PALEOLITHIC CAVES IN ANTALYA REGION
Antalya Region is an of import territory situated on the sou’-west of Taurus Mountains which has abundant past with its prehistorical sites. Analyzing Paleolithic epochs in Antalya Region has present rich information resources for readings towards life styles of Paleolithic people. Development in lithic industries of Paleolithic human communities has given informations to understand their day-to-day life, cognition of diffusion of the civilizations and interactions between the communities. This paper will chiefly concentrate on the development of Paleolithic engineerings in the visible radiation of the provided information from Karain, Beldibi and Okuzini. Besides, Anatolia as a important migration manner in the thick of Levantine corridor, Africa and Europe will be investigated.
Karain is the most comprehensively studied Paleolithic cave in Anatolia. It is located in North of the modern metropolis Antalya and situated on the south-facing wings of Taurus scope. Excavations in this multi-chambered cave were started by KA±lA±c Kokten in 1946 ( Kuhn 201 ) . Karain E has the chief sedimentations that contain the remains from Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic ( Otte et al. 73 ) . Chamber E has been divided into 10 units. The deeper four units ( A-E ) have remains from Lower Paleolithic epoch. Features of the lithic production from Unit A is chiefly composed of really basic nucleus decreases, and little notched and denticulated flake tools, somewith steep, invasive retouch. Some gatherings are seemed to be likened to the 1s from YarA±mburgaz Cave which has rich assortment of the early sedimentations of different Paleolithic periods. Unit of measurements B-E have gatherings of farther periods ( 350.000-300.000 B.C. ) . In lithic industry, a displacement towards dilutant spaces, more controlled retouch, and a wider scope of tool signifiers can be observed for these old ages. The gatherings appeared similar to the cardinal and southern Levantine lithic civilization. Besides, the faunal remains of those units are chiefly consists wild sheep or caprine animal, and a assortment of carnivores ( Kuhn 201-202 ) . Between the Chamberss E and F a major alteration occurs in lithic engineerings and the first groundss of Levallois technique were found. With Middle Paleolithic, lithic engineerings chiefly changed in footings of raping techniques and material penchants. Peoples started to utilize extra-local resources such as quartzite cherts and brown or beige radiolarities ( Otte et al. 75 ) .
Karain Cave, as a immense home ground, was besides used by assorted species of animate beings. The advancement of faunal remains does non visualize a similar alteration through clip within the chamber. In malice of limited archaeozoological survey, over 3000 pieces have been identified. The character of the faunal gatherings was assorted: the primary group includes animate beings which were hunted and transported to the cave by worlds such as sheep and caprine animals, secondly remains of animate beings which have no nutritionary value and used as natural stuff beginning, the 3rd group studied consists of animate beings which were used the cave for hibernation and habitation ( caprine animals, wild cats, foxes etc. ) and, the last group includes the remains of animate beings which hunted and transported by the other huntsman occupants of the cave ( Otte et al. 428 ) .
Local lithic techniques of Karain display a differentiation: Western and cardinal parts of Turkey largely have influences of southeasterly Europe and, the eastern parts and northern Mesopotamia parts seemed to be belong to Levantine part. Absence of Acheaulean axes in Karain and copiousness in Levantine, the consequences of scrutiny of the homo remains which show the linkage with Europe, and the absence of laminar technique which has seen in Syria by and large give thoughts about the differentiation ( Otte et al. 430 ) . Distribution of Acheaulean bifaces has been interpreted as an African diffusion ; because spread of the axes from Arabian Peninsula to the Caucasus and West India, despite its absence in cardinal and eastern Europe through cardinal Anatolia ( Otte et al. 79 ) .
Okuzini Cave is besides of import cave located near Karain. A stone scratching which represents a wild cows was found on the interior wall of the cave. Besides, a big sedimentation has been removed from the cave interior belonging to legion businesss ( Otte et al. 79 ) . Approximately, as carbon 14 scrutinies showed, the sedimentations in Okuzini cross a clip period from 17.800 to 6.500 B.C ( Kuhn 206 ) . All the lithic gatherings were made of assorted radiolarities both derived from the cave or from the close resources ( Otte et al. 82 ) .
Harmonizing to research workers, the lithic stages of Okuzini can be divided into four parts. Bottom to exceed, foremost three stages have an of import sedimentation of Paleolithic Okuzini periods. In the first stage, the chief features of rock tool production are elongated blades with retouched bases. These blades were manufactured from both imported and local radiolarities. For the 2nd stage which has lithic remains between 14.000 and 13.000 B.C, it can be said that the chief lithic engineering remained undeveloped, despite the presence of trapezes and lunates. In footings of zoology of these two earlier stages, the organic remains largely ( % 80 ) composed of sheep and wild caprine animals. With the coming of 14Thursdaycentury B.C, geometric lithic gatherings started to look. Besides, a penchant towards the microburin engineering can be seen normally. There found bone artifacts and cosmetic pieces which include awls, acerate leafs, spatulas, bouldery pearls and fossil Marine shells ( Otte et al. 82 ) .
Consequently, the lithic industries in Okuzini reflect a displacement from microlithic, non-geometric gatherings manufactured from both imported and local radiolarities, to geometric microliths made of local radiolarities. This displacement in lithic engineering is besides common in Antalya Region caves, such as Karain and BelbaAYA± . Apart from the modern-day Levant businesss, Okuzini was a cantonment of foragers who hunted wild caprine animal and sheep ( Otte et al. 84 ) .
Beldibi is situated near Kemer, approximately 30 stat mis west of Antalya. It is chiefly consist of a stone shelter, a cave above the shelter and a approximately semi-circular shaped patio which is covered by pine trees now. Beldibi was chiefly used as a topographic point for huntsmans to populate or conceal. Remains which are belonging to Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic epochs were revealed during the diggings. The site has been divided into seven stages. First two stages have stuffs from post-agricultural civilisations. In Phase C, microliths, assorted carnal castanetss and sea shells from Epipaleolithic and Mesolithic periods were found. Earlier stages have lithic gatherings and the other remains from Upper Paleolithic. These stages have a greater proportion of larger tools, midst and big blades and some skull pieces of skulls of Homosexual sapiens. To the bottom beds, a lessening in the figure of gatherings can be seen ( BostancA± 141-155 ) . Some pieces found in Phase F, foremost it thought to hold some features of Middle Paleolithic, but ; Enver BostancA± did non advert it on his last publications. Additionally, Beldibi has a rich yesteryear of stone pictures which were made by pigmented pebbles, chiefly emerged from Mesolithic eras ( BostancA± 138 ) .
The Beldibi civilizations have developed in a geographically restricted land. Because of this, these civilizations have typical characteristics among the other sites of Paleolithic Antalya Region. However, Beldibi has hints of of a assortment of different civilizations, such as Aterian, Capsian, and Natufian ( BostancA± 157-158 ) .
As a consequence, Paleolithic sites in Antalya Region provide many informations about human migration and their life styles, despite unequal research and partially ruined sites. Few sites were well-studied for Paleolithic period in Turkey. But, as seen in Karain E, Okuzini and some other Paleolithic caves from the other parts of Turkey, such as YarA±mburgaz and Dursunlu ; non-biface industries were common like European and Balkan sites. And diminution in Numberss of bifaces east to west. Besides, the being of Acheaulean axes, except alfresco sites, gives same opportuinity to construe lithic engineerings. In add-on, because of the karstic construction of geographics of the Antalya Region, the lithic engineering was chiefly depended on local radiolarities of the territory. People has hunted largely ovicaprines ( wild caprine animals and sheep ) and transported them to the caves. Most of Paleolithic sites in Antalya Region are caves. Kuhn underlines that the difference between assorted types of gatherings was determined by the types of adjustment Fieldss ( 207 ) . Therefore, it might be said that the chief geographical and geological construction of the part has determined the business penchants, and these penchants has created the fortunes for the development of lithic industries as good.
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