Physical Science Final

The leading weather-related cause of deaths in the United States is:
Extreme heat is often associated with what other severe weather event?
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What is the human body’s primary cooling mechanism?
The rate of evaporation of perspiration from a person’s body __________ as the
relative humidity __________.
wind direction
Which of the following does not affect the value of the apparent temperature(heat index)?
excessive heat warning
What is issued by the National Weather service when prolonged periods of high heat
indices are expected for a single day?
(e) sunburn, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke
. Which of the following lists the human body’s physiological responses to extreme
heat in the order they develop?
heat stroke
What heat-related medical problem results in hot dry skin, rapid and strong pulse and
possible unconsciousness?
to the north
. Where is the jetstream located relative to a region experiencing a heat wave?
upper air ridge
What condition is regarded as the “wave” in “heat wave”?
: (b) Drought is associated with a lack of precipitation
. Which statement regarding drought is true
maintain and intensify a drought
Meteorologists have identified the factors that
meteorological and climatological
An unusually long period during which precipitation is below normal for a particular area is
referred to as what type of drought
In which of the following periods were the impacts of drought most strongly affected by
human activities?
departure from normal precipitation conditions
Which of the following is a quantity used in calculating the Palmer Drought Severity Index
During an extreme drought, what might be a typical value of the Palmer Drought Severity
Index (PDSI)?
. The Crop Moisture Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index are updated __________.
. October was the 4th warmest on record for the U.S. but Chicago is experiencing its 6th coolest year to date in 60 years. True or False? __________.
subtropical high
Which climatological circulation feature provides the key atmospheric signature of a drought
episode in the central United States?
skies are generally clear
. During a summer drought over the central United States, daytime temperatures near the
surface generally become warmer than normal. Why?
all true
Which of the following statements about downbursts is true?
Damage by downbursts can be equivalent to tornado damage from which categories of
1970s, T.Fujita
In what decade and by whom was the downburst first recognized as a distinct atmospheric
What weather instrument is most useful for the detection of downbursts?
downburtst are more intense and concentrated
What distinguishes downbursts from typical downdrafts in showers and thunderstorms?
evaparational cooling and the drag force due to falling precipitation
Which two processes cause air to descend in a downburst?
As rain falls from a thunderstorm, it will __________ if the air below the cloud has a low
relative humidity.
. When the air within a downburst reaches the ground, it spreads outward and creates strong
straight-line winds.
. Approximately 100 lightning strikes occur each second on Earth.
national lightning detection network
What instrument network tracks lightning in the United States?
15 percent
Approximately what percent of lightning strike victims are female?
Which state reports the highest annual number of lightning-related fatalities?
west coast
Which region of the United States has the fewest lightning strikes?
15 percent
. Which of the following is closest to the percentage of lightning strike victims who are killed
by the strike?
all true
Where can lightning occur?
return stroke
What term is used to describe the bright luminous flash of a lightning stroke that moves from
the ground surface to the cloud base?
. Which optical phenomenon, discovered in the 1980s, projects upward from the tops of
thunderstorm clouds, has color, and is difficult to detect with the naked eye?
bolt from the blue
What is the term used to describe a lightning stroke that emerges from the side of a
thunderstorm and strikes the ground several kilometers from the main thunderstorm?
heat lightning
What is the term used to describe light from a distant flash of lightning that is scattered by air
molecules, dust particles, or reflected from clouds and appears as a light flash in the sky
ball lightning
What is the term used to describe a luminous small glowing sphere of gas?
A: (a) increased in frequency
1. Over the past 50 years, El Niño events have
strong el nino to develop
What is the forecast through next spring for El Nino
TAO buoy system
What is considered to be the largest scientific instrument in the world?
(b) El Niño is Spanish for “the Christ Child”.
Which statement(s) is (are) true concerning “El Niño”?
Which term refers to the rising of colder deeper water to the ocean surface?
5. Compared to the eastern tropical Pacific, the western tropical Pacific normally has
_______ sea surface temperatures and _______ sea surface elevations.
arctic oscillation
16. Which of the following is an example of a teleconnection?
a linkage between weather changes occurring in widely separated regions of the globe
what is a teleconnection?
tropical atmosphere ocean
What does TAO stand for?
upper ocean measurements by buoys in the pacific
What is the primary factor in the improvement of monitoring and prediction of El
Niño events in the past 10 to 15 years?
. During an El Niño, which of the following cities is most likely to be wetter than
normal during winter?
sailing ships engaged in trade used these winds to travel westward
How did the “trade winds” get their name?
Which length scale best corresponds to the east-west extent of the Southern
atmosphere and ocean
Which two components of the earth system interact strongly as the El Niño/Southern
Oscillation goes through its complete cycle?
Upwelling is unfavorable for the Peruvian fishing industry.
La Niña is the name given to an exceptionally strong El Niño.
vertical wind shear
What is the linkage between El Niño and hurricane activity in the Atlantic?
sea level pressure
The Southern Oscillation Index is determined by monitoring which variable?
4 to 7 years
how long does the complete cycle of an el nino take
cumulonimbus cloud
. Thunderstorms are also known by what cloud name
any of the above
What are the National Weather Service criteria for a severe thunderstorm
all are correct
Which of the following is (are) necessary for the formation of all thunderstorms?
quasi-biennial oscilliation
Which of the following is not a type of thunderstorm?
supercell thunderstorms
. What type of thunderstorm always rotates?
gust front
What develops when cool air generated by evaporation of rain within the downdrafts spreads
outward away from the thunderstorm after reaching the surface?
Most thunderstorms do not extend very far into the stratosphere because the air in the
stratosphere is __________.
a & b are both correct
A downdraft in a thunderstorm:
composed of ice crystals
A thunderstorm’s anvil is:
supercell thunderstorms
What type(s) of thunderstorms appear as hook shaped echoes on radar reflectivity?
the rotating region of a supercell thunderstorm
What does the term “mesocyclone” refer to?
3 miles
What is a typical diameter of a mesocyclone?
suction vortices
What is the term used to describe the vortices that sometimes develop within a tornado?
30 %
Tornadoes do not develop from all mesocyclones. What is the current estimate, based on
statistics, of the percent of supercell thunderstorms with distinct mesocyclone signatures on
radar that actually produce a tornado
cold air funnel
What type of vortex rarely reaches the ground
. This type of vortex forms along the boundary of cool outflow ahead of a thunderstorm.
Which U.S. state has the most tornadoes per 10,000 square mile area?
In what state do the largest number of violent tornadoes occur?
What percent of world-wide tornadoes occur in the United States?
What is the maximum ranking of a tornado on the EF-scale?
carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor
What are the primary greenhouse gasses?
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
What does IPCC stand for?
go on your own judgment; common sense climate change that sort of thing
What are the effects of global warming?
nitrogen, methane, oxygen, nitrous oxide (nitrogen is the most abundant)
What are gasses that make up our atmosphere? Which is the most abundant?
sea level pressure
What do isobars represent on a weather map?
short range forecasts
Which forecasts are more accurate-short range or long range?
transfer heat from the poles
What is the primary role of extratropical cyclones?

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