Path and Mech

Term Definition
Asthma Smooth muscle hyperplasia w/ excessive mucus and inflammation where airways tighten and become narrow. Typically triggered by inhalation of allergens
Cystic Fibrosis Autosomal recessive genetic disorder-abnormal transport of chloride and sodium across and epithelium-thick, viscous secretions. Salty tasting skin, poor growth&weight gain, loads of thick, sticky mucus, frequent chest infect., coughing, short breathing.
Emphysema Airspace enlargement and wall destruction caused by smoking. Characteristic is DYSPNEA. Often called the smokers disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Flow of air in and out of lungs is impaired. Typically caused by smoking, includes conditions of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Chronic cough with sputum production, DYSPNEA, AND RHONCHI
Rhonchi Low pitch gurgling lung sounds
Dyspnea Labored breathing
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS) Caused by development insufficiency of surfactant production (HMD) and structural immaturity in the lungs. Tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring, and cyanosis.
Purulent Sputum Pus filled
Chronic Bronchitis Hyperplasia and hyper secretion of mucous glands due to smoking and pollutants resulting in productive cough.
Bronchiectasis Abnormal, irreversible dilation of the branch caused by destructive and inflammatory changes in the airway walls w. persistent severe infections-cough, PURULENT SPUTUM, and fever.
Asbestosis Long term exposure to asbestos dust.
Radiation Fibrosis Typically from the radiation given for cancer treatment.
Lung Cancer Malignant tumors of the respiratory system are major health problem responsibilities for 15% of all cancer diagnosis & 29% of all cancer deaths. Smoking Tobacco is #1 attribute.
Common Cold Viral infections disease which affects primarily the nose. Over 200 viruses are implicated while rhinoviruses are the most common. Cough, sore throat, runny nose, and fever. MOST COMMON UPPER RESP. TRACT INFECTION
Sinusitis Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses caused by infection, allergy, or autoimmune issues. Most cases are due to a viral infection and resolve over 10 days. Headache/facial pain or dull aching pressure over the affected sinuses
Tonsillitis Inflammation of the tonsils most commonly caused by a viral or bacterial infection
Otitis Media Infection between the tympanic membrane and inner ear, including the auditory canal.
Pharyngitis Inflammation of the throat often brought on by bacterial or viral drainage from sinusitis
Laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx due to an irritation(inflammation) to the vocal cords resulting in DYSPHONIA
Pneumonia Typically caused by bacteria(Streptococcus) Worldwide, tuberculosis is an important cause. Other pathogens include viruses and fungi. MOST COMMON LOWER RESP. TRACT INFECTION
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Viral respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus. In 02/03 an outbreak in Hong Kong nearly became pandemic, 916 deaths worldwide & 11% fatality rate. Initial symptoms are flu-like-fever, myalgia, lethargy, cough, sore throat.
Pneumocystis Pneumonia Yeast-like fungus that causes pneumonia as an opportunistic infection in people with weak immune system.
Tuberculosis (TB) Common, some lethal, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium. Most asymptomatic and latent, but 1/10 latent infections eventually progresses to active-untreated-kills more than 50%. Chronic cough, blood tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Pleural Effusion Excess fluid that accumulates between the serous membrane layers. Four types:Hydrothorax, hemothorax, chylothorax, and prothorax. Decreased movement of the chest on the affected side, stony dullest percussion over the fluid, and diminished breath sounds.
Hydrothorax Serous fluid
Hemothorax Blood
Chylothorax Lymphatic fluid
Pyothorax Pus
Tension Pneumothorax Considered to be present when a pneumothorax leads to significant impairment of respiration or blood circulation. Presents with chest pain, respiratory distress, tachycardia, tachypnea, and decreased blood oxygen saturation levels
Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax Tends to occur in 20-30 ear old tall, slender men without underlying problems. Unknown Cause
Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax Individuals with significant underlying lung disease with the most common being COPD. Known Cause
Traumatice Pneumothorax Blunt trauma or a penetrating injury to the chest wall with the most common mechanism being sharp bony points at a rib fracture penetrating the pleura. The penetrating injury is known as a "Sucking Chest Wound"
Atelectasis The collapse or closure of the alveoli resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange. May affect part or all of on lung. Most commonly caused by strawberry seeds in children. Presented with cough, chest pain, breathing, and low oxygen saturation levels.
Nose. pharynx, and larynx Respiratory structures infected with an Upper Respiratory Infection
Rhinitis Inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal cavity. Commonly caused by a viral infection, as in the common cold-caused by rhinoviruses, or the flu-cause by influenza viruses.
Deviated Septum Nasal obstruction often caused by displacement of the nasal septum from the midline of the nasal cavity
Sleep apnea Frequent problem associated with deviated septum causing pronounced snoring. Closure of the epiglottis leads to this as well.
Epistaxis Nosebleed
Dysphonia Hoarsenss or loss of voice
Acute Bronchitis Common condition characterized by acute inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree, commonly caused by infection. Winter Cold!
Legionnaires Disease Form of bacterial pneumonia caused by infection with the Legionella pneumophila organism. Contaminated air conditioning cooling towers and whirl pool spas like a hot tub are sources of infection.
Pneumonectomy Surgical removal of an entire lung
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Current research states that CO2 poisoning is the cause of it
Asthma attacks Triggered by stress, heavy exercise, infection, or exposure to allergens or other irritants such as dust, vapor, or fumes.

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