Peripheral and Semi-Peripheral Regions


The footings ‘Core ‘ , ‘Peripheral ‘ and the ‘Semi peripheral ‘ are born from the World systems theory.

World systems theory has been closely associated with Immanuel Wallerstein.

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Harmonizing to him, it is “ multicultural territorial division of labor in which the production and exchange of basic goods and natural stuffs is necessary for the mundane life of its dwellers. ”

Our universe is divided into different parts – the ‘Core ‘ , the ‘Peripheral ‘ and the ‘Semi – Peripheral ‘ .

The ‘core ‘ states are the extremely economically developed states with they harvesting benefits from the economic system of the remainder of the universe.

The ‘peripheral ‘ states are the 3rd universe states which are still in the development phase with a really low criterion of life.

The ‘semi-peripheral ‘ states are those which are between the ‘core ‘ and the ‘peripheral ‘ . They are the bracing factors in the universe system.

The universe is divided into two major universe parts. First, the ‘core ‘ and 2nd, the ‘periphery ‘ . And someplace in between them, lies the ‘semi fringe ‘ . Now, before get downing discoursing about these parts, first allow us cognize their significances and the states which come under these parts.


The nucleus consists of the universe powers and states, in other words, the developed or first universe states. This is fundamentally the ‘centre ‘ point which benefits from the economic system of the peripheral parts and bask wealth non merely from their economic system but besides from the other universe parts. They have most of the wealth of the universe. Most of the features of globalisation like development, scientific invention, trans national links, good health care, high instruction occur in these parts. They are technologically, socially, politically, geographically extremely developed with peripheral and semi peripheral dawdling behind. Wage rate, employment conditions, entree to healthcare, substructure and many other factors contribute to the states being ‘core ‘ which in bend is nescient in their peripheral opposite numbers.

Core parts ‘ success is determined by being dominant and working the other universe parts which in bend is determined by the engagement of the other parts in the universe system.

What is more important in these parts is their population. Population is dead and manner excessively less in compared with the peripheral. In other words, 75 % of the benefits of the universe economic system are enjoyed by merely 15 % of the universe population. These states are extremely industrialized with of all time turning third sector. Most of its population is the working category with importance given to the salaried occupations than being in concern.

  • They are affluent and powerful
  • Very much industrialized
  • Specialization in finance, information and service industries
  • Strong military
  • Highly influential
  • Mugwump of outside control
  • Forefront in contriving new engineerings

Some major nucleus parts are:


The ‘Periphery ‘ consists of the remainder of the universe or in other words, the 3rd universe states. These parts are characterised by poorness, nescient health care, less instruction and a low criterion of life. Infrastructure is really trouble oneselfing with more infinite for slums. Some topographic points do demo positive development but by and large this is the province of peripheral parts.

The major factor in these parts is the migration from little metropoliss to the bigger metropoliss to hold better economical chances which in bend airss jobs in footings of lodging, unemployment and many others. Despite of there being no occupations in the metropoliss, people from the rural countries migrate in order to back up their households.

Population is sky rocketing is these parts as kids are perceived to be the household protagonists in footings of income coevals and no instruction adds to the population sufferings by holding no information on household planning.

Majority of the population growing happens in these parts.

Crime rate is really dismaying in these parts as because of monolithic unemployment, people turn to offenses to hold income and back up their households.

  • Economically rearward
  • Expects investings from the nucleus states
  • Most of the people hapless and uneducated
  • Inequality
  • Lack of development
  • Easily influenced

Regions that are peripheral in nature are:

Semi – peripheral:

The term “ semi peripheral ” originated in the 13th century as there was a turning demand to hold a separate term for those parts and states which have moved off from the ‘periphery ‘ but have non yet become ‘core ‘ .

The class describes them as those parts which remain dependent and to some extent under developed despite holding a important rate of industrialisation.

In universe systems ‘ theory, semi peripheral are the parts positioned between the nucleus and the peripheral. The organisational construction of these states or parts are both of nucleus and peripheral states and are frequently geographically located in between them or between two or more nucleus states.

These are the industrializing and largely capitalist states. They play a major function in interceding between the nucleus and the peripheral parts in footings of societal, economic and political activities.

These parts are different from the peripheral parts as they provide room for industrial growing, advanced engineering and reforms in societal and organisational construction.

Merely as the nucleus parts, semi peripheral parts besides tend to rule and work the peripheral parts but non to the same extent as the former.

Semi peripheral states have opportunities of being promoted to the nucleus states group chiefly because of their industrialised nature and besides because they contribute to fabrication and exportation of assortment of goods. They can be besides defined as being the cardinal structural component as it plays a really critical function.

Some of the parts which come under this class are:

Peripheral parts will stay peripheral?

Now, the 2nd portion of peripheral states staying peripheral or progressing to go the semi peripheral or nucleus is to be answered.

Harmonizing to me, every state has the infinite to better given proper scheme and planning.

First universe states have started note of the 3rd universe states which are turning at a colossal rate socially, economic and political.

Equally far as current economical tendency goes, 3rd universe states like India, China are fast emerging to be the world powers of the coming decennary. They with their stable economic growing rate are outnumbering many of the states ranked higher above them. Many nucleus states like the United States are experiencing the heebie-jeebiess after analyzing the growing tendency that some of the peripheral states are demoing. Many of the multibillionaires from these peripheral states are being given infinite in the ‘Multibillionaires of the universe ‘ list which indirectly shows the manner where the latter are headed. New technological promotions, scientific inventions are increasing as compared to the old ages and decennaries gone by.

First universe states are confronting jobs like unemployment which is harming their economic system well whereas the developing states have non experienced the bolt of recession as the former have.

Socially, as the nucleus states perform good as they ever done on the instruction, health care, substructure, pay rate portion, the peripheral states are bettering but at a slow rate. Core states have ever given penchant to the demands of the people and their criterion of life whereas the latter have merely late started detecting the societal factors that need to be addressed much more any other job.

Education is being given due importance with literacy rate traveling notches higher. Awareness of higher instruction is doing even the rural countries note the advantages and send their kids to schools.

Social hierarchy, caste system are one of the major factors in stagnating the growing of the 3rd universe states as these lone promote differences in the system. This calls for equality amongst people and a better societal construction. This is fast bettering as there is a demand to admit attempts made by everyone in bettering the overall economic system of the states.

Politically, many states are acquiring democratic with citizens given right to vote and take their ain leaders as opposed to the fact that the people were treated as slaves. The right to be governed upon is entirely in the custodies of the people in many states though some are still under military administration and ego imposed leaders. When person forces himself on the remainder entirely on the power position, that state is bound to acquire dead in all the Fieldss, whether its societal, economic or political. This is easy and steadily bettering in the peripheral part though the rate is non that good. This makes the part unstable as political force per unit area makes it handicapped.


Still there are many factors which need to be addressed by the peripheral states in order to progress. There is immense possibility of some of the 3rd universe states going portion of the nucleus or semi peripheral group in economical footings but every bit far as the societal system goes, they need to work hard to be in that conference and accomplish what the nucleus states have, long back. Proper planning and scheme with no corruptness and transparent system will pave manner to be advanced and displacement to the other better universe systems ‘ .


  • Carlos A. Martinez-Vela n.d. World Systems Theory [ Online ] .Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 08 Feb. 10 ]
  • Colin Steif ( August 4, 2008 ) Core andPeriphery [ Online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 08 Feb.10 ]
  • Techtor-ga ( May 26, 2003 ) Core and Periphery [ Online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 06 Feb.10 ]
  • Wikipedia n.d. World-systems attack [ Online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 06 Feb.10 ]

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