are moresensitive than those of humans e.g. dogs and bats can detectsounds of higher frequenciesbirds of prey have a more sensitive sense of visioninsects have a more sensitive sense of smell Photosynthesis sunlight + H2O + CO2 -> glucose + O2 energy + H2O + CO2

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