Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food
Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food
produce their organic molecules from CO2 and other raw material from the environment.
Autotrophic
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absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
Chloroplasts
Thylakoids
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
Thylakoids
The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.
Photosynthesis
produce their own organic molecules from CO2
Autotrophs
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them.
Heterotrophs
pores on the leaf where O2 exits and CO2 enters
Stomata
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Stroma
A flattened, membranous sac inside a chloroplast. Thylakoids often exist in stacks called grana that are interconnected; their membranes contain molecular “machinery” used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
Thylakoids
A green pigment located in membranes within the chloroplasts of plants and algae and in the membranes of certain prokaryotes. Chlorophyll a participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
Chlorophyll
light dependent reactions and light independent reactions (Calvin Cycle)
What are the two stages of photosynthesis
The first of two major stages in photosynthesis (preceding the Calvin cycle). These reactions, which occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast or on membranes of certain prokaryotes, convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygen in the process.
Light Reactions
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
Calvin cycle
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an electron acceptor that, as NADPH, temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
NADP
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of chemiosmosis, using a proton-motive force generated across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or the membrane of certain prokaryotes during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Photophosphorylation
The initial incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism (a plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic prokaryote).
Carbon Fixation
Describe a chlorophyll molecule
Describe a chlorophyll molecule
A light-capturing unit located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or in the membrane of some prokaryotes, consisting of a reaction-center complex surrounded by numerous light-harvesting complexes. There are two types of photosystems, I and II; they absorb light best at different wavelengths.
Photosystem
In the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast or in the membrane of some prokaryotes, a specialized molecule that shares the reaction-center complex with a pair of chlorophyll a molecules and that accepts an electron from them.
Primary electron acceptor
One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast’s thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
Photo system II
A light-capturing unit in a chloroplast’s thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
Photosystem I
Carbon Fixation
Energy Consumption and Redox
Release of G3P; Regeneration of RuBP
What are the three phases of The Calvin cycle?
B.) H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?

A.) NADPH → chlorophyll → Calvin cycle
B.) H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle
C.) NADPH → O2 → CO2
D.) NADPH → electron transport chain → O2
E.) H2O → photosystem I → photosystem II

A.) Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic.
Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?

A.) Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic.

B.) Only heterotrophs require oxygen.

C.) Cellular respiration is unique to heterotrophs.

D.) Only heterotrophs have mitochondria.

E.) Only heterotrophs require chemical compounds from the environment.

release of oxygen
Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin cycle?

-release of oxygen
-regeneration of the CO2 acceptor
-oxidation of NADPH
consumption of ATP
carbon fixation

removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules
Which process is most directly driven by light energy?

creation of a pH gradient by pumping protons across the thylakoid membrane

removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules

reduction of NADP+ molecules

ATP synthesis

carbon fixation in the stroma

ATP and NADPH.
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with
Which of the following equations represents photosynthesis?
 
 6CO2 + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6H2O
 6H2O + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6CO2
 C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
 C6H12O6 + 6CO2 → 6O2 + 6H2O
 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide and water for the production of sugar and oxygen.

Which of the following equations represents photosynthesis?

6CO2 + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6H2O
6H2O + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6CO2
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
C6H12O6 + 6CO2 → 6O2 + 6H2O
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

In which of the following organelles does photosynthesis take place?
 
 Chloroplast
 Mitochondrion
 Ribosome
 Central vacuole
 Nucleus
Chloroplast

Chloroplasts use energy from light to transform carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen.

In which of the following organelles does photosynthesis take place?

Chloroplast
Mitochondrion
Ribosome
Central vacuole
Nucleus

What two molecules are produced by the light reactions and used to power the Calvin cycle?
 
 CO2 and O2
 C6H12O6 and O2
 C6H12O6 and RuBP
 ATP and NADPH
 G3P and H2O
ATP and NADPH

ATP and NADPH are both products of the light reactions and are used to power the Calvin cycle.

What two molecules are produced by the light reactions and used to power the Calvin cycle?

CO2 and O2
C6H12O6 and O2
C6H12O6 and RuBP
ATP and NADPH
G3P and H2O

H2O

Electrons are stripped from water in the light reactions of photosynthesis. Light provides the energy to excite electrons.

What provides electrons for the light reactions?

CO2
The Calvin cycle
H2O
Light
O2

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Carbon dioxide provides the carbon atoms that are incorporated into sugars in photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide initially combines with RuBP, and RuBP is regenerated to continue the Calvin cycle.

What provides the carbon atoms that are incorporated into sugar molecules in the Calvin cycle?

Sucrose (C12H22O11)
RuBP
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Glucose (C6H12O6)
G3P (C3H6O3)

NADPH

NADPH is an electron carrier that picks up electrons in the light reactions and releases them in the Calvin cycle. An electron transport chain conveys electrons from one photosystem to the other within the light reactions.

What transports electrons from the light reactions to the Calvin cycle?

NADH
NADPH
An electron transport chain
FADH2
Chlorophyll

thylakoids; stroma

Within the chloroplast, the light reactions take place in the flattened sacs called thylakoids and the Calvin cycle takes place in the thick fluid called the stroma.

The light reactions take place in the _________ and the Calvin cycle takes place in the _________.

stroma; thylakoids
thylakoids; stroma
inner membrane; outer membrane
chloroplasts; mitochondria
mitochondria; chloroplasts

The Calvin cycle is a complex series of chemical reactions carried out in the stroma.
Where does the Calvin Cycle take place?
Three molecules of carbon dioxide are added to three molecules of a five-carbon sugar abbreviated RuBP. These molecules are then rearranged to form six molecules called 3-PGA, which have three carbons each.
Describe Carbon Fixation in the Calvin Cycle
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