Plants: Provision for Life- Malia Nelson-A Beka Book- Science Order and Reality

Question Answer
Biology The study of living things
Botany The branch of biology that specializes in plants
Botanists Scientists who study plants
Christian Konrad Sprengel A botanists who was a Christian and recorded many important details about flowers that were not appreciated until after he died. He wanted to give all glory to God for his astounding work.
Cross-fertilization Because flowers cannot fertilize themselves, wind or insects must pollinate them; This is cross-fertilization.
Pistil A vase-shaped structure on a plant that also contains the ovary
Stigma The top of the pistil
Style The curved in middle part of the pistil
Ovary Holds potential seeds
Potential seeds Ovules
Stamens One or more structures that surround the pistil. Consists of an anther.
Anther Rests at the top of a hairlike filament. The function of the anther is to produce pollen grains.
Staminate, pistillate flowers that have only stamens or pistils
Petals Surrounds the pistil and stamens; it's purpose is to attract insects or birds that pollinate the plant.
Sepals Leaf-like structures that surround the petals
Bud The developing flower
Receptacle The enlarged upper portion of the stem
Dissect Cut appart
Pollination The transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma
Fertilization The formation of a seed by the uniting of a sperm nucleus from a pollen grain with an egg cell.
Self-pollination The flower has such an excess of pollen that the flower usually undergoes this process.
Cross-pollination When pollen is carried from one plant to another by animals or humans
Pollen tube This grows from the pollen's location on the stigma, through the style, and into the ovary after a pollen grain is attached to a stigma on same kind of plant.
Sperm nucleus Divides to form the sperm nuclei.
After the sperm nucleus divides to form the sperm nuclei, the sperm nuclei slide through this tube, and one of them unites with the _______ _________. Egg cell
Embryo A miniature plant
The embryo is a miniature plant made up of a _________. Plumule
Radicle A small root
Cotyledons Structures designed for food absorption and storage
Endosperm Holds stored food
Seed coat Tough outer covering
Germination The early growth of a seed
Monocotyledons (Monocots) Plant's whose seeds have only one cotyledon
Dicotyledons (Dicots) Plants that have two cotyledons
Fruit Anything that forms from the ovary of a flower
Dispersal The scattering or distributing of seeds
Mechanical dispersal Occurs when the ripened fruit bursts open and scatter the seeds some distance from the plant
Agent dispersal Dispersal by animals, wind, or water
Germinate Begin growing
Photosynthesis The food-making process of plants
Composite family Composite means "put together". A composite "flower is actually many small flowers grouped together into a head. (Head is an important word!)
Disk flowers Many closely-packed, tubular disk flowers form the head's center
Ray flowers Showy, peddle-like flowers that surround the center of a flower
Pea family The third largest angiosperm family have flowers that resemble the pea blossom. Members of this family, also called legumes get their name from their seedpods, or legumes, that split along two sides when the seeds are fully developed.
Nitrogen cycle Something Legume plants help to restore to the soil
Rose family A family of plants with white, pink, or rose-colored blossoms. Most plants in the rose family have woody stems, fleshy fruits, and flower parts in multiples of 5. There are more than 3,000 species.
Buttercup family This family usually has flowers with 5 rounded petals (or petal-like sepals ) that form a cup-shaped blossom a few plants of this family have red, white, blue, or purple flowers
Honeysuckle family Honeysuckles have and abundance of beautiful trumpet shaped flowers which may be white, yellow, pink, purple, or bright scarlet. After pollination, these flowers are replaced by red, yellow, black, and white berries.
Spikes Long flower arrangement with clusters attached directly to the stem.
Mint family The stems of mints are square and stout and their flower clusters frequently form spikes.
Parsley Family Members of this family have clusters of small flowers arranged in umbels. Members of the parsley family have compound umbels.
Milkweed Family This family has flowers arranged in umbels every flower has five nectar horns each consisting of a cup like hood and a slender crest a petal hangs downward from each nectar horn.
Umbels This word is from the Latin word umbella from which we get our word umbrella.
Amaryllis Family Contains over 800 species and grow in warm areas or as potted plants in colder climates. The flowers of these plants usually grow on leafless stalks. Over half of the 800 amaryllis species grow from bulbs the rest grow from corms or rhizomes.
Bulb A structure made of layers of thick, fleshy leaves surrounding a very short stem.
Corms Thick, vertical underground stems
Rhizomes Horizontal stems lying along or just under the ground.
Almost _____-_____ of flowering plants are dicots. Three forths
Inferior Attached below the other flower parts. The ovary of an amaryllis is inferior.
Superior Attached above the other flower parts, like the ovaries of lilies and most other flowers.
Node The place where the leaf attaches to the stem
Blade The broad, flat portion of a leaf
Sheath Attaches the culm to the blade
Stolon A creeping stem that grows along the ground
Racemes Inconspicuous flower clusters growing along a main stem in spikes
Grains Fertilized grass flowers
Grasses cover ___-_____ of the earth's land area. One third
Three basic leaf shapes Broad, flat leaves; long, narrow leaves; and needlelike or scalelike leaves
The location of the leaves on a plant allows each leaf to have _______ exposure to light. Maximum
Most leaf blades attach to the node by a stalk called a _______. Petiole
What are the four most common leaf arrangements? Opposite, alternate, whorled, and rosette
Sessile Leaves that have no petioles but instead attach directly to the stem by a sheath.
Simple leaves Leaves that have only one blade attached to a petiole
Compound leaf Has more than one blade joined to a petiole
Leaflets The blades of compound leaves
Palmately compound When a compound leave that has all the leaflets attached at a common point on the petiole's tip
Pinnately compound A compound leaf that has leaflets that attach a intervals along the petiole
Leaf margins The edges of leaves
Name three different types of leaf margins. Toothed, lobed, and entire
Entire margins Margins that are smooth and unbroken
Toothed margins Margins that have small, sharp teeth or large, blunt teeth
Producers Because plants make their own food they are called this.
Consumers Animals and people who eat plants are called this.
Chloroplasts Chemical factories containing chlorophyll
Chlorophyll The green pigment found in plants
Chlorophyll absorbs light energy that the plant uses to form the chemical _________ ___________. Adenosine triphosphate
Stomata Pores on the underside of the leaf
Starches Complex chains of glucose units
Cellulose A carbohydrate found in the cell wall of plant cells
Glucose A plant's simple sugar
Resperation Through a series of complex reactions, respiration combines glucose (or the other compounds made from it) with oxygen to produce energy along with carbon dioxide and water.
Unlike ______________ which can only occur during the day respiration occurs all day and night. Photosynthesis
Paper chromatography A method some scientists use to separate pigment mixtures
Taproot systems In which the primary (main) root grows straight down and remains larger than the secondary roots that branch out from it
What three important things do roots do for the plant? 1. Anchors the plant in the soil
2. Absorbs water and minerals for plant growth
3. Stores food
Fibrous root systems In which the primary root remains small and many slender secondary roots grow from it in all directions
Vegetative reproduction When a plant's roots spreads out to make new plants
The tip of a root consists of both an outer and inner of this, made from dead cells and an inner area of new growth cells that form immediately behind this. Root cap
Primary growth Growth in length
Secondary growth Growth in diameter
Root hairs Develops from the sides of the root and force their way between soil particles to absorb necessary nutrients.
Water and dissolved chemicals are absorbed through the cell membranes of the root hairs by the process of _______. Osmosis
Osmosis The continual movement of water from a solution of higher content through a semipermeable membrane into a solution of lower content
Semipermeable membrane A membrane that allows only certain molecules to pass through
Xylem (opposite of Phloem) This tissue carries water and nutrient from the root hairs to the leaves where the water is used in photosynthesis or released through to stomata
Phloem This tissue carries sugars from the leaves to the stem and roots to be stored
Root preassure The upward force that results as water enters the roots by osmosis
Tranpiartion Evaporation from the leaves
Capillarity (Also known as capillary action) The tendency of water molecules to move up through a tiny space.
Most plants do not store glucose directly instead they do what? Plants covert excess glucose into starches

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