# Physics Review

In the product A * B * C, A has five significant figures, B has 2 significant firgures, and C has 3 significant figures. How many significant firgures does the product have?
2
How many significant figures are in the number 0.0037010?
5
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How many significant figures are in the number 120.070?
6
What is the product of 12.56 and 2.12 expressed to the correct number of significant figures?
26.6
Consider a deer that runs from point A to point B. The distance the deer runs can be greater than the magnitude of its displacement, but the magnitude of the displacement can never be greater than the distance it runs. (True or False)
True
Consider a car that travels between points A and B. The car’s average speed can be greater than the magnitude of its average velocity, but the magnitude of its average velocity can never be greater than its average speed. (True or False)
True
What must be your average speed in order to travel 350 km in 5.15 h?
68.0 km/h
A light-year is the distance that light travels in one year. The speed of light is 3.00 x 10^8 m/s. How many miles are there in one light-year? (1 mi = 1609 m, 1 y = 365 d)
5.88 x 10^12 mi
The graph in the figure shows the position of a particle as it travels along the x-axis. What is the magnitude of the average velocity of the particle between t = 1.0 s and t = 4.0 s?
0.67 m/s
The graph in the figure shows the position of a particle as it travels along the x-axis. What is the magnitude of the average speed of the particle between t = 1.0 s and t = 4.0 s?
1.3 m/s
If the velocity of an object is zero at some point, then it’s acceleration just also be zero at that point. (True or False)
False
An auto manufacturer advertises that their car can go “from zero to sixty in eight seconds.” This is a description of what characteristic of the car’s motion?
Average acceleration
An object moving in the +x direction experiences an acceleration of +2 m/s^2. This means the object
is increasing its velocity by 2.0 m/s every second.
When a ball is thrown straight up with no air resistance, the acceleration at its highest point
is downward
A 10-kg rock and a 20-kg rock are thrown upward with the same initial speed v0 and experience no significant air resistance. If the 10-kg rock reaches a maximum height, h, what maximum height will the 20-kg rock reach?
h
A 10-kg rock and a 20-kg rock are dropped from the same height and experience no significant air resistance. If it takes the 20-kg rock a time T to reach the ground, what time will it take the 10-kg rock to reach the ground?
T
Two objects are dropped from a bridge, an interval of 1.0 s apart. Air resistance is negligible. During the time that both objects continue to fall, their separation
increases
From the edge of a roof top you toss a green ball upwards with initial speed v0 and a blue ball downwards with the same initial speed. Air resistance is negligible. When they reach the ground below
the two balls will have the same speed
The slope of a position versus time graph gives
velocity
The slope of a velocity versus time graph gives
acceleration
A racquetball strikes a wall with a speed of 30 m/s and rebounds in the opposite direction with a speed of 26 m/s. The collision takes 20 ms. What is the average acceleration of the ball during the collision with the wall?
2800 m/s^2
A car initially traveling at 60 km/h accelerates at a constant rate of 2.0 m/s^2. How much times is required for the car to reach a speed of 90 km/h?
4.2 s
A cart with an initial velocity of 5.0 m/s to the right experiences a constant acceleration of 2.0 m/s^2 to the right. What is the cart’s displacement during the first 6.0 s of this motion?
66 m
An airplane needs to reach a forward velocity of 203.0 km/h to take off. On a 2000-m runway, what is the minimum uniform acceleration necessary for the plane to take flight if it starts from rest?
0.79 m/s^2
A car starts from rest and accelerates at a steady 6.00 m/s^2. How far does it travel in the first 3.00 s?
27.0 m
If a vector pointing upward has a positive magnitude, a vector pointing downward has a negative magnitude. (True or False)
False
Two displacement vectors have magnitudes of 5.0 m and 7.0 m, respectively. If these two vectors are added together, the magnitude of the sum
could be as small as 2.9 m or as large as 12 m.
The sum of two vectors of fixed magnitudes has the greatest magnitude when the angle between these two vectors is
The sum of two vectors of fixed magnitudes has its minimum magnitude when the angle between these vectors is
180°
If a vector’s components are all negative, then the magnitude of the vector is negative. (True or False)
False
The magnitude of a vector can never be less than the magnitude of any of its components. (True or False)
False
If vector A has components Ax<0 and Ay>0, then the angle that this vector makes with the positive x-axis must be in the range
90° to 180°
For general projectile motion with no air resistance, the horizontal component of a projectile’s velocity
remains a non-zero constant
For general projectile motion with no air resistance, the horizontal component of a projectile’s acceleration
is always zero
A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a tower at the same instant that a stone is dropped vertically. Which object is traveling fast when it hits the level ground below if neither of them experiences any air resistance?
the ball
A pilot drops a package from a plane flying horizontally at a constant speed. Neglecting air resistance, when the package hits the ground the horizontal location of the plane will
be directly over the package.
James and John dive from an overhang into the lake below. James simply drops straight down from the edge. John takes a running start and jumps with an initial horizontal velocity of 25 m/s. If there is no air resistance, when they reach the lake below
the splashdown speed of John is larger than that of James.
The x component of vector A is 8.7 units, and it’s y component is -6.5 units. The magnitude of A is closest to
11 units
When Jeff ran up a fill at 7.0 m/s, the horizontal component of his velocity vector was 5.1 m/s. What was the vertical component of Jeff’s velocity?
4.8 m/s
The x component of vector A is 5.3 units, and it’s y component is -2.3 unites. The angle that vector A makes with the +x-axis is closest to
340°
A boy jumps with a velocity of magnitude 20.0 m// at an angle of 25.0° above the horizontal. What is the horizontal component of the boy’s velocity?
18.1 m/s
You walk 33 m to the north, then turn 60° to your right and walk another 45 m. How far are you from where you originally started?
68 m
The components of vectors A and B are given as follows: Ax = 7.6 Ay = -9.2 Bx = -5.1 By = -6.8 What is the magnitude of the vector difference B-A?
13
If vector A has the components Ax = -3.0 lb and Ay = -4.0 lb, and vector B has components Bx = 3.0 lb and By = -8.0 lb, what is the magnitude of vector C = A – B?
7.2 lb
Vector A has a magnitude of 4.0 m and points 30° south of east. Vector B has a magnitude of 2.0 m and points 30° north of west. The resultant vector A + B is given by
2.0 m at an angle 30° south of east
An airplane undergoes the following displacements, all at the same altitudes: First, it flies 59.0 km in a direction 30.0° east of north. Next, it flies 58.0 km due south. Finally it flies km 30.0° north of west. Use components to determine how far the airplane ends up from its starting point.
71.5 km
Three forces, F1, F2, and F3, each of magnitude 70 N, all act on an object as shown in the figure. The magnitude of the resultant force acting on the object is
0 N.
Three vectors, S, T, and U, have the components shown in the table. What is the magnitude of the resultant of these three vectors?
2.00 m
Three vectors, S, T, and U, have the components shown in the table. What angle does the resultant of these three vectors make with the +x-axis?
66° below the +x-axis
A ball is thrown with an initial velocity of 20 m/s at an angle of 60° above the horizontal. If we can neglect air resistance, what is the horizontal component of its instantaneous velocity at the exact top of its trajectory?
10 m/s
An athlete competing in the long jump leaves the ground with a speed of 9.14 m/s at an angle of 55° with the vertical. What is the length of the athlete’s jump if air resistance is of no significance?
8.0 m
In a collision between a huge SUV and a small hybrid care the SUV exerts a larger force on the hybrid than the hybrid exerts on the SUV. (True or False)
False
A girl attaches a rock to a string, which she then swings counter-clockwise in a horizontal circle. The string breaks at point P in the figure, which sows a bird’s-eye view. Which path (A-E) will the rock follow?
Path B
If you pound a feather with a hammer, which one feels a greater force?
The size of the force is always exactly the same on both of them.
If the rockets of a spaceship in outer space (far from all gravity) suddenly lose power and go off, the spaceship will gradually slow to a stop. (True or False)
False
You are in a train traveling on a horizontal track and notice that a piece of luggage starts to slide directly toward the front of the train. From this observation, you can conclude that this train is
slowing down
You push on box G that is next to box H, causing both boxes to slide along the floor, as shown in the figure. The reaction force to your push is
the push of box G against you.
A small car and large SUV are at a stoplight. The car has a mass equal to half that of the SUV, and the SUV can produce a maximum accelerating force equal to twice that of the car. When the light turns green, both drivers push their accelerators to the floor at the same time. Which vehicle pulls ahead of the other vehicle after a few second?
It is a tie.
An object is moving with constant non-zero velocity. Which of the following statements about it must be true?
The next force on the object is zero.
A person who normally weighs 700 N is riding in a rather swift elevator that is moving at a constant speed of 9.8 m/s. If this person is standing on a bathroom scale inside the elevator, what would the scale read?
700 N
A person who normally weighs 700 N is riding in an elevator that is moving upward but slowly down at a steady rate. If this person is standing on a bathroom scale inside the elevator, what would the scale read?
less than 700 N
What is the mass of an object that experiences a gravitational force of 685 N near Earth’s surface where g = 9.80 m/s^2?
69.9 kg
An astronaut weighs 99 N on the Moon, where the acceleration of gravity is 1.62 m/s^s. How much does she weigh on Earth?
600 N
A net force of 125 N is applied to a certain object. As a result, the object accelerates with an acceleration of 24.0 m/s^2. The mass of the object is
5.21 kg
On its own, a tow truck has a maximum acceleration of 3.0 m/s^2. What will be its maximum acceleration when the truck is using a light horizontal chain to tow a bus of twice its own mass?
1.0 m/s^2
A car of mass 1100 kg that is traveling at 27 m/s starts to slow down and comes to a complete stop in 578 m. What is the magnitude of the average braking force acting on the car?
690 N
The coefficients of static and kinetic friction between a 3.0-kg box and a horizontal desktop are 0.40 and 0.30, respectively. What is the force of friction on the box when a 15-N horizontal push is applied to the box?
8.8 N
An object slides on a level floor. It slows and comes to a stop with a constant acceleration of magnitude 2.4 m/s^2. What is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the object and the floor?
0.24
A policeman investigating an accident measures the skid marks left by a car on the horizontal road. He determines that the distance between the point that the driver slammed on the brakes and the point where the car came to a stop was 28.0 m. From a reference manual he determines that the coefficient of kinetic friction between the tires and the road under the prevailing conditions was 0.300. How fast was the car going when the driver applied the brakes?
12.8 m/s
A baseball player is running to second base at 5.03 m/s. When he is 4.80 m from the plate he goes into a slide. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the player and the ground is 0.180, and the coefficient of static friction is 3.14. What is his speed when he reaches the plate?
2.89 m/s
During a hockey game, a puck is given an initial speed of 10 m/s. It slides 50 m on the horizontal ice before it stops due to friction. What is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the puck and the ice?
0.10
An ornament of mass 40.0 g is attached to a vertical ideal spring with a force constant (spring constant) of 20.0 N/m. The ornament is then lowered very slowly until the spring stops stretching. How much does the spring stretch?
0.0196 m
A force of 30 N stretches a very light ideal spring 0.73 m from equilibrium. What is the force constant (spring constant) of the spring?
41 N/m
Person X pushes twice as hard against a stationary brick wall as person Y. Which one of the following statements is correct?
Both do zero work.
A 35-N bucket of water is lifted vertically 3.0 m and then returned to its original position. How much work did gravity do on the bucket during this process?
0 J
Three cars (car F, car G, and car H) are moving with the same speed and slam on their brakes. The most massive car is car F, and the least massive is car H. If the tires of all three cars have identical coefficients of kinetic friction with the road surface, which car travels the longest distance to skid to a stop?
They all travel the same distance in stopping.
When you drop a pebble from height H, it reaches the ground with speed V if there is no air resistance. From what height should you drop it so it will reach the ground with twice speed?
4H
How much work would a child do while pulling a 12-kg wagon a distance of 4.3 m with a 22 N force?
95 J
You carry a 7.0-kg bag of groceries 1.2 m above the ground at constant speed across a 2.7 m room. How much work do you do on the bag in the process.
0.00 J
Matthew pulls his little sister Sarah along the horizontal ground in a wagon. He exerts a force on the wagon of 60.0 N at an angle of 37.0° above the horizontal. If he pulls her a distance of 12.0 m, how much work does Matthew do?
575 J
A 10-kg dog is running with a speed of 5.0 m/s. What is the minimum work required to stop the dog in 2.40 s?
125 J
How large a net force is required to accelerate a 1600-kg SUV from rest to a speed of 25 m/s in a distance of 200 m?
2500 N
You do 116 J of work while pulling your sister back on a frictionless swing, whose chain is 5.10 m long, until the swing makes an angle of 32.0° with the vertical. What is your sister’s mass?
15.3 kg
A 10-kg mass, hung by an ideal spring, causes the spring to stretch 2.0 cm. What is the spring constant (force constant) for this spring?
49 N/cm
The figure shows a famous roller coaster ride. You can ignore friction. If the roller coaster leaves point Q from rest, what is its speed at the top of the 25-m peak (point S)?
22 m/s
A 1500-kg car accelerates from rest to 25 m/s in 7.0 s. What is the average power delivered by the engine? (1 hp = 746 W)
90 hp
A family goes on vacation for one week but forgets to turn off an electric fan that consumes electricity at the rate of 200 W. If the cost of electricity is 12.0 cents/kWh how much does it cost (to the nearest penny) to run the fan for the week?
\$4.03
In a physical fitness program, a woman who weighs 510 N runs up four flights of stairs in 22 s. Each flight rises 3.1 m. (1 hp = 746 W) (a) what is her total change in potential energy? (B) what was the minimum average power (in watts) that she expended the 22 s? (C) what horsepower motor would be required to generate the same power?
(a) 6324 J (b) 287.466 W (c) .385 hp

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