Ethics: Personal Values and Ethical Standards Daniel Hagerhorst University of Phoenix BSHS/332 Marcia Winter 07/29/2010 Ethics: Values and beliefs Developmental aspects of Values and their Implications to my Work The values that I hold deeply today are showing kindness, integrity, honesty, and openness. Kindness is more of a virtue than a value, but the two are related in that values hold virtues such as compassion, loyalty, and respect. Kindness is what I choose to show as much as possible to others even in the absence of respect. Integrity is a choice for me not an obligation.
I have seen the rewards of integrity through my parents and most of all through my maternal grandfather. Integrity gives me strength when I can find none to help me make difficult decisions. Integrity is a learned behavior that can be relied upon at all times. Honesty is one of the values that I find the most difficult to define. I know that honesty means to behave in a fair and straightforward manor, to be honorable and to have integrity. This is why I rely on my integrity to give me strength. I cannot behave honestly without knowing and having integrity.
The two are one in the same or as I believe you cannot have one without the other. Openness is ones willingness or readiness to receive. To be open to new ideas or behaviors. I have tried most of my life to be open to others thoughts, behaviors’, cultures, beliefs, and opinions. My mother has been instrumental in helping me to see life this way. My immediate family is responsible for instilling in me the core values that I have mentioned. I was fortunate to have grown up in a two parent household that was stable and nurturing.
This is not to say that our family was perfect. We had our share of obstacles to overcome. Growing up I looked to many popular people for guidance on how to behave. Learned behavior was the main way I grew up. I know that some forms of behavior are inherent but I choose to believe that society can force inherent behavior to adjust. This adjustment can be positive or negative depending on one’s surroundings and family. I have looked to great men of the past for guidance as well. One of these popular figures is Thomas Jefferson.
I have studied his life and the decisions he has made. Some decisions were not always worthy of his character, but who is perfect? The man did behave with integrity and honesty regardless of his actions he was always an honest man and history bares this truth. I am not what one would call a deeply religious man. I believe in Jesus Christ and his teachings, because of this I can say that all religions are manmade. I have learned much from his teachings and would be remiss not including him as one of my life’s mentors.
I can only hope to live and behave as he did. These mentors have helped me to keep an open mind and evaluate any changes in my values or beliefs. Thomas Jefferson is instrumental in my belief that society changes, that man changes and we should change as well. The implications of these values to my work as a human services professional are necessary if I am to succeed. Understanding and following the human services code of ethics would put my values into place during my work with clients and peers. But I do not need to follow a code of ethics to succeed.
I will use them as a guide but my personal beliefs and values supersede the behavior that is expected of me. By showing kindness, honesty, integrity, openness, compassion, loyalty, and respect I feel my clients and peers will benefit. I do know that the code of ethics can be relied upon to handle certain logistical situations, and in no way would I ignore the wisdom. The implications of my values means that someone is going to get better and receive the genuine help the need. Specific Ethical Dilemma that I will have little difficulty with due to Concordanance with Standards and Beliefs
I am reminded of a time when I worked with a young man that was a resident of a long term treatment facility I worked in. This young man was what most Americans would call a “Skinhead. ” The young man’s beliefs and ideology were to say the least disturbing. I was facing an ethical dilemma as to some of his statements. I did the right thing by using the human services code of ethics as a guideline and teamed up with my supervisor. The young man was already aware of the informed consent form he read and signed. This situation will more than likely present itself again.
As I may work in Washington D. C. again. I have three issues that can face me. 1. Am I supporting a radical, violent, and political ideology? 2. Do I act when I have knowledge that the client is inflicting psychological harm on another? 3. Do I terminate when there is no chance to help with the clients negative behaviors’? With regards to the code of ethics and my core personal values I feel I can work with the client and terminate based on any of these situations. In the case of point 1 I can listen to views and opinions that may be offensive, discriminatory, and inhumane.
Once these views have crossed the line and seek to disrupt the dignity of others I cannot allow my skills to be used for inhumane purposes. In regards to point 2 I feel I have an obligation and duty to protect any victims whether the act is violent or causes psychological harm. Point 3 gives me a little pause but I feel that the code of ethics obliges me to act on negative discrimination and cease help when there is no chance of a breakthrough. This does not mean that stop helping this type of client only that I stop helping this particular client or look for a referral source. 4. 02 Discrimination
Social workers should not practice, condone, facilitate, or collaborate with any form of discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, marital status, political belief, religion, immigration status, or mental or physical disability (National Association of Social Workers, 2008). Specific Ethical Dilemma that I will have difficulty with due to Discordance with Standards and Beliefs Much thought has been given to this question, and I am unsure if I will ever face this dilemma, but the future holds new situations.
I am somewhat familiar of arguments on using research from what most would say are unethical trials. Mainly the research carried out by Nazi scientist on live humans during the holocaust. I am also familiar with arguments on using research that the United States government carried out on human patients in Tuskegee as well as the LSD experiments carried out by the US Army. Given the chance would I ever use data collected by inhumane psychological tests? For the most part I would have some serious issues ethically and morally to do use any research obtained this way.
I know this is a fine line and others would argue against it. I can remain open to debate, but I feel I would not change my views. Ethical standards: Use of Psychological tests in the courtroom The APA Ethical Principles prohibit the release of raw data to unqualified individuals, and with rare exception, attorneys are not qualified individuals. A viable course of action if an attorney should request raw data from a psychologist (A) would be to advise the attorney to engage the consultation of another psychologist (B), who is qualified, by virtue of licensure, training, and experience, to receive the data.
Psychologist A then could send the raw data to Psychologist B (provided the client or patient has given consent). Psychologist B could then interpret the data to the attorney. Needless to say, Psychologist B must operate under the same rules and standards of ethics and confidentiality as Psychologist A (American Psychological Association, 1992). By and large, attorneys and judges are reasonably understanding of the dilemma faced by psychologists regarding the sharing of raw data.
About why psychologists are restricted from releasing raw data to unqualified persons, attorneys and judges tend to be amenable to the course of action recommended above. This explanation is likely to be more effective, however, if the particular reasons are explained ( that psychologists cannot afford to have test stimuli disseminated in the public domain; that raw data are difficult or impossible for a non expert to interpret), rather than simply citing the Ethical Principles that prohibit such release. There may be instances in which attorneys will be quite insistent on receiving raw data and will go to considerable lengths to secure it.
If a psychologist is given a court order to produce raw data, manuals, and so on, the psychologist should take immediate steps to clarify for the court the ethical dilemma this creates. In such situations, psychologists are strongly encouraged to seek their own legal counsel. Ethical Standards: The Lie Detector Traditional polygraph has long been the topic of ethical debate. Questions have been raised Concerning its validity, reliability, misuse of results, testing biases, coercion of examinees, and even possible harm due to comparison questions (Ben-shakhar, 2003).
Society must be ready to come to a decision about the value of cognitive privacy before these technologies become widespread. Scientists, ethicists, and other advocates must take an active role in the discussion of the threat to civil liberties that their research might make possible. Ethical standards: Boundaries of Competence Psychologists provide services, teach, and conduct research with populations and in areas only within the boundaries of their competence, based on their education, training, supervised experience, consultation, study, or professional experience. b) Where scientific or professional knowledge in the discipline of psychology establishes that an understanding of factors associated with age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status is essential for effective implementation of their services or research, psychologists have or obtain the training, experience, consultation, or supervision necessary to ensure the competence of their services, or they make appropriate referrals, except as provided in Standard (c) Psychologists planning to provide services, teach, or conduct research involving populations, areas, techniques, or technologies new to them undertake relevant education, training, supervised experience, consultation, or study. (d) When psychologists are asked to provide services to individuals for whom appropriate mental health services are not available and for which psychologists have not obtained the competence necessary, psychologists with closely related prior training or experience may provide such services in order to ensure that services are not denied if they make a reasonable effort to obtain the competence required by using relevant research, training, consultation, or study. e) In those emerging areas in which generally recognized standards for preparatory training do not yet exist, psychologists nevertheless take reasonable steps to ensure the competence of their work and to protect clients/patients, students, supervisees, research participants, organizational clients, and others from harm. (f) When assuming forensic roles, psychologists are or become reasonably familiar with the judicial or administrative rules governing their roles (American Psychological Association, 2010) Ethical Standards: Integrity Integrity: is an internal system of principles which guides our behavior. The rewards are intrinsic. Integrity is a choice rather than an obligation. Even though influenced by upbringing and exposure, integrity cannot be forced by outside sources (Czimbal & Brooks, 2006). Integrity conveys a sense of wholeness and strength.
When we are acting with integrity we do what is right – even when no one is watching. People of integrity are guided by a set of core principles that empowers them to behave consistently to high standards. The core principles of integrity are virtues, such as: compassion, dependability, generosity, honesty, kindness, loyalty, maturity, objectivity, respect, trust and wisdom. Virtues are the valuable personal and professional assets employees develop and bring to work each day. There is a dynamic relationship between integrity and ethics, where each strengthens, or reinforces, the other. Personal integrity is the foundation for ethics – good business ethics encourages integrity.
A person who has worked hard to develop a high standard of integrity will likely transfer these principles to their professional life. Possessing a high degree of integrity, a person’s words and deeds will be in alignment with the ethical standards of the organization (Czimbal & Brooks, 2006). Ethical standards: Sexual Harassment The effects of sexual harassment vary from person to person, and are contingent on the severity, and duration, of the harassment. However, sexual harassment is a type of sexual assault, and victims of severe or chronic sexual harassment can suffer the same psychological effects as rape victims (Commission, 2006).
Aggravating factors can exist, such as their becoming the target of retaliation, backlash, or victim blaming after their complaining, or filing a formal grievance. Moreover, people who have experienced sexual harassment occupy a place in our society that is similar to where rape victims were placed in the past, and they can be abused further by the system that is supposed to help and protect them. Indeed, the treatment of the complainant during an investigation or litigation can be brutal, and add further damage to their life, health, and psyche. Depending on the situation, a sexual harassment victim can experience anything from mild annoyance to extreme psychological damage, while the impact on a victim’s career and life may be minimal, or leave them in ruins.
Ethical Standards: Human Differences Human differences are many and can never in my opinion be fully understood. One way is not to think of the differences but of the similarities. That being said we as human service workers must recognize the differences in ourselves and our clients. Human services has seen the demographic of those it serves change over the years. Today we serve many cultures and such have an ethical obligation to study and understand these cultures and differences so that we may be more effective as helpers. Legal Definition of Insanity Disorder which impairs the human mind and prevents distinguishing between actions that are right or wrong (Duhaime, 2010).
The old English common law definition is this: “English law knows two classes – and two classes only – of the mentally afflicted; namely, the natural fool or congenital idiot; and what it calls the lunatic, who has once possessed mental power but enjoys it no longer (Duhaime, 2010). ” The old English definition is not one that would be used today and seems to be an unethical definition itself. References American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principals of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611. American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principals of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved July 29, 2010, from American psychological association: www. apa. org/ethics/code/index. aspx. Ben-shakhar, E. (2003). The validity of psychophysiological detection of information with the guilty knowledge test: A meta-analytic review.
The Journal of Applied Psychlog, 88(1), 131-151. Commision, E. O. E. (2006). Facts about sexual harassment. Retrieved July 29, 2010, from www. sexualharassmentsupport. org/references. html. Czimbal, B. , ; Brooks, M. (2006). Skills for success: Personal skills for profesional excellence. Retrieved July 29, 2010, from www. abundancecompany. com/index. htm. Duhaime, L. (2010). Legal definition of lunatic. Retrieved July 29, 2010, from duhaime. org: www. duhaime. org/legaldictionary/i/insanity. aspx. National Associtation Of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics (4. 02). Retrieved July 30, 2010, from National Association of Social Workers: www. naswdc. org/pubs/code/code. asp.