Organization of the Human Body, Digestive System, Excretory System

Type of tissue that lines the interior and exterior body surfaces such as your skin, stomach, and certain glands, and it protects, absorbs, and excrete materials
Epithelial tissue
Relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that an organism maintains
Homostasis
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Process in which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus, aka negative feedback
Feedback inhibition
Type of tissue that provides support for the body and connects its parts, found under the skin and around organs, includes fat cells, bone cells, and blood cell,s, produces collagen that give tissue strength and resiliency, and binds epithelial tissue to structures and supports and transports substances
Connective tissue
Type of tissue that receives and transmits nerve impulses, examples are neurons which carry impulses and glial cells which protect neurons, found in the brain spinal cord, and nerves
Nervous tissue
Type of tissue responsible for movements you can and can’t control, found in skeletal muscles, muscles that surround the digestive tract and blood vessels, and in the heart
Muscle tissue
Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems
Levels of organization of the human body
Basic unit of structure and function in living things
Cell
group of cells that perform a single function
Tissue
Group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a single function or several related functions
Organ
Group of organs that perform closely related functions
Organ system
Physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces
Mechanical digestion
Process by which enzymes break down food into small molecules that the body can use
Chemical digestion
Enzyme in salvia that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
Amylase
Tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
Esophagus
Contractions of smooth muscles that provide the force that moves food through the esophagus toward the stomach
Peristalsis
Large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
Stomach
Enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller polypeptide fragments
Pepsin
Mixture of enzymes and partially digested food
Chyme
Digestive organ in which most chemical digestion and absorption of food takes place
Small intestine
Fingerlike projection in the small intestine that aids in the absorption of nutrient molecule
Villus
Organ in the digestive system that removes water from undigested material that passes through it, also called colon
Large intestine
Converts food into small molecules that can be used by the cells of the body
Functions of the digestive system
Ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
Four phases of the digestive system
Process of putting food into your mouth
Ingestion
The small food molecules are absorbed through the small intestine and sent to the circulatory system
Absorption
Food that the body can’t digest travels through the large intestine and is eliminated as feces
Elimination
To produce hormones that regulate blood sugar, enzymes that break down proteins, carbs, lipids, and nucleic acids, and sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes the stomach acids that enter so the enzymes are not destoryed
Functions of the pancreas
The liver produces bile which is stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine when fat is present to break down the fat
Liver’s and gallbladder’s role in digestion
To tear and grind food into small pieces and use saliva to kill pathogens and to start the break down of carbs
Role of the mouth in digestion
To bring the food from the mouth to the stomach
Role of the esophagus in digestion
To contract to break up food and form the liquid mixture called chyme and to begin protein digestion
Role of the stomach in digestion
Transports urine from each kidney to the urinary bladder
Role of the ureter in the excretory system
Remove excess water, urea, and metabolic wastes through filtration from the blood, produce and excrete urine
Role of the kidney in excretory system
Converts potentially dangerous nitrogen wastes into less toxic urea and
Role of the liver in excretory system
Excretes carbon dioxide and small amounts of water vapor through exhalation
Role of the lungs in excretory system
Excretes excess amounts of water, salts, and a little of urea in sweat
Role of the skin in excretory system
Stores urine until it is released from the body
Role of the urinary bladder in excretory system
Absorbs water from the rest of the undigested material and sends the rest to be eliminated
Role of the large intestine in digestion
To complete digestion and absorb materials
Role of the small intestine in digestion
To provide a huge surface area for the absorption of nutrient molecules
Purpose of the folded surface of the small intestine
Process by which metabolic wastes are elimiated from the body
Excretion
Tube that carries urine from a kidney to the urinary bladder
Ureter
Saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
Urinary bladder
Tube through which urine leaves the body
Urethra
Blood filtering structure in kidneys in which impurities are filtered out, wastes are collected, and purified blood is returned to the circulation
Nephron
Process of passing a liquid or gas through a filter to remove waste
Filtration
Small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of the nephron; where filtration of the blood takes place
Glomerulus
Cup Like structure that encases the glomerulus; collects filtrate from the blood
Bowman’s capsule
Process by which water and dissolved substances are taken back into the blood
Reabsoprtion
Section of the nephron tubule that is responsible for conserving water and minimizing the volume of the filtrate
Loop of henle
Releases urine
Role of the urethra in excretory system
Skin, lungs, liver, kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra, ureter
Organs that make up the excretory system
Passing the blood through a filter to remove wastes
Filtration
Small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of every nephron by the bowman’s capsule in which filtration of the blood mainly takes place
Glomerulus
Fluid from the capillaries flows into the permeable bowman’s capsule and materials such as water, urea, glucose, salt, amino acids, and some vitamins are filtered from the blood
How filtration works
The process in which water and dissolved substances, such as salts, vitamins, amino acids, fats, and glucose are taken back into the blood
Reabsorption
The looking at of a urine sample which can reveal diseases such a high blood pressure if there is proteins or glucose in the urine, or drug use
Urine testing
Kidney stones, kidney damage, kidney failure
Kidney disorders
Crystallized calcium, magnesium, or uric acid salts in the urine that can block a ureter
Kidney stones
High blood pressure and diabetes can damage the delicate filtering mechanism or cause the kidney to filter more blood than normal which weakens the tubules causing the kidneys to not be able to keep up with the demands placed on them
Kidney damage
A machine acts as a persons kidneys and the person’s blood is pumped through the machine, filtered and then sent back into the body
How dialysis works
When kidneys can no longer cleanse the blood and maintain a state of homeostasis
Kidney failure
A patient receives a kidney and ureter from a compatible donor
Kidney transplation
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