Police Operations Test #3 Chapter 6 & 7 Crime Mapping- This technology gives agencies nationwide the Intel to efficiency deploy officers to prevent crime. GIS- Geographic information systems a fancy term for creating, updating and analyzing computerized maps. 3)Responding to Calls about Crime and Disorder- How police officers respond to calls about committed crimes depends on several important variables. What specific crime is involved Is the crime still in progress?
How many suspects are involved? Are weapons involved? Is there a danger to the police? Could a hostage situation develop? How many officers are needed to respond? How many officers are available? Where are they? 4) Responsibilities of officers responding to a call regarding a criminal act include: Arriving as rapidly, yea as safely, as possible. Caring for any injured people at the scene. Apprehending any suspects at the scene. Securing the scene. Conducting a preliminary investigation. ) Securing the crime scene- The first officer to arrive on the crime scene from unauthorized intrusion or others contamination: “Controlling, identifying and removing persons at the crime scene and limiting the number of persons who enter the crime scene and the movement of such persons is an important function of the initial responding officers in protecting the crime scene”. 6) Preliminary Investigations- The preliminary investigation of a crime involves on the scene interviews of victims and witnesses, interrogation of suspects and a search of the scene itself. ) Collective Efficacy- Cohesion among neighborhood residents combined with shared expectations for informal social control of public space. ” 8)Civil Disobedience- Consists of breaking a law to prove a point or to protest something. Civil disobedience occurs daily around the world, from the fight against apartheid in South Africa, to the quest for autonomy of ethnic groups in Europe, to demonstrations in Washington, DC, against racism or for a more responsive government. )Hostage Situations- 1) the criminal trapped at the crime scene or escaping from the crime scene who uses bystanders as shields or bargaining tools, (2) terrorists, (3) prisoners and (4) mentally unstable individuals. Category 1 is considered the “traditional” hostage situation. Flash bangs- devices that explode with a loud bang and emit a brilliant, temporarily blinding light. Hostage/Hostage taker relationship- As time progresses, the hostage and his captor have the opportunity to emotionally bond and, in general, calm down.
This phenomenon is called Stockholm Syndrome and involves the process of transference, in which hostages feel positive toward their captors and negative toward the police, and the captors return these positive feelings. Madsen case- Madsen V. Women’s Health Center Inc. That a Florida statue establishing a 300-foot zone around clinics to protect it from abortion protesters was constitutional. Van Blaircom’s guidelines for responding to individuals who are mentally ill- Do not take risks, Do slowdown and access, Do not shout orders or move in to quickly too close, Do continue trying to establish communication and rapport.
Do not prematurely introduce lethal weapons; they may not work and can provoke an attack, and Do take as much time as needed under the circumstances. Crisis Incident Team (CIT)- Training to help officers identify individuals who need mental health treatment, thereby preventing such individuals from ending up in jail “disturbing the peace” or dead. Battered Woman syndrome- Which is now recognized as a defense by the courts. Movies such as the Burning Bed have helped to publicize the predicament of women who are beaten by their husbands and the lengths to which they may go to end the abuse.
Three stage cycle abuse- Tension building stage: The victim suffers minor battering incidents, verbal abuse and psychological humiliation. Acute Battering Episode: this is the explosive, violent incident, which may be physical or sexual. The Honeymoon: During this phase- the most challenging and frustrating for law enforcement- the batterer tries to win the victims forgiveness with apologies, affection, promises, gifts, etc. This often works, and the cycle continues. Partner Abuse- Victims often do not want to press charges and do not want the victimizers to be put in jail. A victim ay not only fear retaliation, but also not want to give up the abuser’s income or companionship. Gay Domestic Violence- Research reporting that about 47% of gays and lesbians have been victims of violent domestic relationships. And that, taken as a whole domestic violence. They suggest that the two most common forms of domestic violence were verbal harassment and prohibiting social contacts (40%). Instrumental Violence- In formulating a response, police might consider the difference between instrumental violence (that used to control) and expressive violence (that resulting from hurt, feelings, or rage).
Child Abuse- Any physical emotional or sexual trauma to a child for which no reasonable explanation, such as an accident, can be found. Parent who deny their child food, clothing, and nurturing they require are guilty neglect, which can be just as damaging to the child as physical abuse. The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment- The study examined three police responses to domestic violence calls and their effects on reducing future abuse: Arrest the suspect Give only advice to the suspect
Order the suspect to leave the premises Failure to protect lawsuits- In many states, officers who have evidence that an assault has occurred have no choice but to make an arrest. The case largely responsible for this change in approach is Thurman V. City of Torrington (1984), in which Tracy Thurman, over a period of eight months, contacted Torrington police on at least 11 seperate occasions to report threats upon her life and the life of her child made by her estranged husband, Charles Thurman.
Duluth Model- “ The Duluth Model was designed in 1981 as a coordinated community response of law enforcement, the criminal and civil courts and human service providers working together to hold offenders accountable for the behaviors and to make communities safer for victims. ” Types of stalking- where the stalker and victim may know each other casually and may even have dated once or twice but were never intimate; and stranger stalking commonly found in cases involving celebrities and other public figures, where no prior relationship between the stalker and victim exists.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta- is a medical condition characterized by bones that break easily. Because child abuse is also characterized by broken bones , false accusations of child abuse may occur in families with children who suffer from OI. Comp Statt- “Computer statistics” or “Comparison Statistics” is a multi-facted system for managing police operations with a proven track record in several major metropolitan police departments tracing it’s roots back to 1994 in the New York City Police Department. Attending to injuries- Is considered an emergency matter along with apprehending suspects.
Many factors must be taken into account such as; Are the injuries life threatening, Is the suspect considered dangerous, The answers to those should take priority. Collecting Evidence- A large part of preliminary investigation can help determine that a crime has been committed and be committed by a certain person. The evidence may be the turning point determining weather a case can be made a criminal activity. Groups Involved- Human Rights Concerns, Environmental Concerns, Animal Rights Concerns, Pro Life and Pro Choice Conflicts, The Black Bloc, Racism and other Biases.
Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP)- A psychiatric ailment that leads a person to fabricate a child’s illness to fulfill their own needs for attention and sympathy. Elder Abuse- The physical and emotional trauma, financial exploitation and/or general neglect of individuals over 65 years of age. School Violence- An unacceptable social behavior ranging from aggression to violence that threatens or harms others, goes beyond highly publicized incidents of mass bloodshed to include acts such as bullying, threats and extortion.
Bullying- Bullying maybe any of the following physical abuse, verbal abuse, psychological/Emotional abuse, or Sexual abuse. Lock down- Periods when students are detained in classrooms while police and dogs scour the building searching for contraband or any danger to a safe educational environment. Zero-tolerance policies- School policies that mandate predetermined consequences or punishments for specific offenses, for example, suspension or expulsion for possession of drugs or a weapon.