Phytochemical And Pharmacological Evaluation Of Solanum Nigrum Linn.
Nature has provided a complete store-house of redresss to bring around all nutriments of world ( Kokate et al. , 2002 ) . This is where, nature provides us drugs in the signifier of herbs, workss and algae ‘s to bring around the incurable diseases without any toxic consequence ( Trees and Evans, 1989 ) . There is a turning involvement in herbal redresss because of their effectivity, minimum side effects in clinical experience and comparatively low cost. Herbal drugs or their infusions are prescribed widely, even when their biological active compounds are unknown ( Gupta et al. , 2005 ) . Epilepsy ( sometimes referred to as a ictus upset ) is a common chronic neurological status that is characterized by recurrent motiveless epileptic ictuss. These ictuss are transeunt marks and/or symptoms due to unnatural inordinate or synchronal neural activity in the encephalon. It affects about 50 million people worldwide ( Fisher et al. , 2005 ) . Inflammation is a upset affecting localised additions in the figure of leucocytes and a assortment of complex go-between molecules. Prostaglandins are omnipresent substances that indicate and modulate cell and tissue responses involved in redness. Their biogenesis has besides been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, malignant neoplastic disease, colonic adenomas and Alzheimer ‘s disease ( Gupta et al. , 2006 ) . Because of increasing side effects of available man-made drugs for epilepsy and redness, there is need to concentrate on the scientific geographic expedition of herbal drugs holding fewer side effects. Solanum nigrum Linn. ( Solanacea ) is a thorny bush widely distributed in Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Southern India and Sri Lanka in damp topographic points. This works is good known in English and Tamil system as ‘Black dark shadiness ‘ and ‘Kakamachi ‘ , severally ( Nadkarni, 1976 ) . The berries of Solanum nigrum ( Solanaceae ) have been reported in the ancient Indian medicative literature with good effects in redness, TB, water pills etc ( Chopra et al. , 1956 ) .
This research was aimed to look intoing the possible anti-convulsant and anti-inflammatory activities of Solanum nigrum in order to back up or rebut the claims by traditional herb doctors in India.
Materials And Methods
Albino strain of rats, weighing about 150 – 200 g were obtained from institute animate being house, KMCP, Madurai and used in the experiments. The protocol was approved by the Institute ‘s Animal Ethical Committee. Animals were kept in carnal house at an ambient temperature of 25 ?C and 45 – 55 % comparative humidness, with 12 Hs each of dark and light rhythms. Animals were fed pellet diet and H2O ad-libitum.
Preparation of Plant Extract
Berries of Solanum nigrum were collected from the medicative garden of institute in November, 2007 and identified by Dr. D. Stephen, section of vegetation, American college, Madurai. The shadiness dried berries were powdered to acquire a class granule. About 750 g of dried pulverization was extracted with assorted dissolvers in increasing mutual opposition by uninterrupted hot infiltration, utilizing soxhlet setup. The resulted dark – brown infusion was concentrated up to 100 milliliters on Rota vapor under decreased force per unit area. The concentrated petroleum infusions were lyophilized in to pulverize and used for the survey.
The infusions obtained were subjected to preliminary phytochemical showing, to place the chemical components. The methods of analysis employed were those described by ( Trease and Evans, 1989 ; Harbone and Baxter, 1993 ) .
Anti-inflammatory activity by Carrageenan induced rat paw hydrops method
Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by the method described by ( Winter et al. , 1962 ) . Albino rats of either sex weighing 200 – 250 g were divided in 4 groups ( N=6 ) . Group-I received 0.5 % CMC suspension ( control ) , Group- II, III and IV received ethanolic infusion ( 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, P.O ) of Solanum nigrum severally. Group-V received Indomethacin ( cite standard 10mg/kg, P.O ) . Animals were treated with drugs by unwritten path and later 1 H after intervention ; 0.1ml of 1 % suspension of carrageenin in normal saline was injected into the subplanter part of left hind paw to bring on hydrops. The paw volume was measured ab initio at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4hr after Carrageenan injection utilizing digital paw hydrops metre ( 520-R, IITC Life Science – USA ) . The difference between the initial and subsequent values gave the existent hydrops volume which was compared with control. The suppression of redness was calculated utilizing the expression, % suppression = 100 ( 1-Vt/Vc ) , Where ‘Vc ‘ represents edema volume in control and ‘Vt ‘ hydrops volume in group treated with trial infusions.
Maximal electroconvulsive therapy ( MES ) induced ictus, ( Fisher, 1989 ) : The animate beings were divided into 5 groups of 6 Numberss each and were administered as follows: Group I received vehicle, Group II received Phynytoin 25 mg/kg, Group- III, IV and V received ethanolic infusion ( 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, P.O ) of Solanum nigrum severally. All these were administered by unwritten path 30 min before application of electroconvulsive therapy ( 150 MA, 0.2 sec ) utilizing corneal electrode. The continuance tonic hind leg extension was noted.
The consequences are presented as Mean ± SEM. One manner analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) followed by Dunnett ‘s t-test for multiple comparings were used for statistical rating. P-values less than 0.05 were considered important.
Hexane, benzine infusions showed the presence of saponin, phytosterols, tanins and fixed oils and fats. The ethanolic and aqueous infusions showed the presence of saccharides, coumarins, phytosterols and flavonoids. The phytochemical probe of infusions of Solanum nigrum is shown in Table 1.
The infusion was found to hold a important ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) inhibitory consequence on the carrageenan-induced hydrops in rats at all the doses ( 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg organic structure weight ) tested in rats when compared to the normal saline control and standard Indomethacin. The activity resides more at the higher dosage of 300 mg/kg with 63 % suppression after 4 hours of extract disposal. Besides in respect to the other doses 100 and 200 mg/kg there was besides important lessening with 28 % and 52 % lessening after 4 hours of extract disposal when compared with standard drug 38 % . The consequence of ethanolic infusions of Solanum nigrum in Carrageenan induced paw hydrops in rats was shown in Table 2.
The infusions was found to hold a important consequence ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) on supra maximum electric daze in rats. The per centum inhibitory activity of infusion ( 100, 200, 300 mg/kg ) when compared with standard drug diphenylhydantoin was 36.01 % , 25.21 % and 38.86 % severally. The effects of ethanolic infusions of Solanum nigrum in supra maximum electric daze method in rats shown in Table 3.
Carrageenan-induced hydrops has been normally used as an experimental animate being theoretical account for acute redness and is believed to be biphasic. The early stage ( 1 – 2 H ) of the carrageenin theoretical account is chiefly mediated by histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and increased synthesis of prostaglandins in the damaged tissue milieus. The late stage is sustained by prostaglandin release and mediated by bradykinin, leukotrienes, polymorphonuclear cells and prostaglandins produced by tissue macrophages ( Brito and Antonio, 1998 ; Gupta et al. , 2006 )
The important inhibitory activity shown by the EESN ( 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg ) over a period of 4 H in carragenan-induced redness was rather similar to that exhibited by the group treated with Indomethacin. The highest per centum suppression activity was found in the dosage of 300 mg/kg with the average per centum suppression of 63 % after 4 hours of extract disposal. Previous survey with some other workss likes Solanum trilobatum ( Pandurangan et al. , 2008 ; 2009 ) , Plumeria acuminate ( Gupta et al. , 2006 ) and Thesium chinense ( Parveen et al. , 2007 ) besides showed the same consequence in this theoretical account. These consequences indicate that the extract Acts of the Apostless in ulterior stages in dose dependent mode, likely affecting arachidonic acid metabolites, which produce an hydrops dependant neutrophils mobilisation ( Just et al. , 1998 ) . This anti-inflammatory consequence of the infusion observed might be due to the presence of flavonoids in the works.
The information generated during present survey indicated that ethanolic infusion of Solanum nigrum ( EESN ) possesses anticonvulsant activity against ictuss induced by MES, in a dose dependent mode. It was effectual against MES induced ictuss, since suppression of the MES trial predicts activity against generalized tonic-clonic and cortical focal ictuss. Anticonvulsant activity of EESN in suppressing ictuss may be by modulating GABA – mediated synaptic suppression through action at distinguishable sites of the synapse. It is headlong to impute the consequence of EESN to the GABAergic system ( Kumaresan & A ; Saravanan, 2009 ) . The consequences suggest a possible anticonvulsant consequence of EESN in carnal theoretical account. The precise mechanisms of possible anticonvulsant consequence of EESN are non clear. The benzodiazepine site in the GABAA receptor and T-type Ca2+ currents could be marks for future surveies to cognize the mechanisms of action of EESN.
From this preliminary probe it has been concluded that the berries of Solanum nigrum holding important anti-inflammatory and anti-convulsant activity, the flavonoids nowadays in the berries might be a responsible active component for this activity. Further research is in advancement to insulate the compound responsible for this activity.
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