What Factors Affect the Period of a Pendulum? Introduction In this experiment, my group will find out what are the factors that affect the period of a pendulum. In this report, I will personally explain the aim of the experiment, the hypothesis of my group, the variables, the apparatus, method, data, data analysis, evaluation and last but not least the conclusion. Aim To find out whether the heavy or light pendulum will affect the period as well as the string’s length Hypothesis We think that the heavier weight of the pendulum and the short string will increase the period.
The length of the string affects the pendulum swing because the longer the string, the farther the pendulum will swing. By having a short string, it makes the pendulum swings faster. The heavier weight will also affect the pendulum because the heavier the weight, the faster the pendulum will swing because it will not swing too high. If the pendulum is light, it will be easier to be blown away. So, it will make the period longer. Variable – Independent -> Weight given on each pendulum – Dependent -> The period of the pendulum Control -> Height of the clam stand, applied force, length of the string, position of the experiment, same type of weight hanger, height of releasing point Apparatus – Weight – String – Clampstand – Stopw atch – Ruler – Scissors – Weight hanger – Protractor Method Experiment by different weight of the pendulum 1. Prepare all the apparatus 2. Put the weight into the weight hanger (220 gr, 170 gr, 120 gr) 3. Measure the length of the string (25 cm) 4. Tie the string with the weight hanger (220gr) and the clampstand 5.
Place the pendulum 90° from the clampstand 6. Release the pendulum while others will count the time of one period by the stopwatch 7. Write the result of the time of one period 8. Tie the string with the weight hanger (170gr) and the clampstand 9. Repeat No. 5 – No. 7 10. Tie the string with the weight hanger (120gr) and the clampstand 11. Repeat No. 5 – No. 7 Experiment by different length of the string 1. Prepare all the apparatus 2. Put the weight into the weight hanger (200 gr) 3. Measure the length of the string (20 cm, 15 cm, 10 cm) . Tie the 20cm string with the weight hanger and the clampstand 5. Place the pendulum 90° from the clampstand 6. Release the pendulum while others will count the time of one period by the stopwatch 7. Write the result of the time of one period 8. Tie the 15cm string with the weight hanger and the clampstand 9. Repeat No. 5-No. 7 10. Tie the 10cm string with the weight hanger and the clampstand 11. Repeat No. 5-No. 7 Data Mass Graph 1. 8 1. 6 1. 4 1. 2 1. 0 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 120 170 220 Note: Length of the string is 25 cm
Length Graph 1. 8 1. 6 1. 4 1. 2 1. 0 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 10 15 20 Note: Weight of the load is 200 grams Data Table Table of Different Mass 220 grams170 grams120 grams 1st 1. 5 seconds1. 2 seconds0. 7 second 2nd2 seconds1 second1 second 3rd1. 7 seconds1. 2 seconds0. 9 second Ave1. 73 seconds1. 13 seconds0. 85 second Table of Different Length 25 cm15 cm10 cm 1st 1. 5 seconds1 second0. 6 second 2nd0. 8 second1. 2 seconds0. 6 second 3rd1 second1. 1 seconds1 second Ave1. 1 seconds1. 1 seconds0. 73 second Data Analysis
From the data, we learned that the string really affects the pendulum. The longer string has fewer periods than the shorter one because the longer the string, the farther the pendulum will be and take more time. The short string covers shorter distance and makes the pendulum swings faster and has more periods. From the data, we can see that when we decrease the length of the string into 10 cm there are differences that we can see. The shorter the string, the more periods will be. We have concluded that the length of the string doesn’t affect the period of the pendulum.
However, we have found that the mass of the pendulum does affect the period. Evaluation There were some errors that we did during the experiment I should also try to find other factors. In the group, we don’t know that we could find the periods by the angle. We thought that it should always be 90°. In the next experiment, my group should’ve counted the time and strings more accurately. In this experiment, my group hypothesised that the heavier mass will have more periods and the shorter string will swings faster.
We found out that the lighter mass has more periods because it swings faster than the heavier. And after having multiple trials on the length of the string, we found that the string has no affect on the pendulum. Conclusion I have concluded that the factor that affects the pendulum is the mass. Because, from the graph we can see that when the weight is light, the time it takes will be faster as well. However, we can see that the string doesn’t really work because eventhough the length of the string is long; the period of the pendulum is inconsistense.