PHILISOPHICAL INQUIRY: What is philosophy? “The love of wisdom. ” Metaphysics: the theory of reality. What is real? Epistemology: the theory of knowledge. What does it mean to “know? ” Value-theory: the study of value. What gives something value… over something else? Logic: The principles of right reasoning. What principles do we use? All of these do not stand independent from each other… they all mix. September 25: Abstractions: CH9 Is Fido an abstraction? Dog is a category… you wouldn’t say a thing is a Caroline. Fido is NOT an abstraction… because it is concrete. While dog is a concept.
Aquinas: Empiricist Aristotle: The Universals are in the particulars. We come up with ideas by going to specific to universal (Inductive) CH 8 and 9 QUIZ: 1 . Who advocated the notion of innate ideas? PLATO 2. Name a rationalist identified in the reading PLATO, CHOMSKE, DESCARTES 3. Name an empiricist identifies in the reading, ARISTOTLE, LOCKE 4. T/F: Locke is an advocate of innate ideas FALSE 5. What does the phrase tabula rasa signify? BLANK SLATE 6. What philosopher is associated with “pehenomenalism? HUNE OBJECTIVES: 1 . What are the two primary ay sin which the question: “What is the origin of nowledge” can be answered?
Rationalism and Empiricism 2. 2. Give three exemplars of each approach, and describe why they are either an empiricist or a rationalist. 3. How are Descartes and Locke alike, and how are the unalike? Descartes, a rationalist, and Locke, an empiricist, attempt to answer very similar questions, but use totally different methods. 4. Explain the significance of the tabula rasa. 5. Define and explain “pehenomenalism. ” Epistemology: concerned with the kind of knowledge involved in truth claims. INDUC ION: ProDaDlll ty IUnlversal to speclTlcl I ts true untll It I Certainty lspeciflc to Universall
ABDUCTION: Education Guess I Inference to the best conclusion I What do we know… with uncountable certainty? What we have deduced. Certainty: logical necessity How about believe? You can give evidence. How do you know proposition, that it is the case? * Historical Evidence Scientific Evidence Logical Necessity “l know that I exist” Personal experience: Sensory, physical… *The test of a truth claim depends on the subject We can measure our belief. The Christian affirmation: “l believe” We cannot know states of the world for certain. LOCKE, HUME, & EPIRICISM BRITAIN: Relations of Ideas Certainty
October 7, 2013 (rationalism won’t bridge this gap) empiricism will Matters of fact probability Constantological Ethics Hume says: you cannot experience morality with your senses therefore you cannot know it. Deontological-from Greek dean, duty Morality is a category of reasoning. Imperative: a command Hypothetical imperative: it compels action in a given circumstance. (“if-“then”) Kant: categorical imperative A command that is true in all given circumstances. It is always the case. unconditional requirement in all circumstances. Kant was responding to Hume: discussing the idea of sentiment.
Deontological Ethics: The alternative to utilitarian or pragmatic views of ethics. What is the moral question that we ask? Could we rationalize it? “Act only according to a maxim (a principle) whereby you can will that it become a universal law. ” The Golden Rule. You can Know morall ty, Decause It Is a way you tnlnK. It Is a relatlonsnlp Detween an act and a principle. A principle based ethics. Think about the principle first, and then think about how each action relates to the principle. Post Kantian Epistemology: Objectives 1. Foundationalism 2. Plausibility Structure 3. Warrant 4. Graduated Assent
What is the difference between a fact and belief? Faith and knowledge? NONE Belief in God is not irrational, it is Just like believing any number of things that we do believe in. ??”Plantiga. Science has become a preeminent sphere for the demonstration of intellectual honesty. Pretending to know things you do not know is a great liability in science; and yet, it is the sine qua non of the faith-based religion. ??” Sam Harris His view comes through interaction with Christians and our Christian culture in America. Make a rational argument. Fact: a truth claim that people make (beliefs) Faith v.
Knowledge: What is the difference between faith and knowledge? … fact and belief? – What constitutes a “fact”, and a “belief” – How are things known? -What do you “know’ tat you know not “believe? CERTAINTY: Deductive reasoning Analytic statements —INDUCTIVE————————-UNKOWING Empirical Skepticism Inference Not all DelleTs are equally plauslDle… not all are equally valla Faith and reason are not different… can you believe something you know is not true? The transience of “facts” People though all swans were white until someone found a black swan. FOUNDATIONALISM PLAUSIBILITY STRUCTURE (modern thought) A web of belief.
October 14, 13 St. Aquinas: Faith (revelation) and reason Faith crowns reason. “God of the Gaps” – One the gap is closed, and that is what you based your faith on… William Paley (1743-1805) Author of the Watchmaker’ argument Tomas Aquinas (13th Century): The Five Proofs for the existence of God. 1. Proof from Motion: Our senses tell us that in the world things are in motion, if a thing is at rest if something on motion moves it, it has the potential to be in motion. Nothing can be changed from a state of potentiality by something that is also in that state of potentiality. You cannot derive motion from non-motion.
It cannot be the thing that is being moved at the same time it is the mover. * 2. Proof from efficient cause: If you take away the cause there is no effect. The effect of the painting is the painter. The effect of the painter is his parents. And so on… nothing can be its own cause. * 3. Proof from necessary versus possible being: Something can exist then pass from existence. It is contingent on past events. From nothing, nothing comes. (Ex Nihlo Nihl Fit) * 4. Proof from the degrees of Perfection: There is comparison that shows that qualities comes from something that has more of that something. Proof from the order of the universe: Rational agents act towards an end. There is Intelligence Denlna It A aeslgner. “Imperlal: no appeals to tne supernatural. 2. Name a rationalist identified the reading PLATO, CHOMSKE, DESCARTES 3. Name QUIZ: Chapter 1 1 . Define philosophy: The love of knowledge 2. What figure does CH 1 identify as “a kind of symbol of philosophical activity? Socrates 3. What century did this fgure live in? 8th century 4. Name and describe one of the four fields of philosophy identified in CH 1- Metaphysical, has to do with how the min interacts with the natural world through ecisions and reason.
QUIZ: Chapter 4 1 . What branch of philosophy does this chapter focus? Epistemology 2. To what question did Descartes desire an answer? What is undoubtable 3. What one truth does Descartes find undoubtable? That we exist because we think. 4. What does Descartes find attractive about math, geometry and the “geometric method? ” He likes that there is more certainty and less speculation OCTOBER 23, 2013 CHAPTER 12 OBEJECTIVES: 1 . Provide and explain Anselm’s definition of the term God. 2. Summarize and explain Kant’s criticism of the Ontological Argument. A Prior’: independent from experience
The Ontological Argument The Moral Argument The Moral Law: You work from the presence of morality (natural) to the necessity of a lawgiver. (C. S. Lewis) St. Anselm of Canterbury (12th Century) Famous for his Ontological Argument for the existence of God. Summarized his project as “Faith Seeking Understanding. ” THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT: (A pnort) The study of reality Is tnat Delng greater tnan wnlcn notnlng can De concelvea ” He Is tne greatest conceivable being. 2. Does God exist? 3. Which is greater, a fictional being, or one that exists? A being that exists is always better than (more of) something that does not. ) 4. Therefore, given the definition of God, God exist. A square has four sides: the answer is found in the definition. Kant’s criticism: Existence is not a predicate. It is not the language we use… the subject matter is unique. October 28, THEODICY: the problem of evil How do we Justify God against evil? 1. Sate the problem of evil in 3 propositions. God is powerful(willing but not able) God is good* (able but not willing) Evil exists **(God is willing and able) * Good??”not good ** Evil??”not evil 2. Name a major philosopher who advances this problem. 3. Provide Augustine’s definition of evil. 4.
Explain how he understands evil to arise. 5. Articulate the “free will defense. ” “God is a comedian playing to an audience afraid to laugh ” . ??”Voltaire Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867) -‘If there is a God, he must be the devil. ” Fyodor Dostoyevsky The Brothers Karamazov (1880) There is not a solution to the problem of evil. Alvin Plantiga. St. Augustine (354-430AD) Responsible for forging some of Christianitys most controversial and unique theology and setting it both within, and over and against the thought of the classical world. He was tne Tlrst to connect pnllosopny to Privation theory of evil: tne DIDIlcal narratlve.
What is evil? (The opposite of good? ) An eternal struggle of good having evil and evil having good. Yin Yang: Equal, they are relative, they are one force. GOD CREATION Always involved, if he ceased The evil is in God’s creation (whenever Satan is to speak, it would cease. mentioned in the Bible. ) If there is no third being, where does evil come from? Is evil the opposite of good? Does evil have its own ontological standing? Is dark the opposite of light? Is dark a substance? Is light? (Particle/wave) No, they are merely the absence of it. If evil is Just moving away from good, how can we treat all forms of evil the same?
If you move away from God (being) do you move toward evil? No, you move toward non-being. Augustine: Sin is always (and necessarily) the corruption of some good Augustine descries us as persons as “bundles of desires. ” There are four things that humans can love: (IN ORDER) switch it up 1 . God 2. Ourselves 3. Other people 4. Things We disorder our desires, however, and attempt t extract from things fulfillment they cannot offer. In so doing, we distort and corrupt these things, we twist and mangle them attempting to extract from them hat which they cannot offer. 1. Suffering??”evil 2. What is evil .
What is good 4 Being Is good 5. God is being 6. Evil is not-being 7. Darkness doesn’t exist (it is a non-being) It is an absence of something. 8. Where does evil come from in the creation? 9. If God created it, he would be an evil God. 10. We were made as a bundle of desires. 11. For every desire we have, which is good, and the world can fulfill that desire. 12. Evil-stn 13. Sin is always the corruption of some good. 14. There is an order to what we can love (God, Ourselves, Other people, Things) 15. What goes wrong? 16. We misplace our loves/desires and we attach them to the wrong thing. 17.
We urn our attention and place at the center of our lives, things that are temporary. 18. The finite being can set his hope on the infinite being. (God) 19. God has allowed us to make choices of misplaced loves. 20. Why does God allow sin/evil/suffering? 21. God maintains his creation 22. How can you be at war with your creation? 23. Where does the blame go? We are to blame as the creature of rebellion. 24. The sin is in us; it is not, “Let me go defeat the devil and all will be fine” it is, “Repent and die to your old self” The bad news: We are the problem in the world. The good news: God has addressed the problem.
God came into flesh. Colossians 3,John 1 What about Ephesians 6:12 When you move away from God you move toward non-being It is something that cannot exist on its own. (sickness, dark, cold) mfou can be a Christian and not believe in a Satan” The Demons in the New Testament do not present ANY challenge to Jesus. He is rather redeeming the creation. They play an important role in the narrative of salvation. What about temptation? James 1:13-15 Romans 5:12 November 4th I ne cnrlstlan’s response to tne proDlem 0T evil: Evil arises in creation (it is not a separate source of evil) It is not created by God.
It is not a devil issue, but a sin issue. Suffering—evil—-sin—-disordered love 1 . God is good 2. God is all powerful 3. God desires free moral agents (Free will defense) 4. Suffering exists. Why do you think he used this figure of speech (specific wording) Matthew 13:39. KJV To end the evil… it would be an end to us. It won’t always exist. It is because of his love for us that he has not destroyed us, he has a redemption plan. Cross: D-Day Return: V. E. Day ETHICS: Ethics vs. Morality Morality: the rightness or wrongness of an act. Oudgment of certain actions) Ethics: the study of systems of morality.
How each person determines how they will judge the rightness or wrongness of an act. ) Challenges to Morality: Existentialism: existence precedes essence. (You find yourself alive and in existence, then you are self determining, deciding what you will do with your existence. ) Kierkegaard (founder of this thought) 19th century Danish man (The Melancholy Dane) Assumed at the time if you are European you are a Christian. He disagreed with that. What is it like to be Abraham (the Father of the faith). He was forced to make decision while not knowing what the outcome would be. Fear and Trembling
I ne SlcKness unto Deatn. The basic questions is: why not suicide? It is a question of existence. What if you don’t have all the information? 20th century existentialism tends to be atheistic. How do you live an authentic life in an absurd world? What is the right thing for Abraham to do… does he commit murder or does he disobey God? An existential crisis! November 6, 2013 Teleology: the study of ends or purposes. (The outcome of an act) Principle of Utility: doing the greatest good for the greatest amount of people. Democracy and Utilitarianism: the greatest amount of people are happy.
What most people think what is most good for them. 1 . State the difference between “morality’ and “ethic. ” 2. List and define the two primary branches of ethics. 3. Describe the two types of utilitarianism. 4. Answer for yourself Bernard William’s utilitarianism challenge. (pg. 390) 5. State the Categorical Imperative. Ethics is applied philosophy Politics is applied ethics. WHAT MAKES AN ACT “MORAL” OR “RIGHT”? Divine command? Motive? (principle) Consequence? (mean well to end well) WHAT IS ETHICS? Morality vs. Ethics Moral: behavior. Ethics: theories of behavior