# Physics vectors and equilibrium

A vector is an arrow that represents the
magnitude and direction of a quantity.
• Force is an example of a vector because it
has an amount and a direction in which the
force is applied.
What is a vector?
a force is a push or a pull. A force can cause an object to start to move to stop or to change direction.
Examples?
What is a force?
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A force where objects come into physical contact with each other and exert forces on each other
What is a contact force?
A force that does not have physical contact i.e. gravity, electrical charge, magnetic attraction
What is a field force?
it is the Newton (N). it can also be measured in other units like pounds.
What is the scientific unit of force?
The combination of all the forces acting on an object. If an object is not moving, can we conclude
that no external forces are acting on it? No, just that thenet force equals (sums to) zero!
What is a net force?
when they are moving at constant speed in a straight line path
When are moving objects in equilibrium?
no it can’t.
Can an object be in equilibrium if only one force acts on it?
Friction is a contact force between objects that slide against each other.
What is friction?
If the pushing force is equal to the friction force opposing it.
When is an object sliding along the floor in equilibrium?
when an object at equilibrium is at rest
What is static equilibrium?
an object that is moving.
What is dynamic equilibrium?
Yes! The object could move at a constant
speed. Nothing is causing a change in
velocity.
Is it possible for an object to move if no net force is acting on it?
Tension is the upward force a rope or spring exerts on an
object hanging from it.
What is tension?
Weight is the gravitational force with which the object is attracted to the earth.
What is weight?
Is a state wherein no physical changes occur;
it is a state of steadiness.
• The net force on the object is zero.
• Mathematically this expressed as:
Sum of F =0
What is mechanical equilibrium?
The sum of two or more vectors is
called their resultant.
• Combining vectors is quite simple
when they are parallel:
– If they are in the same direction,
– If they are in opposite directions,
they subtract.
What is called the sum of two or more vectors?
if they are in the same direction – they add
if they are in opposite directions – they subtract
How do you combine vectors when they are parallel?
To find the resultant of nonparallel vectors, we use the
parallelogram rule.
• Consider two vectors at right angles to each other, The constructed parallelogram in this special case is a rectangle. The diagonal is the resultant R.
Example
How do we find the resultant of non parallel vectors?
is the way we find the resultant of non parallel vectors.
What is the parallelogram rule?
In the special case of two perpendicular vectors that are
equal in magnitude, the parallelogram is a square.
The resultant is square root of 2 times one of the vectors.
For example, the resultant of two equal vectors of
magnitude 100 acting at a right angle to each other is
141.4 Example
What is the resultant of two perpendicular vectors of the same magnitude?

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