ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR DIVERSITY COMMUNICATION ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND GROUP DYNAMICS MGT/307 July 20, 2010 Organizational Culture is the system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that has developed within an organization and guides the behavior of its members. Organizational Development consists of special applications of knowledge gained from behavioral science to create a comprehensive design to improve organizational effectiveness. Through the collective experiences, the members of an organization solve two important survival issues.
The first issue addresses external adaption which deals with reaching goals, how they are to be accomplished, the methods to be used to achieve these goals, and methods of coping with success and failure. The second is internal integration which answers questions like, how do members of an organization resolve the daily internal problems associated with living and working together. Individuals at an organization will (1) separate priorities, (2) develop and measure their accomplishments, and (3) conclude why their goals are not always met.
Organization shared internal shared values are important to the survival of an organization. Shared values are an understanding of what the firm stands for, often embodied in slogans; a concern for people, recognition of heroes, who stand for the company’s shared philosophy and concerns; a belief in ritual, rites ceremonial shared beliefs building a common identity. An example of rites and rituals might be a Japanese worker who may start their day with rites such as singing group company songs, or group exercising; together these rites form a ritual.
Other shared values is the understanding of informal rules and expectations so that employees and managers understand what is expected of them; and a belief that what an employee does and what managers do is important, and that is important to share information and ideas. Building a strong company culture can be good for the organization, but sometimes a strong culture and value system can reinforce a singular view of the organization and its environment. This can make it difficult to make changes if they are needed.
In the example of General Motors, GM has a strong culture, but it would be very challenging for the firm to adapt its ways to a dynamic and high competitive environment. Within the organization, the people need to know what the mission of the company is. Through interacting of the company’s employees, the employees will begin to establish an understanding of how they contribute to the overall company mission. This human interaction can be the driving force that helps the success of the organization, or employees may see themselves as just a number in a large corporate machine.
A first level concerns observable culture, which depicts “the way we do things around here. ” An organization’s history and day to day practices make up the unique organization identity. In many organizations, philosophy is supported by organizational myths. These are myths that unproven and unstated beliefs that are accepted. These myths help executives to redefine impossible problems into manageable ones. An example of a myth might be Verizon’s claim to its coverage.
In a commercial that shows AT&T and Verizon side by side on a digital map, Verizon shows it has more coverage in more areas and AT&T does not have coverage is most areas. But, under further investigation, Verizon does not show this only applies to 3G coverage, ignoring AT&T’s existing 2. 5G network, which is sufficient for email and other tasks portrayed in the commercials. The bottom line is, the ads are accurate in terms of 3G, but neglect to tell the whole story. Is that misleading? Is it myth?
Observable Organized cultures may be managed directly by executives, by nurturing shared values of employees which is a major challenge for executives. Good managers can reinforce and support an existing strong culture. Good managers can also build cultures which are resilient in situations where they are absent. Some strategy to help strengthen the organization call for managers to modify observable cultures such as shared values, and common assumptions directly. Most organizations contain a variety of subcultures, and a few have countercultures that can become the source of potentially harmful conflicts.
The corporate culture will also reflect the values of the larger national culture. The first step management must take is to first recognize an organized culture’s subculture. Subculture’s management are referred to in the OB literature by the term “Management Philosophy. ” Management Philosophies link key goal related issues with key collaboration issues and develops guidelines by which the firm will manage its affairs. It is important to have a well developed management philosophy because it links strategy to a more basic understanding of how the firm is to operate.
These strategies are; (1) to establish understood boundaries for all members of the firm, (2) to provide a consistent way of approaching new and novel situations, and (3) to help hold individuals together by assuring them of a known path toward success. Managers may and can modify aspects of culture which include; modifying the language, stories, rites, rituals, and sagas. They often will change the lessons to be drawn from the stories told and even encourage people to see the reality they see. Because of top management’s position, senior managers can interpret situations in new ways and adjust the meanings to important corporate events.
Even rites and rituals can be changed. Corporate executives can back these ideas up with their words and actions. It may take much time and energy, but the long term benefits can be great. Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. By taking a system approach, it interprets people-organization relationships by looking at the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. The purpose is to build better relationships by achieving individual human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives.
An organization’s base rests on management’s philosophy, values, vision and goals. This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. It is the culture that determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics an organization will have. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final outcome is performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from.
Diversity and Multiculturalism deal with the internal environments of organizations based on gender, race, and ethnicity, age, physical ability, and sexual orientation. The theory of an organization is people coming together in a planned way to accomplish something mutually beneficial for all involved. Often a company may stifle diversity, seek sameness, discourage individuality, promote conformance, reward uniformity, and punish nonconformity. Because managing diversity is harder than managing uniformity — managing diversity is more challenging, more expensive, more time consuming, demanding, stressful, and prone to fail.
It is much easier to manage uniformity but requires an authority hierarchy, strict enforcement of procedures and performance standards, command and control management styles, and a conforming workforce. Organizations and their management teams often define diversity by tolerating, rather than embracing, government guidelines about inclusion of gender, racial, and sexual diversity in the workplace and focusing on the avoidance of legal risks, rather than the benefits of diversity, and doing the minimum necessary, rather than the maximum to promote diversity.
In the end, they promote uniformity rather than diversity, and work only with customers who are most like their employees. Operating this way may be cost effective in the short run, but in the long term research and experience show that organizations and work environments with high levels of required uniformity inevitably stifle creativity and innovation, retard initiative-taking, prevent widespread accountability for results, limit freedom to expand and create value, and weaken individual motivation, commitment and fulfillment.
A truly diverse organization or work environment, on the other hand is unified through common vision of its people, and its purpose is healthy, strong, innovative, dynamic, and capable of blending a multiplicity of perspectives, experiences, and abilities, and it is able to weather significant competitive challenges. Communications involves using the latest technologies, processes, and procedures to accomplish task. It includes the ability to work well with people which is recognized as a human skill.
One who has good human skills has a high degree of self-awareness and understanding and empathizing with the feelings of others. People with this skill are able to interact well with others and engage in persuasive communications and deal with disagreements and conflicts successfully. A person with human skills is said to have Emotional Intelligence which is the ability to understand and deal with emotions. Emotional Intelligence places an emphasis on managing emotions both personally and in relationships with others.
Having Emotional Intelligence is now considered an important leadership competency. It has been shown that a leader’s emotional intelligence contributes significantly to his or her leadership effectiveness. In summary, old traditional corporate structure which involve control, that’s the way we have always done it, and rejection of new ideas for fear of cost, are giving way to new company cultures like Google who look to its community of workers to bring fresh new ideas to help the company grow with innovation and proper from its most valuable resource, its people.
References Retrieved from http://www. maximumpc. com/article/news/att_refutes_verizons_network_coverage_attacks Retrieved from http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadob. html Retrieved from http://ezinearticles. com/? Diversity-in-Organizations;id=166950 Retrived from: http://fs8. formsite. com/secureform/files/f-15-70-5176801_eBook_Collection__chapter16. htm