Organizational civilization has become a major subject in academic research, organisational theory and direction pattern. The grounds for the enthusiasm in the survey of this construct is owing to the fact that the scientific direction has long been replaced by the softer and humanist side of direction which does non look merely at how to acquire the occupation done but besides how to actuate or act upon the work force to execute without much coherence from the direction. There are some factors that are responsible for the addition in the peculiar involvement, they are the followers ; first increasing globalisation which in recent old ages has put organisational civilization in the limelight along with national civilization. Second, the digesting premise that organisational public presentation is dependent on some employee values which are aligned with the companies ‘ missions, visions and values. The 3rd ground is the combative position that direction can consciously pull strings their civilization to accomplish organisational alteration. As a consequence of this, direction bookmans and practicians have undertaken many researches which have been published by a figure of top rated diaries, magazines and books in discoursing the findings of their different sorts of surveies. Some consequences have argued the being of a relationship between organisational civilization and fiscal public presentation while others have argued that there is no nexus between these two constructs. ( Huczynski & A ; Buchaman 2007 ; Ogbonna & A ; Harris 2000:769, Kunda 1992, Parker 2000 )
Despite the figure of past researches done, there has non been adequate literature analyzing the existent relationship between organisational civilization and employee occupation satisfaction. For those that have been involved in this survey, they have merely focused on either qualitative or quantitative survey, go forthing spreads in their survey. Of peculiar concern is that no research has been carried out to analyze organisational civilization within the Nigerian banking industry. Therefore this survey attempts to analyze this relationship by happening out the perceptual experience of employees of the civilization of Guaranty Trust Bank UK vis-a-vis their degree of occupation satisfaction. In this survey, both an anthropological position will be taken for the unmeasurable facets of civilization concepts and besides statistical methods will be applied to analyze the natural informations collected from the instrument applied used to acquire information from the sample. ( Schein 1983 )
Whist many surveies have examined the nexus between organisational civilization and the fiscal public presentation of organisations ; others have examined the relationship between this variable and other constructs such as client satisfaction, competitory advantage and leading manners. ( Trice and Beyer 1993 ; Hentze 1994 ; Deal and Kennedy 1982 ) These surveies have a planetary focal point of the organisation without sing the consequence of the human capital that made the immense part to the improved fight, growing and public presentation of these organisations. In position of the above, some faculty members and direction practicians embarked on transporting the probe farther by concentrating on the organisational civilization dimensions ( e.g. fight, effectual determination devising, employee engagement ) in relationship to employees ‘ occupation satisfaction. These surveies were seen to more people oriented and research in this would enable directors understand how their civilization affects their employees. Despite these farther surveies, it has been argued that they were limited in range and were frequently affected by methodological restraints. In order to get the better of some of the restraints, this survey attempts to lend to bing literature by transporting out an analytical survey utilizing recognizable dimensions of organisational civilization and look intoing if they have a important relationship with employee occupation satisfaction. It is of import to observe here that these dimensions under survey are relevant to productiveness, increased fight and employee public presentation therefore would do important impact on the growing and development of organisations.
1.3 Research Aims
This survey aims to accomplish the undermentioned aims:
Determine the relationship between organisational dimensions ( Stability and Communication, public presentation orientation, Support, focal point on wagess, Innovation ) and employee occupation satisfaction
Identify the organisational civilization dimension that contributes most to employee occupation satisfaction
1.4 Research Questions
Do organisational dimensions ( Stability and Communication, public presentation orientation, Support, focal point on wagess, Innovation ) significantly affect employee satisfaction at Guaranty Trust Bank?
Which organisational civilization dimension contributes most to employee occupation satisfaction?
1.5 Scope of the survey
This survey is limited to analyzing the relationship between the organisational civilization dimension and the degree of employee occupation satisfaction among employees of Guaranty Trust Bank UK.
1.6 Significance and Contribution to the survey
The Nigerian banking industry is one that has witnessed enormous growing in the last two decennaries. Due to new ordinances from the Central Bank, the industry in the last five twelvemonth witnessed assorted amalgamations and acquisitions, and some experienced down-right prostration of some Bankss. Whilst some Bankss were said to hold remained undaunted despite the recession which hit the whole universe severely, others were hit severely. GtBank established in 1989 is one of the Bankss that have remained strong in the face of the compulsory fiscal capitalisation which occurred in Nigeria in 2000 and the recession in late 2008. There have been assorted sentiments by practicians as to the factors responsible for these successful Bankss keeping their place in the industry. A factor opined by some is that the organisational civilization built by the proprietors of these houses from origin and is still being passed down the old employees to green horns. This civilization consisting expected behavioral norms and rites enabled the houses to running swimmingly, lending vastly to the effectivity of these organisations. This survey intends to do a part to bing literature on the impact of organisational civilization on the employee satisfaction in the Nigerian context.
1.7 Restrictions of the survey
The remainder of this thesis is organized as follows. The following chapter takes an in-depth expression at the conceptual model environing Organizational civilization and reviews the old empirical grounds as documented by assorted research workers in peer-reviewed diaries. The 3rd chapter justifies and explains the research methods applied ; it besides explains how the information was collected. The 4th chapter presents our findings and the concluding chapter draws decision from the survey.
This chapter explains the background to the surveies of Organizational civilization and goes farther to discourse the two positions of civilization. It provides assorted definitions of Organizational Culture and its elements harmonizing to Driskill and Brenton ( 2005 ) . It besides reviews past surveies and statements of faculty members and research workers. These past empirical surveies based on the relationship between Organizational civilization and employee public presentation and satisfaction will besides be reviewed and spreads identified with regard to the methodological analysiss applied in making their decisions. This treatment would take to the chief intent of the survey as described in the old chapter. Some dimensions of organisational civilization as identified by O’Reilly ( 1999 ) will be described. Following this, the construct of Job satisfaction will be introduced and discussed. The theoretical account of will be used for the purposed of this research.
2.2 Overview of Organizational Culture
The construct of Culture stems from an anthropological background which can merely be seen as a ‘social form ‘ bing in a peculiar scene over a long period of clip. This anthropological metaphor has frequently been applied or employed in research and consultancy in administrations. The methodological rule in analyzing civilization is to see organisations as mini-societies. This is because civilization is more utile for the analysis of groups and organisations than entire societies ( e.g. states ) due to the homogenous nature of smaller units and the possibility of retracing the full history of an organisation in a curious ways that is unsuitable to entire societies. Besides the anthropological position provides the best way for analyzing what really goes on in groups and organisations. ( Alvesson 2002 ; Schein 1988 ) .
As mentioned above, direction advisers and faculty members who have carried out researches since the 1980 ‘s have argued that civilization has an influence or long-run impact on its employees and organisation as a whole ; merely like stable factors like formal construction and authorization. The term by and large has been used to depict intangible facets of an organisation such as its beliefs, values, imposts which is built by workers over clip.
However, Babbie 2001 ( as cited by Driskill and Brenton 2005 ) argued that Culture can been described as a concept, which merely means a theoretical creative activity that is based on observation, but can non be observed straight or indirectly. Similar to other concepts like personality, motive, attitude, clime, it merely has value if it helps us to do sense of our universe. These two positions are amongst many descriptions of civilization bespeaking that there is still some ambiguity in the use of the term in organisational surveies. Hence, the demand for us to do some enquiry into the construct and demystify it. Before giving the definitions of organisational civilization and its dimensions, it is expedient to understand the two conceptual positions of civilization. This would give a good apprehension of the concept and give a good apprehension for the ground to analyze civilization under the quantitative and qualitative research methods. ( Deal and Kennedy 1982 )
2.3 Conceptual Positions of Organizational Culture [ SHORTEN TO COVER THE ASPECT U NEED ]
Harmonizing to Smircich ( 1983 ) , civilization can either be viewed as what an organisation ‘has ‘ ( civilization being a critical variable ) or as something an organisation ‘is ‘ ( that is root metaphor ) . The ‘has ‘ position holds that every organisation possesses a civilization, merely as it has a scheme, construction, engineering and employees. This position is called the functionalist position. The civilization of each organisation is a alone property that is handed to new employees because they do non take part in its formation. Culture therefore serves as the lever for alteration that direction of an organisation can utilize. ( Smirich 1983 ) Harmonizing to Huczynski and Buchanan ( 2007 ) , this position sees organisational civilization as ‘constituting an nonsubjective world of artifacts, values and significances that faculty members can quantify and step ‘ . Thus it uses civilization as a variable which is able to foretell and do certain results. For illustration, civilization which is variable ten ( e.g. norms, values ) is able to act upon the result of variable Y ( e.g. productiveness ) . The challenge is how to we determine this civilization in inquiry? Culture is non an easy identifiable variable hence, how do we cognize what makes a civilization is good or strong? The complexness of the civilization variable may non give us a clear sense of what is to be strengthened and how civilization influences productiveness. Thus the solution is to research peculiar facets of civilization for illustration leading values, constructions, norms that predict occupation satisfaction and helps to advance organisational endurance and effectivity ( Collins 2001 ) Academics and advisers who support this position include Deal and Kennedy 1982 ; Peters and Waterman 1982 ; Ouchi 1981 ; Schein 1985 ; Pascale and Athos 1982 )
On the other manus, the root metaphor position is the contrasting one which sees civilization as something that the organisation ‘is ‘ . Huczynski and Buchanan ( 2007 ) explain that civilization constitutes ‘a subjective world of rites and rites and significances ‘ . It is known as the symbolic, societal constructionist or shared knowledges perspective ‘ . It focuses on how organisational members create civilizations and how the civilization affects the members who belong to this group. Unlike the functionalist, this school of idea argues that civilization can non be quantifiable or measured, and that faculty members must analyze it holistically precisely the manner anthropologists study folks and societies. It is seen as a manner of understanding societal dealingss of an organisation and rejects the impression that civilization possibly manipulated or managed. Researchers include Ogbonna 1993 ; Harris and Ogbonna 1999 ; martin 185 ; 1992 ; Ray 1986
For the intent of this undertaking both positions will be examined in order to increase the cogency and dependability of this research and to cut down any methodological mistakes that have occurred in past surveies. This is besides in line with the suggestions put frontward by figure of faculty members who advise that pupils should get down with a qualitative orientation and to follow up with a quantitative orientation. ( Selltiz et al 1965 ; Blalock and Blalock 1971 as cited by Hofstede 1990 ) However, it is of import to observe that some agnosticism has been raised by Siehl and Martin 1990 as cited by Denison 1996 ) that this type of research runs the hazard of cut downing civilization to ‘just another variable ‘
2.4 Definitions of Organizational Culture
There are assorted definitions of civilization, all of which have differing takes on civilization.
Alvesson ( 2002 ) used the term ‘organizational civilization ‘ as an umbrella construct for the manner of believing which takes a serious involvement in cultural and symbolic phenomena. He agrees with the definition of Frost et Al ( 1985 as cited by Alvesson 2002 ) which he describes as the what importance people hold of symbolism – of rites, myths, narratives and legends- about the reading of events, thoughts and experiences that are influenced and shaped by the groups within which they live. This description besides includes values and premises about people ‘s societal world. This position is similar to that of Geertz ( 1973 ) and Kunda ( 1992 ) who describes civilization to be a system of common symbols and significances which provides the shared regulations regulating cognitive and affectional facets of rank in an organisation, and the agencies whereby they are shaped and expressed.
Hofstede ( 1991 as cited by Denison and Fey, 2003 ) , adds the distinguishing component of civilization with his account that ‘organizational civilization denotes a series of beliefs, values and behaviors giving form to an organisation ‘s self-identity and distinguishing it from other organisations ‘ . Schein ( 1988 ) explains that Culture is a belongings of groups as it is thought of as a signifier of accrued acquisition that is acquired by a group during its history and is accordingly and continually passed on to new members of the group. He hence defined civilization as ‘A form of shared basic premises that the group learned as it solved its jobs of external version and internal integrating, that has worked good plenty to be considered valid and hence, to be taught to new members as the right manner to comprehend, believe, and experience in relation to those jobs ‘ . This subject exposes the fact that civilization really develops during interaction between employees and the organisation. As an organisation grows workers have to happen solutions to constant jobs ( concern processes e.g. Research & A ; Development, care, production procedures ) and have to work out method and systems for the proper operation of the organisation. These solutions cut down the initial uncertainness which ab initio created a traumatic experience. ( Schein, 1985 ) .This procedure is used as the appropriate mode for new employees of an organisation to larn to act ; thereby civilization can perpetuate organisational endurance and growing.
For civilization to derive strength and achieve the grade of integrating, there has to be a length of clip which members must pass together and a deep degree of structural stableness which is by nature unconscious, intangible and unseeable. IT IS FELT, EXPRESSED…
Besides the strength of the group ‘s acquisition experiences, the mechanisms by which the acquisition has taken topographic point, i.e. positive support or turning away conditioning, and the strength and lucidity of the premises held by the laminitiss and leaders of the group are paramount. ( Schein 1988 ) As the definition describes, the acquisition procedure which covers perceptual, cognitive, and emotional response, occurs both with regard to external endurance issues and internal integrating issues.
All the definitions given above can be summarised into a cardinal subject as being a system of beliefs, significances and values which have a prevailing background cloth of prescriptions and prohibitions for determining employee behavior ; this includes the recognized attacks to managing its engineering and undertakings. In short, Culture is to the organisation what personality is to the person. Green ( 1989 )
2.6 Dimensions of Organizational Culture
Hofstede et Al ( 1990 ) , Denisnon & A ; Mishra ( 1995 ) and O’Reilly ( 1991 ) identified many dimensions of Organizational civilization. Denison and Mishra ( 1995 ) identified three dimensions of civilization: adaptability of the organisation, mission/goal orientation and employee engagement and engagement. Hofstede ( 1991 ) gave six dimensions viz. procedure oriented vs. consequences oriented, employee oriented vs. occupation oriented, parochial vs. professional, unfastened system vs. closed system, loose control vs. tight control, and normative vs. matter-of-fact. It is of import to observe that he did non associate these dimensions to be either ancestors or effects of organisational civilization.
Using a Q-sort methods on 54 value statement obtained through an extended literature reappraisal, O’Reilly ( 1991 ) identified seven dimensions that may specify the kernel of organisational civilization when taken as a whole. These are invention, outcome orientation, regard for people, squad orientation, stableness, aggressiveness and attending to item. Harmonizing to O’Reilly ( 1991 ) , out of these dimensions, stableness, invention, concentrate on wagess, communicating, public presentation orientation and support are conceptually related to relationship accomplishments and they have the greatest impact on employee behavior and attitudes. Therefore none of his dimensions will be used in this survey. The dimensions which may be related to occupation satisfaction will be discussed and used for this survey because they are concepts that are non socially constructed and are mensurable. Harmonizing to Robbins ( 1999 ) , these seven dimensions are apparent in every organisation as they provide an image of how things are organized and activities performed in an organisation. They besides show the mode employees are expected to act therefore conveying forth comprehension to organisational civilization.
2.6.1 Focus on Wagess
This refers to the grade to which direction focuses more on results or consequences than applied to obtain the consequences. Reward and acknowledgment can be defined every bit ‘benefits as increased wage, fillips, and publicity, which are conferred as public recognition of superior public presentation with regard to company ‘s aims ‘ ( Juran and Gryna, 1993 ) .
Kerr ( 1987 ) asserts that the wages system is a powerful agencies through which direction influences an organisation ‘s civilization. It defines the relationship between the organisation and employee by specifying the exchange footings i.e. it specifies the part expected and the feedback they should anticipate as a consequence of their public presentation. Harmonizing to Zhang 2000 wagess are much valued by employees therefore it provides inducements for more committedness towards the organisation. Besides a survey carried out by O’Driscoll and Randall ( 1999 ) shows that wagess have a important impact on the attitudes of employees towards their occupations. Therefore we propose the hypothesis to prove that focal point on wagess affects employee occupation satisfaction.
2.7 Job Satisfaction
Extensive literature written on Job satisfaction shows that occupation is an of import work topographic point concept is of concern for effectual measuring, Job satisfaction is defined as ‘a enjoyable or positive emotional province ensuing from the assessment of one ‘s occupation. ( Locke 1976 as cited by Silverthorne 2005 ) This is similar to the definitions of Kerego & A ; Mthupha ( 1997 ) who defined occupation satisfaction as the feeling of employees about their occupation and Hutcheson ( 1996 ) who referred to it as the difference between the results, which a individual really receives and those that he expects to have. This construct is of occupation satisfaction has been linked to positive workplace result, such as increased committedness. ( Brown and Peterson 1994 ) The ground for this is that Job satisfaction is related to employees’general occupation features and they would measure their satisfaction degree harmonizing to their perceptual experience of what they define as of import and meaningful to them. In the visible radiation of this, the rating of the different facets of the occupation by employees will be of a subjective nature, and people will reflect different degrees of satisfaction around the same occupation factors.
Robbins ( 1993 ) supported the five chief occupation satisfaction dimensions as wage, nature of work, supervising, promotional chances and dealingss with colleagues. Employees with higher degrees of occupation satisfaction are less likely to seek out a different occupation or have purpose to go forth an organisation. ( Tuch and Martin 1991 )
2.8 Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction
Brooke et Al ( 1988 ) claimed that occupation satisfaction stems from the satisfaction of his demands and wants from a occupation and this reflects on the person ‘s general attitude towards his occupation. On the other manus, Roberts and Roseanne ( 1998 ) argue that employees have the inclination to a greater degree of occupation satisfaction when their abilities, experiences and personal values are recognised, appreciated and utilized at the work topographic point and when their overall outlooks are met.
Although a figure of definitions have already been given above, the definition harmonizing to Deshpande and Webster ( 1989 ) is used here. They refer to Organizational civilization as “ the form of shared values and beliefs that help persons understand organisational operation and therefore supply them with norms for behavior in the organisation ” . There have been statements sing the relevancy of Organizational civilization in the devising of success in organisations. Alvesson ( 2005 ) observed that there is bias towards the ‘positive ‘functions of civilization and how it affects harmoniousness, communicating, consensus in organisations. An obvious facet are the symbols which are seen as functional ( or dysfunctional ) for the organisation in footings of end attainment, cut downing tenseness in communicating and so on. Peters and Waterman ‘s ( 1988 ) qualitative survey argued that ‘strong ‘ civilizations cause success, weak 1s cause failure. They hence advised concern proprietors that their ability to command civilization successfully would ensue to higher productiveness and more employee engagement. The thought is that the more understanding an employee has of his employer ‘s civilization, the more likely he would win in it. Havard Business School research workers Kotter and Heskett ( 1992 ) supported the importance of strong organisational civilization and strong leading. ( Huczynski 2000 )
The argument amongst research workers with regard to the relationship between organisational civilization and occupation satisfaction has besides been a long standing 1. A figure of research workers have found back uping grounds about the relationship between these two constructs ( Schneider & A ; Snyder,1975 ; Field & A ; Abelson, 1982 ; Hellriegel & A ; Slocum, 1974 ; Kerego & A ; Mthupha, 1997 ) . Surveies have indicated that personal values are a major composing of an employee ‘s psychological science of their work environment so this in bend determines the perceptual experience of organisational characteristics. By organizing a peculiar mode of believing procedure, the civilization embedded in the work topographic point influences their reading of organisational world and farther formulates their attitude and behavior towards work and their organisation. ( Verplanken 2004 ; Ott 1989 ; Cameron and Quinn, 1999 ) Past empirical reappraisals of earlier surveies on organisational civilization that affect employee ‘s occupation satisfaction are presented below.
Odom et Al ( 1990 ) examined the impact of organisational civilization on occupation satisfaction utilizing the four types of civilization as postulated by Cameron, Kim and Quinn ( 1999 ) He besides used the elements of work-group coherence, occupation satisfaction and organisational committedness Although they found out that bureaucratic civilization was dominant in the instance survey, it was non the coveted type of civilization for a contributing environment for the creative activity of employee committedness, occupation satisfaction, and work-group coherence.
Silverthorne ( 2004 ) in his surveies concluded that the degree of occupation satisfaction additions when the civilization is bureaucratic and there is chance to be advanced. Nystrom ( 1993 ) who investigated the wellness industry discovered that employees in strong civilizations tend to hold higher committedness and higher occupation satisfaction. In malice of these surveies found and reviewed, there is a spread in look intoing the direct nexus between organisational civilization and occupation satisfaction.
A figure of surveies besides looked in the cultural dimensions in relation to employee occupation satisfaction. Sing cultural dimensions, McKinnon et Al. ( 2003 ) argued that these cultural dimensions including regard for people, invention, stableness and aggressiveness have a important impact on occupation satisfaction. In add-on Platonova et Al. ( 2006 ) who investigated infirmary employees discovered that employees are more likely to be satisfied when they perceive that the direction recognises their occupation public presentation. Despite these surveies, Detert et Al. ( 2000 ) claimed that the direct relationship between organisational civilization and occupation satisfaction needs farther probe. Besides, there is no survey that incorporates Organizational Culture Profile ( OCP ) in analyzing this nexus. This is despite the fact that these dimensions can be used as a step. ( Sarros et al. , 2005 ) As a consequence of this, this survey seeks to add to the bing literature in look intoing this relationship.
The aim of this survey is to look into the being and impact of the relationship between organisational civilization and the dimensions of organisational civilization and employee satisfaction viz. communicating, public presentation orientation, wages and so on.
As mentioned earlier, the quantitative method will be used in this research. This is to enable a proper appraisal and measuring of the dimensions of civilization under treatment. These quantitative appraisals provide the chance to understand the systematic effects of organisational civilization on employee behavior and result.
3.2 Research Design
In order to look into the relationship between employee occupation satisfaction and the organisational civilization dimensions, the questionnaire was chosen as the appropriate instrument required for the aggregation of statistical informations and for the empirical testing.
3.3 Primary Data
Questionnaires were self-administered to analyze the relationship between organisational civilization dimensions being the independent variables and occupation satisfaction being the dependant variable. Ethical blessing was received by the authorization of the university and the consent of Guaranty Trust Bank plc was besides obtained before the questionnaires were administered. The questionnaires were prepared in an easy clear format and inquiries written in a straight-forward mode. Careful stairss were besides taken to guarantee that sensitive inquiries were non featured which respondents would experience hesitating to reply or would elicit negative responses towards the research worker or the administration being investigated. The confidentiality of the respondents was besides ensured. ( Kumar 1999 )
3.4 Secondary Data
These informations were obtained from the Guaranty Trust Bank UK web site, newssheets, write-ups and other peer-reviewed academic diaries made available by Queen Mary University of London and the British library.
3.5 Sample and Data Collection
A sample size of 30 employees of out of a entire population of… was chosen by random trying to stand for the staff of Guaranty Trust Bank. An on-line questionnaire was sent to 70 employees of the bank. The e-mail directory obtained from the Human resource direction section was utile for this intent. A random sampling process was used in this survey to choose the single respondents from the population. The mean sum of clip estimated for the completion of the questionnaire was 12 proceedingss. It was divided into five subdivisions, each subdivision was for a page. It was designed in such mode to promote each respondent to make full each subdivision consistently without being weighed down by the sight of a long list of questions.The respondents were given a hebdomad to make full the online questionnaire out of which 30 respondents responded. The eventual figure of responses was obtained two hebdomads after the initial mail was sent. Reminders were sent two times to promote more responses from our sample.
3.6 Variable Measurements
3.6.1 Independent Variables: Organizational Culture Dimensions
Harmonizing to Cooke and Rousseau ( 1998 ) , organisational civilization is a multidimensional concept therefore it is indispensable for us to measure each dimension. As mentioned earlier, it has been argued that these dimensions are more likely to impact employee behavior and attitudes and finally their occupation satisfaction. The independent variables which were the dimensions of organisational civilization were evaluated utilizing the Likert 5-point graduated table which ranged from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Sample points included ‘Problem resolution is done jointly in the organisation ‘ ( Satisfaction and Communication ) , ‘There is equity in the distribution of wagess ( Focus on Rewards ) and I have a sense of ownership in the company ( Job Satisfaction )
3.6.2 Dependent Variables: Job Satisfaction
This Section 2 which is for Job satisfaction is being operationalized by a five-item graduated table adopted from Wright and Cropanzana ( 1998 ) reflecting overall general satisfaction with the occupation. Each point measured a variable of the satisfaction concepts: grade of satisfaction with work, colleagues, supervising, entire wage and promotional chances. Each respondent is expected to bespeak their understanding on a five point graduated table runing from graduated table 1 to 5. Scale 1= strongly disagree, 2= Disagree, 3= Neutral, 4= Agree and 5 = strongly agree. Sample points included ‘I do an impact in the lives of other people ‘ and ‘I am satisfied with my basic wage ‘ . Last, subdivision 3 is for demographic factors. This inquired basic inside informations of each respondents, this include Gender, employment position, age scope, length of clip they have worked in the organisation.
3.7 Questionnaire Design
The questionnaire consists of six subdivisions viz. sections A to F ( see Appendix A ) as mentioned above, a five point graduated table runing from strongly differ to strongly hold was used to mensurate the variables. Illustrations for each subdivisions are as stated below:
Section A: indicates the significance of the relationship between invention and employee occupation satisfaction
Section B: indicates the significance of the relationship between communicating and stableness and employee occupation satisfaction
Section F: collects information associating to the demographics of each respondent
3.8 Data Analysis Technique
The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS, version 17.0 ) was used to input and analyse the informations. All the points and variables were coded before directing the questionnaires to the employees. The responses and information collected from the study were tested utilizing statistical techniques such as frequence distribution and arrested development analysis.
3.9 Data Analysis
In add-on to
descriptive statistics, the analyses included factor analyses and dependability appraisal of the graduated tables used in the survey, computation of P-O tantrum tonss, and hierarchal arrested development analyses to analyze the relationships between the six independent variables and one dependant variable measured.
Chapter FOUR – Findings
This chapter high spots and discusses the consequences and findings of the information analysis obtained from informations collected from respondents. The chief intent of this survey is to analyze the relationship between organisational civilization dimensions as the independent variables and employee occupation satisfaction as the dependant variable. This survey aims to accomplish the research objectives every bit good as reply the research inquiries highlighted in chapter one. In add-on, this survey intends to verify the hypotheses made in chapter two.