This work has chosen two research documents to critically analyse the research methodological analysis and method used, every bit good as to compare and contrast the attacks of the two documents.
The first paper ( refer to paper one afterlife ) is to lend the apprehension of organisational civilization in Turkish building industry. A instance survey ( Oney-Yazici E. , et Al, 2007 ) about “ Organizational civilization: the instance of Turkish building industry ” was conducted to analyze the cultural profile of building organisation in footings of house type, size and age within the context of Turkish building industry in 15 states.
The 2nd paper ( refer to paper two afterlife ) is to show the state of affairs of claims direction in building subdivision in Egypt from contractor ‘s position. A questionnaire study ( Hassanein A and Nemr W, 2008 ) of “ Claims direction in the Egyptian industrial building sector: a contractor ‘s position ” was taken to discourse the issues of claim direction, alteration of order in peculiar, carry oning on a sample aggregation in building industry companies.
Research design and research inquiry
Two basic types of research methodological analysiss are divided into quantitative and qualitative methods ( Kumar, 2005 ) . Creswell ( 2009 ) further advanced three types of designs as qualitative, quantitative and assorted methods.
Differences of quantitative and qualitative research are presented by Naoum ( 1998 ) in Table 1.
Fact-finding based on grounds or records
Attitude measuring based on sentiments, positions and perceptual experiences measuring
2 Relationship between research worker and capable
3 Scope of findings
4 Relationship between theory/concepts and research
5 Nature of informations
Hard and dependable
Rich and deep
Table 1 Some differences between quantitative and qualitative research ( Bryman 1998 )
In order to get the better of the disadvantages of qualitative and quantitative research, assorted methods research emerged seeking to unite or tie in both signifiers. It involves the usage of both qualitative and quantitative methods to accomplish greater strength of a survey than utilizing either entirely ( Creswell 2009 ) . A mix method is defined by Crewell ( 2009 ) as “ an attack to inquiry that combines or associates both qualitative and quantitative signifiers ” . Therefore, this method can synthesise either strength or failing of both quantitative method and qualitative method ( Fellows and Liu, 2008 ) .
The research of organisational civilization in paper one was conducted with questionnaire, which has Part I and Part II. Part I is chiefly categorical or nominal variables ( age, gender and size etc ) to happen out the demographic features of respondents and profile of their houses. Part II comprises of inquiries with 1-5 Likert graduated table to mensurate the organisational civilization. Paper one is hence a straight-forward quantitative research paper, which emphasizes on the quantification the informations aggregation and the subsequent analysis of informations ( Brymen 2009 ) . The quantitative research was besides defined as “ a agency for proving nonsubjective theories by analyzing the relationship among variables. These variables, in bend, can be measured on instrument, so that numbered informations can be analyzed utilizing statistical processs ” ( Creswell, 2009 ) .
The purpose of paper one was to analyze existing civilization profile in the Turkish building industry. Quantitative research is suited for fact-finding based on grounds or records ( Table 1, Naoum 1998 ) . Therefore, the aim of paper one to happen out the civilization profile can be achieved by quantitative research. Thus it is appropriate in this instance. However, if the aim is extended to further understanding as to why such a civilization profile existed in Turkish building industry, a qualitative research could be conducted with methods like interview to garner more informations to grok the outlook behind the organisational civilization, therefore to supplement the determination from quantitative research since it has rich and deep informations ( Naoum 1998 ) , and it places greater accent on apprehension, instead than simply proving and confirmation ( Ghauri & A ; Gronhaug, 2005 ) .
The aim of the paper two is to happening and bettering the position of claims direction in Egypt, peculiarly the alteration order claims. The research of claims direction in paper two is besides conducted by questionnaire but it is non the same type of quantitative questionnaire as in paper one. Rather, it has both closed-ended and unfastened inquiries, hence with combination of quantitative and qualitative questions.. It was really conducted by research worker in individual as an interview, which the research worker admitted it last longer than expected due to assemblage of the huge sum of information. A semi-structured interview is believed to be used in this instance ( Bryman 2008 ) .
The questionnaire in paper two has 7 inquiries. Questions 1-3 are all closed-ended and are concerned with categorical ( Q1 ) or nominal ( Q2 & A ; Q3 ) variables with intent to find the profile claims statement position in Egypt. Questions 4-7, nevertheless, are all unfastened inquiries. Interestingly, inquiry 4 in fact has three inquiries instead than one inquiry for the staying portion of questionnaire. It therefore can be concluded that the research in paper two is utilizing assorted method research because both quantitative and qualitative informations are gathered at the same time and analyzed individually. It occurred to me that the concurrent embedded scheme ( Creswell 2009 ) is used in paper two, which will be discussed subsequently in this article.
In my sentiment, assorted method is acceptable to utilize for paper but I do non like the combination of three different inquiries as Question 4. These inquiries are concerned with process, communicating and certification. They are interlinked but they could be individually asked. Furthermore, inquiries 5 is inquiring respondents that “ does the contract aˆ¦ stipulate that all alteration orders must be written? ” It is a lost chance as it could inquire more information from the respondents such as which version/edition of the contract they used, what are the footings and conditions related to the alteration orders, whether these footings and conditions require all orders to be in written signifier merely.
Data aggregation and sampling
Harmonizing to Kumar ( 2005 ) , the two chief types of informations aggregation are primary informations and secondary informations. Literately, primary information is collected by research workers themselves and secondary informations are available informations from another beginning. In both paper one and paper two, primary informations were gathered. However, informations aggregation in paper one is strictly quantitative with Likert-scale questionnaire while the informations aggregation in paper two are for both quantitative and qualitative informations with closed-end inquiries and semi-structured interview.
In order to garner primary research informations, quantitative method uniting with structured questionnaire was conducted in both of the two studies. A questionnaire is defined by Kumar ( 2005 ) as “ a written list of inquiries, the replies to which are recorded by respondents ” . In a questionnaire, respondents read the inquiry and so supply the replies harmonizing to the inquiries. It is clear that a questionnaire is less expensive and easy to understand for the respondents giving the replies. Sometimes, sensitive inquiries can name on the questionnaire as the respondents can reply in namelessness in less hard-pressed manner ( Kumar, 2005 ) . However, questionnaires have disadvantages including low response rate, limited to literate population merely, biased self-selection of respondents, deficiency of chance to clear up inquiries to respondents and no allowance for self-generated responses.
As Bryman ( 2008 ) asserted that, the ground why a questionnaire belongs to quantitative method is that most of inquiries are structured and closed, though it can unite a few unfastened inquiries. Closed-ended inquiries refer to “ possible replies are set out on the questionnaire, and the respondents ticks the best class the best describes the respondent ‘s reply ” , at the same time open-ended inquiries refers to “ possible replies are non given. In the instance of a questionnaire, respondents write down the replies in their ain words ” ( Kumar, 2005 ) .
It is evident that closed-ended and open-ended inquiries are presented in paper two of claims direction. The questionnaire was formulated based on an extended literature reappraisal of issues on claim direction, alteration order claims in peculiar. Meanwhile, paper one designed a questionnaire which based on Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument ( OCAI ) with two major dimensions in which the first dimension emphasizes the organisational focal point, whereas the 2nd one distinguishes between the stableness and control and the flexibleness and discretion, which formulated by kin, adhocracy, market and hierarchy.
All inquiries in questionnaire of paper one are closed-ended inquiries which are easier and faster to react because all alternate replies have been given. However, deficiency of deepness and assortment could be a chief disadvantage as replies were restricted in a given range ( Kumar 2005 ) .
In paper two, a semi-structured interview in individual was conducted with applied scientists and directors who have more than 15 old ages working experiences. This interview was based on old literature in order to acquire more grounds to analyze the claim direction in Egypt, alteration order claims in peculiar.
Open inquiries in paper two, with contrast of closed-ended inquiries used in paper one, could acquire more in-depth information, and allows respondents to freely show what they intended to state ( Kumar 2005, Fellows and Liu 2008 ) . Even closed-ended inquiries 1-3 in paper two have provided chance for respondents to compose down their ain replies ( if other – specify ) . However, the analysis of informations from unfastened inquiries could be more complex and hard because respondents can state anything. Meanwhile, the opportunities are that these inquiries could hold prejudices from interviewees.
Harmonizing to Kumar ( 2005 ) , trying can be divided into chance random sampling, non-probability non-random sampling and assorted trying design. Graded random trying aggregation was used in in paper two, and non-random judgmental sampling was employed in paper 1. As Kumar ( 2005 ) and Fellows and Liu ( 2008 ) asserted that there is an equal opportunity of choice for each member of the population in random sampling. Stratified sampling is one of the chance random sampling and allow where the population occurs in ‘distinct ‘ , groups or strata ( Fellows and Liu, 2008 ) . In CM, the sample was selected among major companies in building industry in Egypt and seven of the chief companies were collected in this research. Using graded random chance trying method, the illations drawn from the samples can be generalized to the whole population ( Kumar, 2005 ) . Judgmental sampling that called Purposive sampling every bit good, was conducted in Organizational Culture with the standards of nationality, house size and market portion. Therefore, 134 in 351 houses participated in the research survey. In judgmental sampling, research worker can garner instance and information in those people who meet demand of the sample chosen standards, and this sampling method is highly utile when the research worker want to depict a phenomenon and develop something about which merely is a small known ( Kumar, 2005 and Bryman, 2008 ) .
However, there can be bias when the sampling was chosen. The random sampling can be influenced by human penchant unconsciously. On the other manus, the sample frame may non cover all the characteristics of the whole population. In add-on, the sample can non stand for all the population, so that the decision can merely be inferred from the samplings ( Kumar, 2005 ) .
In paper one, the population is the whole Turkish building industry. The graded random trying were used to gathered from 826 respondents, who are working for 107 catching and 27 architectural houses, with male/female ratio of 74.9 % /25.1 % . The absolute size of sample of 826 is rather impressive and is important in footings of sample size. The male/female ratio is non balanced, nevertheless, it may be the fact that most people working in architectural/contracting industry are dominantly male. The response rate is 38.18 % , with 134 participated from 351 houses contacted.
The sample choice in paper two are aiming at the center to big size catching houses that are more so LE 50 million in industrial work turnover and LE 100 million in cumulative building work turnover. Due to limited figure of houses fall into the class, seven major companies in Egypt were chosen and 21 industrial undertakings from them were the sample for the research. However, the existent informations aggregation was conducted by the interview to the senior directors in these houses, but exact figure of interviewee was non revealed in the paper. Therefore, when the information analysis present the information as per centum, there is no manner for reader to cognize precisely how many respondents chose a peculiar reply. My conjecture is there might be at least 21 respondents since there are 21 industrial undertakings. If the respondents is merely 7 ( there are 7 companies chosen ) , the sample would be questionable due to limited sample size. The research in paper two have omitted little catching houses and inexperient site manager/site applied scientists. Merely medium and big catching houses and enormously experient forces are invited for the interview. This may “ paint a rosier image ” than the world. Inexperienced site manager/site applied scientists tend to be worse in footings of contract disposal, understanding processs, utilizing certification.
The chief purposes to choose sample are to “ accomplish maximal preciseness in the estimations within a sample size and avoid the prejudice in the choice of sample ” ( Kumar, 2005 ) . In this instance, I believe that paper one has done reasonably good to utilizing a big representative sample, while paper two, on the other manus, use a comparative smaller figure of interviewee and the exact figure of interviewee is unknown or unspecified.
Dependability and Validity
Another of import procedure in a societal research is the issues of dependability and cogency. Dependability means concern with the consequences can be retested and can acquire the same consequence, clip after, clip in different conditions ( Fellows and Liu, 2008 ) . In Organizational civilization paper, dependability coefficients ( Cronbach alpha ) were calculated with 0.89 for the kin and adhocracy civilizations, and 0.86 for the market and hierarchy civilizations. Both values indicate good internal consistence dependability for the equity of all civilization types because values above 0.7 are considered acceptable and above 0.8 are preferred ( Pallant 2007 ) . Meanwhile, despite of the statistical informations show, there is no statistical trial in the study of Claims Management paper, therefore the dependability of the information is non mentioned.
Cogency is used to find how good reply is provided by research ( Then, 1996, Amaratunga 2002 ) . Internal cogency refers to the causality relationship and external validty standard refers to the generalisation from research findings. ( Yin, 1994 ; Amaratunga, 2002 ) . Both documents are seeking to generalise the state of affairs. It can be concluded that both research are valid.
In paper one, the questionnaire consists of 6 relevant inquiries to cardinal dimensions of organisational civilization and each statement has four alternate statements, hence stand foring 24 inquiries. All inquiries are 1-5 Likert graduated table, with 5 as “ wholly true ” . The mean mark was calculated to find the overall cultural profile of a peculiar house. The consequences of the questionnaire carried out have been presented in table II in paper one.
Independent sample t-tests and Analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) trial was used to analyze the differences of organisational civilization by house size and age. A station hoc Scheffe trial was used to research difference among subgroups. The consequences have been presented in table III.
When it comes to tauten type, independent sample t-tests was used on the overall tonss of each civilization types to compare architectural and contracting houses. in order to hold the equal sample sizes ( 107 catching houses vesus 27 architectural houses ) , points were indiscriminately selected from them. An Independent sample t-test is used to compare the mean mark for two different groups on same uninterrupted variable ( Pallant 2007 ) . The research suggest that “ Market ” has more influence to Contracting house than Architectural house. The mean mark of indiscriminately selected 32 Contracting houses is 3.37 while the 27 Architectural houses is 2.93, with t=3.849, P & lt ; 0.0001. It is really important to state that the difference between this two group is non happenstance and hence the relationship found is true because the void hypnoses that there is no difference between these two sort of houses is rejected.
Comparing with Independent-sample T-test which usage to compare in two groups and conditions, One-way ANOVA is used to find whether there are important differences in the average tonss on the dependent variables between more than two groups ( Pallant, 2007 ) . ANOVA trial is based on the statistical F-test which is the ratio of the between-groups discrepancy to the within-groups or mistake discrepancy ( Fellows and Liu, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Pallant ( 2007 ) , the significance of F-value indicates the grounds to reject the void hypothesis, which states that the population agencies are equal. In other words, the larger the F-value is, the more the independent variables influence on dependant variables.
In the Table II of paper one under house size, the value under four civilization types for little and average houses are all greater than those for big houses. Our of four civilization types, three civilization types have found that the difference is important to reject the void hypnoses ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) . The research worker hence concluded that organisational civilization, reverse to some old literatures, so has greater impact on little & A ; medium houses than big houses.
Paper one further had with k-means bunch analysis to group houses with similar cultural features, together with Ward ‘s method and squared Euclidean distance. Three underlying forms of cultural types among sampled houses were found from the consequences of hierarchy bunch analysis, and this formed as footing for the non-hierarchical k-means analysis. Hierarchical Data bunch algorithms attention to happen consecutive bunchs with already-established bunchs. To choose a distance measuring is a critical measure in constellating, from which how the similarity of two elements is calculated. The form of the bunchs will be influenced as “ as some elements may be near to one another harmonizing to one distance and farther off harmonizing to another ” ( Huang 1998, Lu 2004 ) .
Table IV shows the description of the three cultural bunchs and the descriptive statistics by organisational features were shown in Table V in paper one, while the cultural profiles of the bunchs are presented in Figure 2. The research suggests that the determination is contrary to premises made by others that environmental capriciousness has a positive consequence on market civilization and a negative 1 on the clan civilization.
The research of paper one concluded that the mixture of kin and hierarcy civilizations existed in Turkish building industry and it is non good for the competitory environment. The determination in the paper besides suggest that fire type, size and age will impact organisational civilization. The research admitted in the decision that since all houses in this paper are Turkey-based, so farther survey in other states are required to forestall the national prejudice. In other words, the generalisation from this survey is limited to the Turkish environment.
In paper two, the informations from inquiry 1 about the causes of claims are presented in Figure 1, which is a pie chart demoing the per centum of assorted causes. The consequence validated with other research which indicated that alteration order claims is the chief ground of claims in most undertakings while the proprietor factor ranked 2nd. The consequence confirmed the necessity to measure alteration order claims in peculiar ( this suggest that the research is valid in footings of the research intent ) .
In claims presentment position related inquiry, the consequences showed that presentments were tied to a contract clause in 67 % of undertakings. But the research did acknowledge the interviewee prejudice and its restriction because respondents tend to reply this inquiry optimistically.
In general claims certification position related inquiries, the research worker undertook to categorise the replies into seven groups by utilizing pattern fiting for qualitative informations analysis, which is one of the most desirable schemes ( Yin, 1994 ) . However, this method is under unfavorable judgment for the subjective hazard of interpretative discretion of the research workers ( Yin 1994, Amaratunga 2002 ) . This suggests that different research worker may group the informations and construe them otherwise.
In alteration order papers inquiries, pie chart is used once more in figure 2 to foreground that certification should be improved to better records direction of the undertaking.
The research used account constructing scheme to explicate and discourse the consequences of staying inquiries.
The research worker went farther from these consequences to propose solutions to better alteration orders. In the decision paper, the research summarized the findings every bit good as the recommendations based on these findings.
After comparison and contrast these two different articles on organisational cultural and claims direction, the chief differences can be found in the Table II as follows:
Survey by questionnaire of quantitative inquiries with 1-5 Likert graduated table
Survey by interview with questionnaire designed to be both closed-ended quantitative and unfastened qualitative inquiries
non-random judgmental sampling
Graded random trying
826 respondents from 134 houses
From 7 houses of 21 undertakings, but exact figure of respondents is non mentioned in the article
Dependability and cogency
Cronbach alpha for dependability
No dependability or cogency trial
Quantitative analysis with:
Independent sample t-test
Analysis of variance
k-means for constellating
Quantitative analysis to show informations in pie charts
Qualitative analysis with Pattern fiting to group similar replies
The survey focused on Turkish building industry and found the organisational civilization has more influence on medium & A ; little size companies and comparatively younger companies. Further survey is required to turn out the generalisation from this survey to avoid the national prejudice.
The survey used a questionnaire designed with extended literature reappraisal seeking to happen out the claims direction position in Egypt and so suggest ways to better it. it has found that alteration orders are the chief ground behind claims, while deficiency of proper standardized contract, every bit good as fright of clients and advisers further deepened the job.
Table II Differences of Paper One and Paper Two
Overall speech production, organisational civilization is a rather consecutive frontward quantitative article with big respondent size. It can reflect the true nature of the bing position of organisational civilization within Turkish building industry but it can non be generalized on other societies/countries. The findings surprisingly are inconsistent with some old literatures proposing big houses have more influence than medium & A ; little houses and the article went farther to propose the ground. Since this is a quantitative article and the intent to research and reply “ why ” inquiries require another qualitative research to happen deep and rich informations to explicate “ why ” .
Claims direction utilised assorted method, by combing closed-end inquiries and unfastened inquiries in the questionnaire, which is conducted by interview in individual. The quantitative informations are presented in pie charts and qualitative informations are grouped harmonizing to similar significances. The research went farther to propose solutions related to the Egypt building industry. However, the interviewees are selected by research are chiefly experient directors, whose responses are likely to be different from those inexperient directors. This would make a prejudice in sample choice and could paint a rosier image than the existent state of affairs. The research could hold compared and contrasted some of the contract disposal or techniques utilizing by other states, e.g. UK JCT contracts, in order to exemplify the differences and suggest that Egypt to follow a more just & A ; standardized contract. The exact figure of respondents is non mentioned and this could make mistake in footings of sample size.