Bricklaying is a sort of trade, which is chief work in building. Bricklaying is based on the constructing of the edifice through the bonding of the rock, brick etc. with the bonding stuffs called howitzer, which are prepared on the footing of sand, calcium hydroxide and cement. Bricklaying is one of the few subdivisions of handcraft, which does non undergo alterations. The basic brotherhood of bricklayers is bricklayer and to his range of activities includes edifice of brick and rock edifices. This business is grown on several degrees of demands and on several degrees of accomplishments and cognition. From profession of Mason in ulterior times were separated two another professions- such as: civil applied scientist, designer. In recent old ages brickwork has developed quickly and nowadays workers uses many types of bricks and techniques of brick layering.
There are assorted types of bricks used in masonry:
Common Burnt Clay Bricks
Sand Lime Bricks ( Calcium Silicate Bricks )
Fly ash Clay Bricks
Fire Clay Bricks
We distinguish two types of bricks between of denseness.
LD bricks with denseness in dry province ? 1000 kg/m3, used in slicked walls or otherwise protected walls from H2O incursion
HD bricks with denseness in dry province & gt ; 1000 kg/m3, used in non-protected walls from H2O incursion
“ Brick sizes are by and large coordinated so that two rows of bricks laid aboard, with a howitzer articulation between them, are the same breadth as the length of a individual brick laid across the two rows. That allows headings, bricks laid at 90 grades to the way of the wall, to be built in and bind together two or more beds of brick. The thickness of a brick wall is measured by the length of a brick. ”
Every individual before going a bricklayer must hold a suited an educational background consisting of:
Differentiation of basic types of stuff,
How to utilize and floging equipment and tools,
How to form conveyance of stuff in workplace,
How to appointment of foundation and basis profiles,
How to make rectify basis foundation, ballast,
How to adequately protect and tag the topographic point of work,
How to maintain workplace in clean,
Typical brick worker should be mature and he should besides stand out of good physical status to guarantee smooth move in the workplace. Overall wellness and ability to work in this profession must be confirmed by a medical physician working on the elaborate surveies. Employee to execute his work must collaborate with operators of heavy equipment and he have to take part with appraising service in stakeout of discharge and falls.
Bricklayer is accountable to the chief, director, inspector supervising, or straight to the investor in his quality of done occupation. He besides is accountable to the inspector of wellness and safety in the safe operation for attack to work the rules of hygiene every bit good as regulations for the execution of safe work. He is responsible for co-helpers for any joint work done. Worker must detect the deadlines for work and must show expertness.
The inquiry that I ask: is it truly Polish bricklayers group is adequately qualified and a good manner prepared and educated for the occupation? Is it true that the Masons are provided with all security steps to protect them from hurt, and if so, which affects the high accident rate on building? I want to rebut the statement, which is good known to all, that building in Poland and the wellness attention worker is non in high degree.
The purpose of my work will be answer and analysis processs for workers in the workplace. I would wish to show the state of affairs in the Polish masonry, every bit good as to turn out that the Polish portion of the edifice workers, it mean bricklayers, they have good makings and sufficient preparation to transport out the plants. Prove that the impact of the high rate of accidents in the Polish building industry is non bad preparation or unequal cognition of the employee, but the irreverent attack to the occupation and unprofessional behaviour during working hours. Compare the preparation an employee and assigned protective equipment with the most common accidents in the workplace, which aims to corroborate the thesis that preparation does non impact on the type of accidents bricklayer.
Methods of research
To compose about bricklayers and Masons and to turn out me right I found many articles in the cyberspace that show most frequent causes of accidents and hurts to employees of the edifice. To corroborate my thesis consulted for books that describe the preparation of a bricklayer, his duties and the needed protective equipment when working. Statistics and analysis of accidents and human deaths during the masonry work has been used from the Polish Central Institute for Labor Protection-National Research Institute.
Bricklayers and VET
In the building industry many workers can non happen work in his state where the employee has been trained and gained makings. At that clip, increased demand for experient workers, but the trouble was to analyze the degree of an experience individual, acknowledging a individual ‘s degree of competency, accomplishment and cognition. Nowadays, the trouble is to mensurate off and trusting on employee referrals and experiments as cogent evidence of their capacity to trade.A These factors have forced the creative activity in Europe EQF ( European Qualifications Framework ) , which aims to ease mobility, enlisting and calling development staff launched. Bricklayer it is merely a perfect illustration of a on the job unit who is about impossible to research and acknowledgment of makings.
Bricklayer in Poland has ever been active in working on the labour market depending on the regulated VET ( Vocational Education and Work and Training ) and the making system. “ In most Continental states, among others in Poland VET is provided through comprehensive plans, which are portion of the wider school system and therefore represent the continuance of ‘education ‘ ( normally based on a course of study, with a wide content ) instead than ‘training ‘ as more narrowly focused on the occupation. VET is aimed at developing the person for the business and employment every bit good as for life as a citizen in wider society. We can separate between school- and work-based systems with the latter dominating in most states. Poland stands out in that the dominant path is through the 3-year vocational school, which is based on a mixture of classroom- and workshop-based proviso. Some states for illustration Poland place ‘competences ‘ as cardinal larning results of VET. However, these systems are basically input-based. Competences relate to sets of activities in the workplace and are based on the integrating of cognition, practical know-how and more generic ( personal and societal ) competencies, which are normally non spelled out in item. ”
Knowledge and range of know-how In Poland3
General instruction and business particular
Occupational ( Scope )
Sociology and psychological science of work
Health and safety
Organization and planning of the work ; stuffs, tools and equipment ; earth works ; brick walls ; ceilings, header and valances ; woodwork and Fe work ; concreting ; stick oning ; fall ining ; fix ; destruction
“ The Minister of National Education approved the nucleus course of study of bricklayer vocational instruction. The nucleus course of study determines 80 % of the educational range and conditions. The other 20 % of the instruction is devoted to seting the course of study to the demands of peculiar labour market needs. The nucleus course of study corresponds to the demands of the external test corroborating the makings and the criterion of bricklaying professional makings ” .
A Graduates should be able to:
Read and understand information presented in the signifier of descriptions, instructions, drawings, studies, diagrams, proficient and technological certification.
Procedure and operational figures
Safely perform professional undertakings in conformity with occupational wellness and safety, fire protection and environmental protection.
Plan activities related to the execution of undertakings
To form workplace
The Bricklayer ‘s proficient preparation requires all learners to finish a practical appraisal three degrees, every bit good as a standardised scrutiny for each degree.
Bricklayers under way, lay brick and masonry to line and class in or on a given construction or signifier of work. They lay brick or masonry units in the peculiar bond specified for walls and dividers ; work with furnace lining and insulating units for boiler scenes and burning Chamberss ; make fireproofing, block arching, terra cotta film editing and scene ; concept brick masonry cloacas and manholes ; estimation stuffs required for little occupations ; maintain occupation and other records ; read and follow programs and specifications ; may oversee assigned forces ; and execute related work.
Some of the physical activities performed by Bricklayers and environmental conditions experienced are: crouching, working in confined infinites, utilizing manus tools, transporting tools and equipment weighing up to 50 lbs. , bricklayer demand to be physically fit and patient with the conditions.
Protective equipment in the masonry
Bricklayer at work is exposed to many dangers.A To avoid unwanted accidents worker is equipped with particular protective equipment. Construction director is to supply its employees, including bricklayers following protective vesture:
Protective vesture against inordinate soil during the winter apparels and places warmed, adapted to the conditions conditions
Places which protect against falling objects
Baseball gloves to protect against unsmooth and rough elements
Head protection ( helmets ) when jeopardies from falling objects
If an employee is in immediate danger state of affairs, the employee has the right to forbear from executing the work ( so retains the right to wage may non decline to take another tantamount occupation, the immediate remotion of menaces is non possible )
the usage of efficient and appropriate tools
usage of proper illuming occupation in conformity with
mandate to work merely staff with appropriate makings, wellness and trained in safe work patterns
the usage of single protection steps required, places and protective vesture
application of the rules of safe working as a bricklayer
conformity with instructions and counsel issued safety and wellness at work
and operation of seting the staging in conformity with the maker ‘s recommendations, contained in the proficient certification of physical merchandise
perform work from a ladder in an exigency with the proviso of appropriate precautions against the slipping of the ladder, through the usage of ladders with the ‘feet ‘ gum elastic, puting a ladder to be flat and steadfast land of confidence staff
find the right sequence assembly of single constituents of scaffolding installing instructions or a program developed assembly scaffold
Safety and wellness at work of masonry
Before get downing work should bricklayer:
refer to the range and type of work,
cheque for posted marks bespeaking the position of the staging and the work carried out on the staging.
cheque stuffs in the workplace are arranged in a manner that ensures freedom of motion
cheque whether the degree of the staging work is below the degree of the wall erected by at least 0.3 m
look into the position of the scaffolding work:
stableness of the platforms,
safe entryway to the phase,
guard tracks ( tallness of 1.1 m and an intermediate barrier kerb with a height 0.15 m ) for work in trenches to see if the walls of diggings are decently protected.
During the public presentation of masonry work must follow certain regulations:
All holes in walls, ceilings, and others whose underside border is less than 0.8 m from the floor or platform shall be protected by a protective barrier tallness of 1.1 m and an intermediate barrier kerb with a height 0.15 m,
Holes left behind in the public presentation of the work should be protected or tightly covered,
Pits the quenched calcium hydroxide should be fortified walls and railings should be enclosed with protective tallness of 1.1 m located at a minimal distance of 1 m from the border of the underside
To work on lime slaking usage protective spectacless and dust inhalator.
Form the workplace,
Clean the tools and set them in designated locations and take the remains of howitzer
It is out:
Walking on the freshly-made walls, ceilings and unstable false work,
Trusting on barriers and the warp of the outside borders of the construction without extra security
Simultaneously transporting out plants on two or more floors in the same perpendicular without ceilings, or other security. Workplaces should be reciprocally shifted by about 1.5-2 metres
Execution of the work of the foundation if the distance between the trench incline and erected a wall is less than 0.7 m,
The discharge of stuffs, tools and other objects from a tallness,
The usage of ladders,
Leave tools, stuffs and other objects at the borders of the platforms of staging,
Climbing a building scaffold
Goats rely on bricks and other delicate stuffs or objects,
Excessive load than acceptable criterions, platforms scaffold
Walking and cross over the overseas telegram to transport ready-mixed concrete or howitzer
Pushing a clotted canal feeding the howitzer from the recess,
Increasing the force per unit area pump over the bound,
Inefficient usage of manus tools.
In instance of fire:
Warn individuals in danger interior,
Turn off the power of the edifice with electricity and cut off the gas,
Alert the fire brigade,
To inform his higher-ups about the fire,
Decide whether to evacuate people
Continue to transport out fire contending utilizing fire asphyxiators.
During the contending action, the rule of absolute entry to the bids of the driver fire combat and deliverance action.
In the event of an accident:
Give the victim foremost assistance
If necessary, seek medical attending,
Advise their higher-ups.
Most frequent accidents in the masonry
Construction worker is exposed daily to assorted menaces. Sometimes a healthy physical status is non sufficient to protect the worker before the accident. Most accidents happened as a consequence of “ Slips, trips in the autumn of individuals ” , of which the huge bulk of it falls on the same level.A Percentage of divergence, like others, does non differ well from the one recorded in the old twelvemonth.
Accidents doing hurt by events
Slip, stumble, fall people – in this same degree
To steal, fall, prostration factor stuff – the autumn from the top factor ( daze injured by falling from the top factor )
Uncoordinated, inappropriate motions
Fall of individual from height – at a lower degree
Loss of control over the tools ( mechanized or non ) or with the feasible tool
Loss of control over the agencies of conveyance or equipment supported Mobile ( mechanized or non )
To steal, fall, prostration of the stuff factor – at the same degree
Other, non specified or unspecified fluctuation in group. The motions of the organic structure without physical attempt
Accidents in Polish masonry 2006
The most common hurt on a building site while executing masonry work, which caused injury to the employees it was “ Struck by object motion. ” Harmonizing to surveies, this consequence is 24 % of all vehicles. The following factor that causes bodily hurt is a bricklayer Collision with or against a stationary object “ 23.61 % of instances. Many times an employee has hurts as a consequence of lesions ” Contact with the topic of crisp, unsmooth. “ There were 18 % of accidents. These 3 types, classs of events that cause harm and accidents in the workplace which contribute to more than 65 % of the entire sum of accidents.
The figure of accidents byA events doing hurt
Struck by traveling object
Collision or blow to the stationary object
Contact with the topic of crisp, harsh, unsmooth
Physical or mental emphasis
Contact with electric current, unsafe chemical substances and readyings
Aggression on the portion of the homo or animate being
Drowning, entombment, shuting
Accidents in Polish masonry 2006
As it turned out, the most common accidents on building sites which were recorded in Poland emerged from the foolhardiness and sloppiness of the employee. High rate of tax write-offs for vehicles traveling builders indicate that it is besides guilty of a machine operator and, above all, building director for the bad direction and coordination of the building. Scrapes and cuts with crisp jutting Masons constructing building elements are the consequence of hapless occupation security after work. It besides found a high figure of accidents by falls from tallness. Many Masons who work at highs such as the lifts or ladders, they underestimate the tallness which is in criterion is considered to be unsafe ( 1m ) and must be equipped with protective equipment.
Age groups of people most susceptible to accidents
Distribution of accidents by age of victims. Accidents in Polish masonry 2006
Based on surveies in Poland, the statistical office reported that most accidents occurred in the two age groups. These groups are 26 and 48 old ages. Analyzing the consequences from old old ages, was equalized distribution of the figure of accidents in the group of victims between age 33 and 45 old ages of age – the figure of accidents to them at a similar degree. As a consequence, the mean age of the victim has fallen from more than 38 old ages to 27 old ages. It is upseting that immature workers are so frequent accidents. As a consequence of this phenomenon, a specific accent it should look into and warnings for immature employees and besides requires particular steps to beef up the bar of accidents. While the 2nd group must be under changeless reappraisal by the remainder of the employees and by the building director, because the age of about 50 old ages is considered one of the retirement age. You should make up one’s mind whether there should be replaced with experient workers but the old, immature, but with no experience.
Accidents by the figure of hours worked
The construction of the figure of accidents in building harmonizing to the figure of hours worked in the work of get downing work. Accidents in Polish masonry 2006
Analyzing accidents at work in the building harmonizing to the figure of hours worked from the clip work until the accident, we note a clear addition in the figure of accidents at work after working for seven hours. The consequences of this phenomenon are excessively short breaks imposed on the employee ‘s on the job clip. Employees during his last hours at work have less focal point and go careless. Short clip for remainder and convalescence does non let for the proper operation of the worker at the workplace. As a consequence of that Mason is more susceptible to the dangers in the workplace.
The exact analysis by the Central Statistical Office located in Poland was that it was merely in the masonry is the biggest rate of accidents at work in building. However, these professions accidents much less likely to bring forth serious effects in comparing with other professions and building industry as a whole, because the accidents are chiefly light. Comparing the fatal accidents in the Polish building, masonry is one of the lowest topographic points on the list.
Table of accidents in different businesss work.
Bricklayer and Masons
Carpenters, carpenters and related workers
Laborers in general building
Assemblers and installing of healthful installations
Laborers in the building of roads, H2O and related
Other adjunct workers
Road edifice workers
Metal building workers
Completing work workers
Municipal web workers
Adjunct workers in mines
Fitters of electric lines
Water edifice workers
As seen above, most accidents occurred during the executing of masonry work. Over the twelvemonth, 693 accidents a really large consequence. Nevertheless, these incidents were caused entirely by voluntary neglect for the regulations and deficiency of staff, and non by unequal preparation of staff, or deficient cognition of business and menaces at work.
Structure of the effects of accidents at work in masonry
Accidents in Polish masonry 2006
As we see in diagram above there is merely 0,58 % of fatal hurt. Compare to the another trade it is non in high degree. Masonry is characterized by a high rate of light hurt which is caused by inattention of workers and this is a ground why bricklayer and Masons are on top of diagram of most accidents at work.
Based on the above tabular arraies, diagrams, charts, surveies and other grounds I am inclined to state that Masons instruction is high, and is responsible for accidents merely contempt for danger.A I base my decisions on the footing of strong demand Polish bricklayers abroad. Polish accountants of safety and wellness should beef up the cognition of little employers with duties for occupational safety and wellness, in peculiar, cognizant of the demand to put on the line bar. The security state of affairs in the Polish building industry is still, unluckily, is non high and hence should take a greater accent on the cheques of employees or work within the prescribed equipment.