Human anatomy and physiology – survey of the construction and map of the human organic structure. Anatomy- the scientific subject that investigates the construction of the human organic structure. Physiology – The scientific subject that investigates the procedure of maps of life things. 6 Structural degrees
1. Chemical degree – atoms combine to organize molecules
2. Cell degree – Molecule signifier cell organs
3. Tissue degree – similar and environing stuff make up tissues
4. Organ degree –diff tissue combine to organize variety meats
5. Organ system degree –Organs make up an organ system
6. Organism – variety meats sytem make up an being
Features of Life
1. Organization – Specific interrelationships among the parts of an being and how those parts interact to execute specific maps. 2. Metabolism- To utilize energy to execute critical maps
3. Responsiveness- To feel alterations in the environment and do accommodation that aid keep life.
4. Growth- Increase in size of all portion of the being.
5. Development- The alterations an oranism undergoes through clip. Fertilization to decease. 6. Reproduction – Formation of new cells or new being. Homeostasis – Maintenance of a comparatively stable status within the internal environment. *Nervous system and *endocrine system
Components of Homeostasis
& gt ; Receptor- Monitors the value of a variable
& gt ; Control Center- ( *brain ) establishes the set point around w/c the variable is maintained. & gt ; Effector- ( *heart ) change the value of the variable
*stimulus- changed variable. Initiates a homeostatic mechanism
1. Negative Feed – works to reconstruct homeostasis by rectifying a shortage within the system. 2. Positive Feedback- Deviation from a normal value occurs. the response of the system is to do the divergence even greater.
*Visceral Membrane – inside
*Parietal Membrane- exterior
Terminology OF THE BODY PLAN
*Supine – face upward
*Prone – face downward
* Inferior – Below
* Superior- Above
* Anterior – Toward forepart of organic structure
* ( ventral ) – Toward the belly
* Posterior- Toward dorsum of organic structure
* ( Dorsal ) – Toward tthe back
* Proximal – Closer to indicate of attachement
* Distal – Farther from point of attachement
* Lateral – Away from midplane of organic structure
* Medial- Toward O within the center of organic structure
* Superficial – Toward or on the surface
* Deep – off from the surface
Body Partss and Regions
Head. cervix. bole. upper limbs and lower limbs
a. 4 parts – Right upper quarter-circle. left upper quarter-circle. Right lower quarter-circle. left lower quarter-circle B. 9 parts – Right Hypochondriac part. Epigastric part. Left hypochondriac part. Left lumbar part. Umbilical part. Left lumbar part. Right iliac part. Hypogastric part. Left iliac part. Plane
* Sagittal Plane – cubic decimeter
* Transverse – —
* Frontal – dwrrer
1. Thoracic Cavity – ribs and stop
2. Abdominal Cavity- Diaphragm and abdomine
3. Pelvic Cavity- Pelvic castanetss
1. Trunk Cavities – lines the walls of the pit
2. Serous membranes – secrete fluid that fills the infinite between the parietal and viceral membranes. Protect variety meats from clash 3. Pericardial pit – surrounds ( bosom ) . Pleural pits environments ( lungs ) & A ; Peritoneal Cavity surrounds ( abdominal and pelvic ) . 4. Mesenteries – hold abdominal variety meats in topographic point. supply passageway for blood vass and nervus to variety meats. 5. Retroperitoneal Organs – behind the parietal peritoneum. *kidney. adrenal secretory organs. pancreas. bowels. urinary vesica. ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY
Integumentary – protection. modulate temp. prevent H2O loss Skeletal- protection & A ; support. allows organic structure motions. shop minerals and fat. Muscular-Provides organic structure motions. position and organic structure heats.
Lymphatic- removes foreign substances from blood. combats disease. keep tissue fluid bal. absorb fats. Respiratory – blood pH. exchange O2. CO2
Digestive- digestion. absorb food. extinguish waste
Nervous – detect esthesis. command motion. physiological procedures & A ; rational maps. Endocrine- metablosim. growing. reproduction
Cardiovascular- conveyance foods. wastes. gases and endocrines. Immnune response and modulate organic structure temp. Urinary-remove waste from blood and modulate blood pH. ion balance and H2O balance. Reproductive ( female ) – site of fertilisation. foetal development. produce milk. endocrines that influence sexual map and behaviour. Reproductive ( male ) – Produces and reassign sperm cells to female generative and bring forth endocrines that influence sexual map and behaviour.
– Consist of hair. secretory organs and nails
* Protection – from micro-organism and uv visible radiation
* Sensation- sensory receptors
* Vitamin D production –regulator of homeostasis
* Temperative ordinance – blood flow & A ; activity of perspiration secretory organs * Excretion – via perspiration pores
Hypodermic Tissue ( Hypodermis )
– contains about half of body’s stored fat
– cushioning and insularity and responsible for different visual aspects LAYERS OF THE SKIN
1. Epidermis- Most superficial bed of tegument.
– Stratified squamous epithelial tissue
* Stratum basale – Deepest stratum
*Stratum Corneum – most superficial stratum of cuticle. Surrounded by lipoids which prevent unstable loss. *callus
2. Dermis – composed of dense collagenic connective tissue incorporating fibroblast. adipocytes. & A ; microphages.
*Collagen and elastic fibres – responsible for structural strength of the corium.
*cleavage lines or tenseness lines – most resistent to stretch along these lines.
*Dermal Papillae – upper portion of corium
*palm. colloidal suspensions and figures of fingers
*Melanin – Responsible for tegument. eyes and hair colour.
*Albinism – Deficiency or absence of melanin.
ACCESSORY SKIN STRUCTURES
& gt ; Hair Follicles – Where the hair arises from
& gt ; Hair Shaft – Protrudes above the surface of the tegument
& gt ; Hair Bulb – Where hair is produced
& gt ; Cortex – difficult covering of hair
& gt ; Medulla – soft centre of hair
& gt ; Cuticle – covers the cerebral mantle that holds the hair in the follicle
*Arrector Pili – goose bumps
*Sebaceous Glands – Simple. branched
– Produces sebum
*Sweat Glands –
& gt ; Opens thru hair folicles & gt ; Opens thru perspiration pores
& gt ; Genetalia & A ; armpits & gt ; palms & A ; colloidal suspensions
& gt ; alterations upon exposure & gt ; Mainly H2O and salt
Nails – dead stratum horny layer contain difficult ceratin
& gt ; Nail Body – seeable nail
& gt ; Nail Root – nail coverd by tegument
& gt ; Cuticl – ( ephonychium ) stratum horny layer extend to nail
& gt ; Nail Matrix – extends distantly to nail root
& gt ; Nail Bed – Where the nail is attached.
& gt ; Lanula –seen through the nail organic structure *whitish –cresent shaped country
1st Degree – Damage merely the cuticle
2nd Degree – Damage the cuticle and corium
3rd Degree – full thickness Burnss
Basal cell carnicoma – Readily treatable
Squamous cell carnicoma – Can metastasise
Malignant Melanoma – Often Fatal
AGING EFFECT ON THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
& gt ; Blood flow is reduced. tegument dilutant and no snap
& gt ; Sweat and Sebaceous secretory organ are less active. lessening in melanocytes.
1. Centripetal input – Monitor external and internal factors 2. Integrating – treating centripetal input and initiating responses 3. Homeostasis – maintains homeostatsis
4. Mental activity – include consciousness. memory and believing 5. Information –
& gt ; Central Nervous System – Consist of the Brain and the Spinal Cord & gt ; Peripheral Nervous System – consists of nervousnesss and ganglia. * Centripetal Division – Afferent ( Toward ) division. From centripetal receptors to CNS. * Motor Division – Efferent ( Away ) Division. From CNS to effector variety meats.
CELLS OF NS
Nerve cells – Recieve Stimuli. Conduct action potencies and transmit signals. 3 Partss of Neuron:
* Cell organic structure: Beginning of information for cistron look.
* Dendrites: Short. extremely ramifying cytoplasmatic extension. Recieve or convey info from or toward the nerve cell cell organic structure. * Axon: long cell procedure widening from nerve cell cell organic structure. Type of Nerve cells:
Multipolar – Many dendrites. 1 axon
– Most motor and CNS nerve cells
Bipolar – 1 Dendrite. 1 Axon
– found in particular variety meats. eyes & A ; nose
Psuedo-unipolar – 1 axon. no dendrites
– Most centripetal Nerve cells
Neuroglia ( or glial cells ) – nonneuronal cells of CNS and PNS. Has an ability to split. More legion. 5 Types:
* Astrocytes – Highly branched
– aid nervous tissue fix
* Ependymal Cells –Epithelial-Like
– circulate cerebrospinal fluid
* Microglia – Small. Mobile Cells
– Protect CNS from infection
* Oligodendrocytes – surround several axon
– enclose unmyelinated axons in CNS
* Schwann Cells – Single cells environing axons
– enclose unmyelinated axons in PNS
* Unmyelinated Axons – Rest in indentations of oligodendrocytes in CNS. Schwann cell in PNS.
* Myelinated Axons – Have sheaths myelin sheaths wrapped around. *Nodes of Ranvier – spreads in the medulla sheath
Organization of Nervous Tissue
& gt ; White Matter – Form nevre path in CNS & A ; PNS
& gt ; Gray Matter – Forms the cerebral mantle and karyon in the encephalon
Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways
Resting Membrane Potential – uneven charge distribution. The cell is polarized. Leak channels are ever unfastened. Gated channels are closed until opened by specific signals. 1. Resting Membrane Potential – some Na+
2. Depolarization – Na+ channels open
3. Repolarization – K+ channels open
The Synapse – Point of Contact between 2 nerve cells.
Reflex – Functional unit of the nervous system. A Complex Reflex Arc consist of a centripetal receptor. a centripetal nerve cell. interneuron. motor nerve cell and effecter organ. Simplest physiological reaction discharge do non affect interneurons. SPINAL CORD
Foramens magnum 2nd Lumbar vertebra Cauda Equina
Knee dork – Quadriceps femoris musculus is stretched.
* Cervical. thoracic. lumbar. sacral – they are grouped into Plexus BRAIN
Brainstem – Consist of several Nuclei Medulla Oblangata –
control activities such as bosom rate. external respiration. swallowing and balance. Pons – contain relay karyon betweem cerebellum and cerebrum. Midbrain – Hearing and Visual physiological reactions. Cerebellum – Attached to the brain-stem.
Diencephalon & gt ; Thalamus – chief centripetal relay centre & gt ; Epithalamus – the pineal secretory organ may pay a function in sexual ripening & gt ; Hypothalamus – keeping homeostasis. Cerebrum – consist of Frontal. parital. occipital. temporal lobes. SENSORY FUNCTIONS
Ascending piece of lands – from fringe to encephalon
– Include Voluntary & A ; Involuntary motions
Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Upper motor nerve cell located in the primary motor cerebral mantle. Premotor & A ; prefrontal countries regulate motions. Basal nuclei – aid. program. form & amp ; co-ordinate motions and position. Cerebellum – balance. musculus tone. musculus coordination.
OTHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS
& gt ; Communication between right and left hemispheres
& gt ; Speech
& gt ; Brain moving ridges and Consciousness
& gt ; Memory
& gt ; Limbic System
MENINGES. VENTRICLES. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
CRANIAL NERVES | |
I – Olfactory | S| Smell|
II – Optics | S| Vision|
*III – Oculamotor | M. P| M: 4 OF 6 EXTRINSIC EYE MUSCLE P: Constricts students. inspissate lens| *IV – Trochlear | M| One extrinsic oculus muscle|
V – Trigeminal | S. M| S: face and teeth M: musculus of chewing| *VI – Abducens | M| One extrinsic oculus muscle|
VII – Facial | S. M. P| S: Taste M: Facial looks P: Salivary and
tear glands| VIII – Vastibolochlear| S| Hearing and balance|
IX –Glossopharyngeal | S. M. P| S: Taste and touch dorsum of lingua M: Guttural musculuss P: Salivary Glands| X – Vagus | S. M. P| S: Pharynx. Larynx. Viscera M: Palate. Pharynx. Larynx P: Thorax and abdomen| XI – Accessory | M| Neck and back muscle|
Twelve – Hypoglossal | M| Tongue muscle|
Meninxs – environment and protect the encephalon and spinal cord. 3 connective tissue membranes:
Dura matter- adheres tightly in dural castanetss. Arachnoid affair – really thin. spiderlike. cobwebs Pia affair – really tightly bound to the surface of encephalon and spinal cord. Ventricles – fluid pits in the CNS
Cerebrospinal Fluid ( CSF ) – bathes the encephalon and spinal cord. provides shock absorber around the CNS. – produced by choroids and retes made by ependymal cells. *Hydrocephalus – to much accretion of CSF.
Effects OF ANS ON VARIOUS TISSUE |
TARGET| SYMPATHETIC EFFECT| PARASYMPATHETIC EFFECT|
Heart| Increase rate| lessening rate|
Blood Vessel| contricts and dilates| none|
Lungs| dilate bronchioles| constrict bronchioles|
Eyes| dilate pupils| constrict student. contracts musculus lens| Intestine And Stomach Walls| lessening motility. contracts spintchers| addition motility. relaxes spintchers| Liver| interruptions animal starch. bring forth glucose| synnthesizes glycogen| Adipose Tissue| breaks down fat| none|
Adrenal Gland| secrete adrenaline. norepinephrine| none| Sweat Glands| secrete sweat| none|
Salivary Gland| secrete midst saliva| secrete midst saliva| Urinary Bladder| relaxes musculuss. constrict spincters| contracts musculuss. relaxes pincters| Pancreas| Decrease secernment of digestive enzymes and insulin| Increase secernment of digestive enzymes and insulin| AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
– Has sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
Sympathethic Division – “fight or flight”
& gt ; Preganglionic – Lie in the thoracic and upper lumbar part of spinal cord. & gt ; Postganglionic – in the sympathethic concatenation ganglia or in indirect ganglia. Parasympathetic Division
& gt ; Preganglionic – associated with some cranial and sacral nervousnesss. & gt ; Postganglionic – Located in terminal ganglia. near or aim variety meats.
– all secrete acetylcholine
-Most sympathetic postganglionic part secrete Norepinephrine. Functions of neurotransmitters:
1. Sympathethic division – Prepare a individual by increase bosom rate. blood force per unit area. respiration. release glucose energy. 2. Parasympathetic division – nonvoluntary acitivity at remainder *digestion. defacation. micturition ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Classs of Chemical Messenger|
Chemical Msgr. | Description|
Autocrine| secreted by cells. act upon the activity from which it was secreted| Paracrine| Produced by broad assortment of tissues and secreted into extracellular fluid| Neurotransmitter| Produced by nerve cells ; secreted into synaptic clef. influence station synaptic cells| endocrine| secreted into the blood by specialised cells ; ordinance of cell map |
FUNCTIONS of ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
2. Control Food consumption and digestion
3. Tissue Development
4. Ion ordinance
5. Bater balance
6. Heart rate and blood force per unit area ordinance
7. Control of blood glucose and other food
8. Control generative map
9. Uterine contraction and milk release
10. Immune system ordinance
CHARACTERISTICS OF ENDO SYSTEM
– Include secretory organs and specialised hormone cells that secrete endocrines into blood watercourse.
HORMONE – Travels to a distant mark tissue. binds to specific receptors set of events. Chemical nature of Hormones: 1. Lipid –soluble – Include steroids. thyroid endocrines and some fatyy acerb derived functions. 2. water-soluble – Include proteins. peptides and aminic acids. Circulate freely in the blood. CONTROL OF HORMONE SECRETION
Stimulation of Hormone release: 1. Humoral Stimulation– Sensitive to go arounding blood degree of certain molecules. *glucose or calcium 2. Nervous Stimuli– Cause hormome secernment in direct response to action potencies in nerve cells. occurs during emphasis or exercising. 3. Hormonal Stimulation– Hormones fron anterior pituitary that stimulate tropic endocrines. Inhibition of Hormone:
1. Humoral Stimulation- inhibit secernment of endocrines
2. Nervous Stimuli- prevent endocrine secernment
3. Suppressing endocrine prevent endocrine release
Regulation of Hormone Level 1. Negative feedback- prevents hormone secernment one time a set of point is achieved. 2. Positive feedback- Self promoting system whereby stimulation of endocrine secernment increases over clip.
Classs of Receptors: 1. Lipid-soluble endocrines – adhere atomic receptors located inside the karyon of the mark cell. 2. Water-soluble endocrines – adhere to membrane-bound receptors. which are built-in membrane proteins. Action of Nuclear Receptors & gt ; Nuclear Receptors have parts that allow them to adhere to the Deoxyribonucleic acid in the karyon once the endocrine is bound. & gt ; can non react instantly it takes clip to do Deoxyribonucleic acid to mRNA and protein. Membrane Bound Receptors and Signal Amplification & gt ; Activate a cascade of events once the
endocrine binds. & gt ; are associated G Proteins.
Endocrine Glands. Hormones. and Their Target Tissues|
Gland| Hormone| Target Tissue| Response|
Pituitary secretory organ Anterior | Growth hormone| Most Tissue| Increase genne look. release fatty acids from cells| | Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone ( TSH ) | Adrenal Cortex| Increase Thyroid Hormone secretion| | Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ( ACTH| Adrenal Gland| Increase secernment of glucocorticoid hormone| | Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone ( MSH ) | Melanocytes in Skin| Increase melanin production in melanocytes to do skin darker| | Luteinizing Hormone ( LH ) / Interstial cell-stimulating endocrine ( ICSH ) | Ovary in Females. Testis in males| Promotes Ovulation and Lipo-Lutin production ; testoterone synthesis and goad. Of sperm cells| | Follicle-Stimulating Hormone ( FSH ) | Follicles in ovary in females. Seminiferous tobules in males| Promote follicle ripening and estrogen secernment ; promote sperm cell production| | Prolactin| Ovary and mammary secretory organ in females. and testicle in males| Stimulate milk production and prolongs progesterone| Posterior| Anti diuretic Hormone ( ADH ) | Kidney| preserves H2O ; Constrict blood vessels| | Oxytocin| Uterus| Increase uterine contractions |
| | Mammary Gland| Increase milk letdown from mammary glands| Thyroid Gland| Thyroid Hormones| Most cells of the body| Increase metabolic rates. normal procedure of ripening and growth| | Calcitonin| Primarily Bone| Decrease rate of bone dislocation ; prevents big addition in blood Ca+ | Parathyroid Gland| Parathyroid Hormone| Bone. Kidney| Increase rate of bone breakdownby osteoclasts| Adrenal Medulla | Epinephrine largely. some norepinephrine| Heart. Blood Vessels. Liver. Fat cells| Increase cardiac end product ; Increase blood flow to skeletal musculuss and heart| Adrenal Cotex| Mineralocorticoids ( aldosterone ) | Kidneys ; To lesser grade. Intestine and perspiration glands| Increase rate of Na conveyance into organic structure ; increase rate of K+ excretion| |
Glucocorticoids ( Cortisol ) | Most Tissue| Increase in fat and protein dislocation ; increase | | Adrenal Androgens | Most Tissue| Insignificant in males ; Increase female sexual drive| Pancreas| Insulin| Especially Liver. skeletal musculus. Adipose tissue| Increase consumption and usage of glucose and amino acids| | Glucagon| Primarily Liver| Increase dislocation of animal starch and release of glucose into circulative system| Generative Organs Testes| Testosterone| Most Tissue| Aid sperm cell production. Care of functional generative organs| Ovaries| Estrogen. Progesterone| Most Tissue| assistance uterine and mammary secretory organ development and function| Uterus. ovaries. inflamed tissues| Prostaglandins| Most Tissue| Increase uterine contractions and ovulation| Thymus| Thymosin| Thymosin| Immune system development
Pineal gland| Melatonin| Among others. Hypothalamus| Secretion of gonadotropin-releasing endocrine. Thereby suppressing reproduction|