Policing RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED UNDER INVESTIGATION Common law, constitutional, statutory, and humanitarian rights of the accused: ¦ A right against unreasonable searches ¦ A right against unreasonable arrest ¦ A right against unreasonable seizures of property ¦ A right to fair questioning by authorities ¦ A right to protection from personal harm These individual rights must be effectively balanced against these community concerns: ¦ The efficient apprehension of offenders ¦ The prevention of crimes How does our system of justice work toward balance? 2P A R T
ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. To Protect and to Serve Famed police administrator and former New York City Police Commissioner Patrick V. Murphy once said, “It is a privilege to be a police officer in a democratic society. ” While Murphy’s words still ring true, many of today’s law enforcement officers might hear in them only the echo of a long-dead ideal, unrealistic for today’s times.
America’s police officers form the front line in the unending battle against crime—a battle that seems to get more sinister and more demanding with each passing day. It is the police who are called when a crime is in progress or when one has been committed. The police are expected to objectively and impartially investigate law violations, gather evidence, solve crimes, and make arrests resulting in the successful prosecution of suspects—all the while adhering to strict due process standards set forth in the U. S. Constitution and enforced by the courts.
The chapters in this section of Criminal Justice Today provide an overview of the historical development of policing; describe law enforcement agencies at the federal, state, and local levels; explore issues related to police administration; and discuss the due process and legal environments surrounding police activity. As you will see, although the police are ultimately charged with protecting the public, they often believe that members of the public do not accord them the respect they deserve, and they feel that the distance between the police and the public is not easily bridged.
Within the last few decades, however, an image of policing has emerged that may do much to heal that divide. This model, known as community policing, goes well beyond traditional conceptions of the police as mere law enforcers and encompasses the idea that police agencies should take counsel from the communities they serve. Under this model, the police are expected to prevent crime, as well as solve it, and to help members of the community deal with other pressing social issues. 5 Policing: History and Structure 6 Policing: Purpose and Organization 7 Policing: Legal Aspects Policing: Issues and Challenges ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. ” “ Policing: History and Structure O U T L I N E ¦ Introduction ¦ Historical Development of the Police ¦ American Law Enforcement Today: From the Federal to the Local Level ¦ Federal Agencies ¦ State Agencies ¦ Local Agencies ¦ Private Protective Services L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Summarize the historical development of policing in America, including the impact of the Prohibition era on American policing. ¦ Describe the nature of scientific police studies, and explain the significance they hold for law enforcement practice today. ¦ Describe the three major levels of public law enforcement in the United States today. ¦ Describe the nature and extent of private protective services in the United States today, and describe the role these services might play in the future. ¦ Explain the relationship between private security and public policing in America today.
C H5A P T E R The police in the United States are not separate from the people. They draw their authority from the will and consent of the people, and they recruit their officers from them. The police are the instrument of the people to achieve and maintain order; their efforts are founded on principles of public service and ultimate responsibility to the public. —National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall.
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. “ ” Unlike the soldier fighting a war on foreign soil, police officers, who provide for our safety at home, have never been given the honor that was their due. —Hubert Williams, President, The Police Foundation1 ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. 160 PART 2 Policing KEY CONCEPTS TERMS NAMES bobbies Bow Street Runners comes stabuli directed patrol evidence-based policing Exemplary Projects Program ederal law enforcement agency Henry Fielding Richard Mayne Kansas City experiment Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) municipal police department new police night watch private protective services Patrick V. Murphy Robert Peel scientific police management sheriff Statute of Winchester sworn officer vigilantism Wickersham Commission Charles Rowan Hear the author discuss this chapter at cjtoday. com If you want the present to be different from the past, study the past. —Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677) British “bobbies. ” Today’s uniformed English police officers have a recognizable appearance ooted in the time of Sir Robert Peel. Comstock Images Introduction Many of the techniques used by today’s police differ quite a bit from those employed in days gone by. Listen to how a policeman, writing in the mid-1800s, describes the way pickpockets were caught in London 200 years ago: “I walked forth the day after my arrival, rigged out as the very model of a gentleman farmer, and with eyes, mouth, and pockets wide open, and a stout gold-headed cane in my hand, strolled leisurely through the fashionable thoroughfares, the pump-rooms, and the assembly-rooms, like a fat goose waiting to be plucked.
I wore a pair of yellow gloves well wadded, to save me from falling, through a moment’s inadvertency, into my own snare, which consisted of about fifty fish-hooks, large black hackles, firmly sewn barb downward, into each of the pockets of my brand new leather breeches. The most blundering ‘prig’ alive might have easily got his hand to the bottom of my pockets, but to get it out again, without tearing every particle of flesh from the bones, was a sheer impossibility. . . I took care never to see any of my old customers until the convulsive tug at one or other of the pockets announced the capture of a thief. I then coolly linked my arm in that of the prisoner, [and] told him in a confidential whisper who I was. ”2 ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Policing: History and Structure CHAPTER 5 161 ¦ Lecture Note Review the development of the modern police, beginning ith law enforcement practices in early England, continuing with the growth of American police forces, and culminating with a description of contemporary American law enforcement agencies. comes stabuli A nonuniformed mounted law enforcement officer of medieval England. Early police forces were small and relatively unorganized but made effective use of local resources in the formation of posses, the pursuit of offenders, and the like. night watch An early form of police patrol in English cities and towns. Statute of Winchester A law, written in 1285, that reated a watch and ward system in English cities and towns and that codified early police practices. Historical Development of the Police Police tactics and strategy have changed substantially since historical times, and many different kinds of police agencies—some of them highly specialized—function within the modern criminal justice system. This chapter describes the development of organized policing in Western culture and discusses the function of contemporary American police forces at the federal, state, and local levels. Agency examples are given at each level.
The promise held by private protective services, the recent rapid growth of private security organizations, and the quasi-private system of justice are also discussed. English Roots The rise of the police as an organized force in the Western world coincided with the evolution of strong centralized governments. Although police forces have developed throughout the world, often in isolation from one another, the historical growth of the English police is of special significance to students of criminal justice in America, for it was on the British model that much of early American policing was based.
Efforts at law enforcement in early Britain, except for military intervention in the pursuit of bandits and habitual thieves, were not well organized until around the year A. D. 1200. 3 When a person committed an offense and could be identified, he or she was usually pursued by an organized posse. All able-bodied men who could hear a victim’s cry for help were obligated to join the posse in a common effort to apprehend the offender. The posse was led by the shire reeve (the leader of the county) or by a mounted officer (the comes stabuli). Our modern words sheriff and constable are derived from these early terms.
The comites stabuli (the plural form of the term) were not uniformed, nor were they numerous enough to perform all the tasks we associate today with law enforcement. This early system, employing a small number of mounted officers, depended for its effectiveness on the ability to organize and direct the efforts of citizens toward criminal apprehension. The offender, cognizant of a near-certain end at the hands of the posse, often sought protection from trusted friends and family. As a consequence, feuds developed among organized groups of citizens, some seeking revenge and some siding with the offender.
Suspects who lacked the shelter of a sympathetic group might flee into a church and invoke the time-honored custom of sanctuary. Sanctuary was rarely an ideal escape, however, as pursuers could surround the church and wait out the offender, preventing food and water from being carried inside. The offender, once caught, became the victim. Guilt was usually assumed, and trials were rare. Public executions, often involving torture, typified this early justice and served to provide a sense of communal solidarity as well as group retribution.
The development of law enforcement in English cities and towns grew out of an early reliance on bailiffs, or watchmen. Bailiffs were assigned the task of maintaining a night watch, primarily to detect fires and spot thieves. While too few in number to handle most emergencies, bailiffs were able to rouse the sleeping population, which could then deal with whatever crisis was at hand. Larger cities expanded the idea of bailiffs by creating both a night watch and a day ward. British police practices became codified in the Statute of Winchester, written in 1285.
The statute (1) specified the creation of the watch and the ward in cities and towns; (2) mandated the draft of eligible males to serve those forces; (3) institutionalized the use of the hue and cry, making citizens who disregarded a call for help subject to criminal penalties; and (4) required that citizens maintain weapons in their home for answering the call to arms. Some authors have attributed the growth of modern police forces to the gin riots that plagued London and other European cities in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
The invention of gin around 1720 provided, for the first time, a potent and inexpensive alcoholic drink readily available to the massed populations gathered in the early industrial ghettos of eighteenth-century cities. Seeking to drown their troubles, huge numbers of people, far beyond the ability of the bailiffs to control, began binges of drinking and rioting. During the next hundred years, these gin riots created an immense social problem for British authorities. By this time, the bailiff system had broken down and was staffed by groups of woefully inadequate substitutes, hired by original draftees to perform duties in their stead.
Incompetent and unable to depend on the citizenry for help in enforcing the laws, bailiffs became targets of mob violence and were often attacked and beaten for sport. ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. 162 PART 2 Policing Bow Street Runners An early English police unit formed under the leadership of Henry Fielding, magistrate of the Bow Street region of London. Law enforcement is a tool of power. —Alvin Toffler new police A police force formed in 1829 nder the command of Sir Robert Peel. It became the model for modern-day police forces throughout the Western world. bobbies The popular British name given to members of Sir Robert (Bob) Peel’s Metropolitan Police Force. Judge Roy Bean (seated on barrel) holding court in Langtry, Texas, circa 1900. Culver Pictures, Inc. The Bow Street Runners The early eighteenth century saw the emergence in London of a large criminal organization led by Jonathan Wild. Wild ran a type of fencing operation built around a group of loosely organized robbers, thieves, and burglars who would turn their plunder over to him.
Wild would then negotiate with the legitimate owners for a ransom of their possessions. The police response to Wild was limited by disinterest and corruption. However, change began when Henry Fielding, a well-known writer, became the magistrate of the Bow Street region of London. Fielding attracted a force of dedicated officers, dubbed the Bow Street Runners, who soon stood out as the best and most disciplined enforcement agents that London had to offer. Fielding’s personal inspiration and his ability to communicate what he saw as the social needs of the period may have accounted for his success.
In February 1725, Wild was arrested and arraigned on the following charges: “(1) that for many years past he had been a confederate with great numbers of highwaymen, pick-pockets, housebreakers, shop-lifters, and other thieves, (2) that he had formed a kind of corporation of thieves, of which he was the head or director . . . , (3) that he had divided the town and country into so many districts, and appointed distinct gangs for each, who regularly accounted with him for their robberies . . . , (4) that the persons employed by him were for the most part felon convicts . . , (5) that he had, under his care and direction, several warehouses for receiving and concealing stolen goods, and also a ship for carrying off jewels, watches, and other valuable goods, to Holland, where he had a superannuated thief for his benefactor, and (6) that he kept in his pay several artists to make alterations, and transform watches, seals, snuff-boxes, rings, and other valuable things, that they might not be known. ”4 Convicted of these and other crimes, Wild attempted suicide by drinking a large amount of laudanum, an opium compound.
The drug merely rendered him senseless, and he was hanged the following morning, having only partially recovered from its effects. In 1754, Henry Fielding died. His brother John took over his work and occupied the position of Bow Street magistrate for another 25 years. The Bow Street Runners remain famous to this day for quality police work. The New Police In 1829, Sir Robert Peel, who later became prime minister of England, formed what many have hailed as the world’s first modern police force. Passage of the Metropolitan Police Act that same year allocated the resources for Peel’s force of 1,000 handpicked men.
The London Metropolitan Police Force, also known as the new police or more simply the “Met,” soon became a model for police forces around the world. Members of the Metropolitan Police were quickly dubbed bobbies, after their founder. London’s bobbies were organized around two principles: the belief that it was possible to discourage crime, and the practice of preventive patrol. Peel’s police patrolled the streets by walking beats. Their predecessors, the watchmen, had occupied fixed posts throughout the city, awaiting a public outcry.
The new police were uniformed, resembling a military organization, and adopted a military administrative style. ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Policing: History and Structure CHAPTER 5 163 The video Do It Yourself Justice from the ABC News/Prentice Hall Video Library is recommended. Ask the class whether vigilantism is a peculiarly American phenomenon. Ask whether it has a place in society and hy some people feel the need to take the law into their own hands. ¦ Lecture Note Discuss how the needs of society contributed, at different times, to a variety of law enforcement models. As an example, use the “Wild West” model of law enforcement personified by Wyatt Earp and others to show how a “six-gun” culture gave rise to a peculiarly American enforcement style. vigilantism The act of taking the law into one’s own hands. London’s first two police commissioners were Colonel Charles Rowan, a career military officer, and Richard Mayne, a lawyer.
Rowan believed that mutual respect between the police and the citizenry would be crucial to the success of the new force. As a consequence, early bobbies were chosen for their ability to reflect and inspire the highest personal ideals among young men in early-nineteenth-century Britain. The new police were not immediately well received. Some elements of the population saw them as an occupying army, and open battles between the police and the citizenry ensued. The tide of sentiment turned, however, when an officer was viciously killed in the Cold Bath Fields riot of 1833.
A jury, considering a murder charge against the killer, returned a verdict of “not guilty,” inspiring a groundswell of public support for the much-maligned force. The Early American Experience Early American law enforcement efforts were based to some degree on the British experience. Towns and cities in colonial America depended on modified versions of the night watch and the day ward, but the unique experience of the American colonies quickly differentiated the needs of colonists from those of the masses remaining in Europe.
Huge expanses of uncharted territory, vast wealth, a widely dispersed population engaged mostly in agriculture, and a sometimes ferocious frontier all combined to mold American law enforcement in a distinctive way. Recent writers on the history of the American police have observed that policing in America was originally “decentralized,” “geographically dispersed,” “idiosyncratic,” and “highly personalized. ”5 The Frontier One of the major factors determining the development of American law enforcement was the frontier, which remained vast and wild until late in the nineteenth century.
The backwoods areas provided a natural haven for outlaws and bandits. Henry Berry Lowery, a famous outlaw of the Carolinas, the James Gang, and many lesser-known desperadoes felt at home in the unclaimed swamps and forests. Only the boldest of settlers tried to police the frontier. Among them was Charles Lynch, a Virginia farmer of the late eighteenth century. Lynch and his associates tracked and punished offenders, often according to the dictates of the still well-known lynch law, or vigilante justice, which they originated. Citizen posses and vigilante groups were often the only law available to settlers on the western frontier.
Judge Roy Bean (“the Law West of the Pecos”), “Wild Bill” Hickok, Bat Masterson, Wyatt Earp, and Pat Garrett were other popular figures of the nineteenth century who took it upon themselves, sometimes in semiofficial capacities, to enforce the law on the books as well as the standards of common decency. Although today vigilantism has a negative connotation, most of the original vigilantes of the American West were honest men and women trying to forge an organized and predictable lifestyle out of the challenging situations that they encountered.
Often faced with unscrupulous, moneyhungry desperadoes, they did what they could to bring the standards of civilization, as they understood them, to bear in their communities. Policing America’s Early Cities Small-scale, organized law enforcement came into being quite early in America’s larger cities. In 1658, paid watchmen were hired by the city of New York to replace drafted citizens. 6 By 1693, the first uniformed officer was employed by the city, and in 1731, the first neighborhood station, or precinct, was constructed.
Boston, Cincinnati, and New Orleans were among the American communities to follow the New York model and hire a force of watchmen in the early nineteenth century. In 1829, American leaders closely watched as Sir Robert Peel created London’s new police. One year later, Stephen Girard, a wealthy manufacturer, donated a considerable amount of money to the city of Philadelphia to create a capable police force. The city hired 120 men to staff a night watch and 24 to perform similar duties during the day. In 1844, New York’s separate day and night forces were combined into the New York City Police Department.
Boston followed suit in 1855. Further advances in American policing were precluded by the Civil War. Southern cities captured in the war came under martial law and were subject to policing by the military. The coming of the twentieth century, coinciding as it did with numerous technological advances and significant social changes, brought a flood of reform. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) was formed in 1902; it immediately moved to create a nationwide clearinghouse for ISBN: 0-536-09974-X
Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. 164 PART 2 Policing ¦ Lecture Note Review the origins and impact of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution (on Prohibition), and trace its effects on crime and law enforcement. A New York City police officer “mugging” a prisoner in the early days of police photography. Courtesy of the Library of Congress criminal identification.
In 1915, the Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) initiated operations. It was patterned after labor unions but prohibited strikes; it accepted personnel of all ranks, from patrol officer to chief. In 1910, Alice StebbinsWells became the first policewoman in the world, serving with the Los Angeles Police Department. 7 Prior to Wells’s appointment, women had served as jail matrons, and widows had sometimes been carried on police department payrolls after their officerhusbands had died in the line of duty, but they had not been fully “sworn” with carrying out the duties of a police officer.
Wells became an outspoken advocate for the hiring of more policewomen, and police departments across the country began to hire female officers, especially to provide police services to children and to women and to “protect male officers from delicate and troublesome situations”8—such as the need to physically restrain female offenders. In 1915, the U. S. Census reported that 25 cities employed policewomen. In that year, coinciding with the creation of the FOP, the International Association of Policewomen (now the International Association of Women Police) was formed in the city of Baltimore.
In 1918, Ellen O’Grady became the first woman to hold a high administrative post in a major police organization when she was promoted to the rank of deputy police commissioner for the city of New York. As Dorothy Moses Schulz, a contemporary commentator on women’s entry into policing, has observed, “The Policewomen’s movement was not an isolated phenomenon, but was part of women’s movement into other newly created or newly professionalized fields. ”9 During the early twentieth century, telephones, automobiles, and radios all had their impact on the American police.
Teddy Roosevelt, the twenty-sixth president of the United States, began his career by serving as a police commissioner in New York City from 1895 to 1897. While there, he promoted the use of a call-box system of telephones, which allowed citizens to report crimes rapidly and made it possible for officers to quickly call for assistance. As president, Roosevelt helped to organize the Bureau of Investigation, which later became the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Federal law enforcement already existed in the form of U.
S. marshals, created by an act of Congress in 1789, and in the form of postal inspectors, authorized by the U. S. Postal Act of 1829. The FBI became a national investigative service designed to quickly identify and apprehend offenders charged with a growing list of federal offenses. Automobiles created an era of affordable, rapid transportation and gave police forces far-reaching powers and high mobility. Telephones and radios provided the ability to maintain regular communication with central authorities.
State police agencies arose to counter the threat of the mobile offender, with Massachusetts and Pennsylvania leading the way to statewide forces. Prohibition and Police Corruption A dark period for American law enforcement agencies began in 1920 with the passage of a constitutional prohibition against all forms of alcoholic beverages. Until Prohibition was repealed in 1933, most parts of the country were rife with criminal activity, much of it supporting the trade ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger.
Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Policing: History and Structure CHAPTER 5 165 Wickersham Commission The National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement. In 1931, the commission issued a report stating that Prohibition was unenforceable and carried a great potential for police corruption. in bootlegged liquor. Bootleggers earned huge sums of money, and some of them became quite wealthy. Massive wealth in the hands of law violators greatly increased the potential for corruption among police officials, some of whom were “paid off” to support bootlegging operations.
In 1931, the Wickersham Commission, officially called the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, and led by former U. S. Attorney General George W. Wickersham, recognized that Prohibition was unenforceable and reported that it carried a great potential for police corruption. 10 The commission, which released a number of reports, also established guidelines for enforcement agencies, which directed many aspects of American law enforcement until the 1970s.
The most influential of the Wickersham Commission reports was entitled Report on the Enforcement of the Prohibition Laws of the United States. That report, the release of which became one of the most important events in the history of American policing, can be read in its entirety at Library Extra 5–1 at cjtoday. com. The Last Half of the Twentieth Century The rapid cultural change that took place throughout America in the 1960s and 1970s forever altered the legal and social environment in which the police must work.
During that period, in conjunction with a burgeoning civil rights movement, the U. S. Supreme Court frequently enumerated constitutionally based personal rights for those facing arrest, investigation, and criminal prosecution. Although a “chipping away” at those rights, which some say is continuing today, may have begun in the 1980s, the earlier emphasis placed on the rights of defendants undergoing criminal investigation and prosecution will have a substantial impact on law enforcement activities for many years to come.
The 1960s and 1970s were also a period of intense examination of police operations, from dayto- day enforcement decisions to administrative organization and police–community relations. In 1967, the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice issued its report, The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society, which found that the police were often isolated from the communities they served. 11 In 1969, the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) was formed to assist police forces across the nation in acquiring the latest in technology and in adopting new enforcement methods.
In 1973, the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals issued a comprehensive report detailing strategies for combating and preventing crime and for improving the quality of law enforcement efforts at all levels. 12 Included in the report was a call for greater participation in police work by women and ethnic minorities and the recommendation that a college degree be made a basic prerequisite for police employment by the 1980s. The creation of a third major commission, the National Commission on Crime Prevention and Control, was authorized by the federal Violent Crime Control and Law Law Enforcement
Assistance Administration (LEAA) A now-defunct federal agency established under Title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 to funnel federal funding to state and local law enforcement agencies. Detroit police officers inspecting equipment found in an illegal underground brewery during the Prohibition era. The constitutional prohibition against alcoholic beverages during the 1920s and early 1930s had a significant impact on police operations throughout America and opened the door for potential corruption of law enforcement personnel. © CORBIS
ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. 166 PART 2 Policing It has been my observation that around 20% or more of police resources are wasted on practices based on myths, unproven assumptions and, even, on disproved assumptions. —Louis A. Mayo, Executive Director, Police Association for College Education Exemplary Projects Program An initiative, sponsored by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, designed to ecognize outstanding innovative efforts to combat crime and to provide assistance to crime victims. ¦ Lecture Note Explain the need to keep evaluating policing techniques to better fulfill law enforcement goals and to use resources wisely. scientific police management The application of social science techniques to the study of police administration for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen complaints, and enhancing the efficient use of available resources. Enforcement Act of 1994, but the commission never saw the light of day. 3 Read about the crime commission that never was at Web Extra 5–1 at cjtoday. com. Scientific Police Management In 1969, with the passage of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, the U. S. Congress created the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. LEAA was charged with combating crime through the expenditure of huge amounts of money in support of crime-prevention and crime-reduction programs. Some have compared the philosophy establishing LEAA to that which supported the American space program’s goal of landing people on the moon: Put enough money into any problem, and it will be solved!
Unfortunately, the crime problem was more difficult to address than the challenge of a moon landing; even after the expenditure of nearly $8 billion, LEAA had not come close to its goal. In 1982, LEAA expired when Congress refused it further funding. The legacy of LEAA is an important one for police managers, however. The research-rich years of 1969 to 1982, supported largely through LEAA funding, have left a plethora of scientific findings relevant to police administration and, more importantly, have established a tradition of program evaluation within police management circles.
This tradition, which is known as scientific police management, is a natural outgrowth of LEAA’s insistence that every funded program contain a plan for its evaluation. Scientific police management refers to the application of social science techniques to the study of police administration for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen complaints, and enhancing the efficient use of available resources. The heyday of scientific police management occurred in the 1970s, when federal monies were far more readily available than they are today to support such studies.
LEAA was not alone in funding police research during the 1970s. On July 1, 1970, the Ford Foundation announced the establishment of a Police Development Fund totaling $30 million, to be spent during the following five years to support major crime-fighting strategies of police departments. This funding led to the establishment of the Police Foundation, which continues to exist today with the mission of “foster[ing] improvement and innovation in American policing. ”14 Police Foundation–sponsored studies during the past 20 years have added to the growing body of scientific knowledge about policing.
Today, federal support for criminal justice research and evaluation continues under the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), both part of the Office of Justice Programs (OJP). OJP, created by Congress in 1984, provides federal leadership in developing the nation’s capacity to prevent and control crime. The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), a part of NIJ, assists researchers nationwide in locating information applicable to their research projects. Custom searches” of the NCJRS computer database can be done online and can yield voluminous information in most criminal justice subject areas. NIJ also publishes a series of informative periodic reports such as the NIJ Journal and NIJ Research in Review, which serve to keep criminal justice practitioners and researchers informed about recent findings. View the NIJ online publication list at Web Extra 5–2 at cjtoday. com. Exemplary Projects
In 1973, LEAA established the Exemplary Projects Program, which was designed to recognize outstanding innovative efforts to combat crime and to provide assistance to crime victims so that such initiatives might serve as models for the nation. One project that won exemplary status early in the program was the Street Crimes Unit (SCU) of the New York City Police Department. The SCU disguised officers as potential mugging victims and put them in areas where they were most likely to be attacked. In its first year, the SCU made nearly 4,000 arrests and averaged a successful conviction rate of around 80%.
Perhaps the most telling statistic was the “average officer days per arrest. ” The SCU invested only 8. 2 days in each arrest, whereas the department average for all uniformed officers was 167 days per arrest. 15 Many other programs were supported and evaluated. The Hidden Cameras Project in Seattle, Washington, for example, utilized cameras hidden in convenience stores, which were triggered when a “trip” bill in the cash register drawer was removed. The clearance rate for robberies of businesses with hidden cameras was twice that of other similar businesses.
The conviction rate for photographed robbers was more than twice that of suspects arrested for robbing stores without cameras. Commercial robbery in Seattle decreased by 38% in the first year of the project. ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Policing: History and Structure CHAPTER 5 167 Kansas City experiment The first large-scale scientific study of law enforcement practices. Sponsored by the Police Foundation, it focused n the practice of preventive patrol. The Kansas City Experiment By far the most famous application of social research principles to police management was the Kansas City preventive patrol experiment. 16 Sponsored by the Police Foundation, the year-long Kansas City experiment had its results published in 1974. The study divided the southern part of Kansas City into 15 areas. Five of these “beats” were patrolled in the usual fashion. Another five beats experienced a doubling of patrol activities by having twice the normal number of patrol officers assigned to them.
The final third of the beats received a novel “treatment” indeed: No patrols were assigned to them, and no uniformed officers entered that part of the city unless they were called. The program was kept secret, and citizens were unaware of the difference between the patrolled and unpatrolled parts of the city. The results of the Kansas City experiment were surprising. Records of “preventable crimes,” those toward which the activities of patrol were oriented—such as burglary, robbery, auto theft, larceny, and vandalism—showed no significant differences in rate of occurrence among the three experimental beats.
Similarly, citizens didn’t seem to notice the change in patrol patterns in the two areas where patrol frequency was changed. Surveys conducted at the conclusion of the experiment showed no difference in citizens’ fear of crime before and after the study. The 1974 study can be summed up in the words of the author of the final report: “The whole idea of riding around in cars to create a feeling of omnipresence just hasn’t worked. . . . Good people with good intentions tried something that logically should have worked, but didn’t. ”17 This study has been credited with beginning the now-established tradition of scientific studies of policing.
A second Kansas City study focused on “response time. ”18 It found that even consistently fast police response to citizen reports of crime had little effect on citizen satisfaction with the police or on the arrest of suspects. The study uncovered the fact that most reports made to the police came only after a considerable amount of time had passed. Hence, the police were initially handicapped by the timing of the report, and even the fastest police response was not especially effective. Scientific studies of special significance to law enforcement are summarized in Table 5–1. Effects of the Kansas City Studies
The Kansas City studies greatly affected managerial assumptions about the role of preventive patrol and traditional strategies for responding to citizen calls for assistance. As Joseph Lewis, then director of evaluation at the Police Foundation, said, “I think that now almost everyone would agree that almost anything you do is better than random patrol. ”19 While the Kansas City studies called into question some basic assumptions about patrol, patrol remains the backbone of police work. New patrol strategies for the effective utilization of human resources have led to various kinds of directed patrol activities.
One form of directed patrol varies the number of officers involved in patrolling according to the time of day or the frequency ¦ Class Activity Divide the class into groups. Ask each group to develop a plan to scientifically evaluate some aspect of local law enforcement operations. Have students decide on how their proposed evaluation would be structured, who would conduct it, and what kinds of difficulties could be anticipated. Members of the Kansas City (Missouri) Police Department being briefed on security measures for a planned city tour by President George W. Bush.
Scientific police management was given early credence by studies of preventive patrol undertaken in Kansas City in 1974. Courtesy of the Media Office of the Kansas City, Missouri, Police Department directed patrol A police management strategy designed to increase the productivity of patrol officers through the scientific analysis and evaluation of patrol techniques. ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. 168 PART 2 Policing f reported crimes within an area, so as to put the most officers on the street where and when crime is most prevalent. Wilmington, Delaware, was one of the first cities to make use of splitforce patrol, in which only a part of the patrol force performs routine patrol. 20 The remaining officers respond to calls for service, take reports, and conduct investigations. In response to the Kansas City study on response time, some cities have prioritized calls for service,21 ordering a quick police response only when crimes are in progress or when serious crimes have occurred.
Less significant offenses, such as minor larcenies and certain citizen complaints, are handled through the mail or by having citizens come to the police station to make a report. Recent Studies Early scientific studies of policing, such as the Kansas City patrol experiment, were designed to identify and probe some of the basic assumptions that guided police work throughout the twentieth century. The initial response to many such studies was “Why should we study that? Everybody knows the answer already! ” As in the case of the Kansas City experiment, however, TABLE 5–1 SELECTED SCIENTIFIC STUDIES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT
Year Study Name Focus 2002 Reducing Gun Violence (Indianapolis) Targeted police patrols to reduce gun crime and violence 2001 Boston’s Operation Ceasefire Evaluation Citywide effort to reduce gun violence, especially gang-related homicides 1999 National Evaluation of Weed-and-Seed Weed-and-seed programs in eight states Programs 1998 Community Policing in Action Police and citizen cooperation and (Indianapolis) neighborhood security 1994 Kansas City Gun Experiment Supplemental police patrol to reduce gun crime 1992 New York City Police Department’s Level of education among officers and Cadet Corps Study hiring of minority officers 992 Metro-Dade Spouse Abuse Experiment Replication of a 1984 Minneapolis study Replication (Florida) 1991 Quality Policing in Madison, Wisconsin Community policing and participatory police management 1990 Minneapolis “Hot Spot” Patrolling Intensive patrol of problem areas 1987 Newport News Problem-Oriented Policing Police solutions to community crime (Virginia) problems 1986 Crime Stoppers: A National Evaluation Media crime-reduction programs 1986 Reducing Fear of Crime in Houston and Strategies for fear reduction among Newark urban populations 984 Minneapolis Domestic Violence Effective police action in domestic Experiment violence situations 1981 Newark Foot Patrol Experiment Costs versus benefits of foot patrol 1977 Cincinnati Team Policing Experiment Team versus traditional policing 1977 Patrol Staffing in San Diego One- versus two-officer units 1976 Police Response Time (Kansas City) Citizen satisfaction with police response 1976 Police and Interpersonal Conflict Police intervention in domestic and other disputes 1976 Managing Investigations Detective/patrol officer teams 976 Kansas City Peer Review Panel Improvement in police behavior 1974 Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment Effectiveness of police patrol ¦ Lecture Note Explain the rise of scientific police-management studies, beginning with the Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment of 1974. Use Table 5–1 as a guide. ¦ Thematic Question How do the needs of contemporary society help structure the activities of today’s law enforcement agencies? ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger.
Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Policing: History and Structure CHAPTER 5 169 ¦ Thematic Question The structure of modern-day American policing is very complex, with agencies functioning at the federal, state, and local levels. What kinds of problems arise as a consequence of this complex structure? How might these problems be reduced or eliminated? it soon became obvious that conventional wisdom was not always correct. The value of applying evaluative techniques to police work can also be seen in the following, more recent, studies: A study was conducted in 2002 of directed police patrols in Indianapolis that were targeted at reducing gun violence. The study found that targeted patrols can effectively reduce gun crime and that they can produce substantially better results than routine policing. 22 ¦ The 2001 evaluation of Boston’s gun project, known as Operation Ceasefire, determined that the project, a problem-oriented policing initiative targeting homicide victimization among the city’s youths, was successful in its implementation. 23 ¦ A national evaluation of weed-and-seed programs was conducted in eight states in 1999.
The weed-and-seed program is a community-based anticrime approach that links intensified geographically targeted law enforcement efforts by police and prosecutors with local neighborhood-improvement initiatives and human services programs. It found that the effectiveness of the weed-and-seed philosophy varied considerably. The programs that worked best were those that relied on bottom-up, participatory decision-making approaches, especially when combined with efforts to build capacity and partnerships among local organizations. 4 Learn more about the national weed-and-seed evaluation at Library Extra 5–2 at cjtoday. com. You can also read about neighborhood attitudes toward crime and how they affect the police at Library Extra 5–3. ¦ The 1994 Kansas City Gun Experiment was designed to “learn whether vigorous enforcement of existing gun laws could reduce gun crime. ” The Kansas City Police Department’s weed-andseed program targeted areas designated as “hot spots” within the city. These were locations identified by computer analysis as having the most gun-related crimes within the metropolitan area.
A special gun-detection unit was assigned to the area, and guns were removed from citizens following searches incident to arrest for other, non-gun-related crimes, at traffic stops, and as the result of other legal stop-and-frisk activities. While the program was in operation, gun crimes declined by 49% in the target area, while they increased slightly in a comparison area. Drive-by shootings, which dropped from seven (in the six months prior to the program) to only one following implementation of the program, were particularly affected. 25 Learn more about the Kansas City Gun Experiment at Library Extra 5–4 at cjtoday. com. The 1984 Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment was the first scientifically engineered social experiment to test the impact of arrest (versus alternative forms of disposition) on crime. 26 In this case, the crime in focus was violence in the home. Investigators found that offenders who were arrested were less likely to commit repeat offenses than were those who were handled in some other fashion. A Police Foundation–sponsored study of domestic violence in the Metro-Dade (Florida) area in 1992 reinforced the Minneapolis findings but found that the positive effect of arrest applied almost solely to those who were employed. In the late 1980s, the police in Newport News, Virginia, decided to test traditional incidentdriven policing against a new approach called problem-oriented policing. 27 Incident-driven policing mobilizes police forces to respond to complaints and offenses reported by citizens. It is what the Newport News police called “the standard method for delivering police services. ” Problem-oriented policing, on the other hand, was developed in Newport News to identify critical crime problems in the community and to effectively address the underlying causes of crime.
For example, one identified problem was thefts from vehicles parked in the Newport News shipbuilding yard. As many as 36,000 cars were parked in those lots during the day. Applying the principles of problem-oriented policing, Newport News officers explored the dimensions of the problem. After identifying theft-prone lots and a small group of frequent offenders, officers arrested one suspect in the act of breaking into a vehicle. That suspect provided the information police were seeking: It turned out that drugs were the real target of the car thieves.
The thieves looked for “muscle cars,” rock music bumper stickers, and other indicators to identify the cars with the highest potential for yielding drugs. The police learned that what seemed to be a simple problem of thefts from automobiles was really a search for drugs by a small group of hard-core offenders. Strategies to address the problem were developed, including wider efforts to reduce illicit drug use throughout the city. These and other studies have established a sound basis for the use of scientific evaluation in police work today.
The accumulated wisdom of police management studies was summed up by Of all the ideas in policing, one stands out as the most powerful force for change: Police practices should be based on scientific evidence about what works best. —Lawrence W. Shermani ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. 170 PART 2 Policing evidence-based policing The use of best available research on the outcomes of police work to implement uidelines and evaluate agencies, units, and officers. iii ¦ Lecture Note Describe the multidimensional structure of American law enforcement in terms of federal, state, local (county and city), and private agencies. federal law enforcement agency A U. S. government agency or office whose primary functional responsibility is the enforcement of federal criminal laws. The video An Innocent Man from the ABC News/Prentice Hall Video Library is recommended. Patrick V. Murphy, who, as director of the Police Foundation in 1985, stated five tenets for guiding American policing into the future28: . Neighborhood policing programs of all kinds need to be developed, improved, and expanded. 2. More police officers need college- and graduate-level education. 3. Police departments should hire more civilians. Civilian specialists can help with department operations and release sworn officers for police duties. 4. Departments must continue to become more representative of the communities they serve by recruiting more women and minorities. 5. Restraint in the use of force, especially deadly force, must be increased. Evidence-Based Policing
In recent years, scientific studies of policing have culminated in a sustained push toward what noted police researcher Lawrence W. Sherman calls evidence-based policing. Evidence-based policing, says Sherman, “is the use of best available research on the outcomes of police work to implement guidelines and evaluate agencies, units, and officers. ”29 In other words, evidencebased policing uses research into everyday police procedures to evaluate current practices and to guide officers and police executives in future decision making.
In any discussion of evidencebased policing, it is important to remember that the word evidence refers to scientific evidence, and not criminal evidence. “The basic premise of evidence-based practice,” says Sherman, “is that we are all entitled to our own opinions, but not to our own facts. ”30 Our own facts, or our beliefs about the way things should be done, says Sherman, often turn out to be wrong. During the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s, for example, police executives in many areas took a heavy-handed approach in an attempt to control demonstrators.
Images of tear-gas-filled streets, the use of high-pressure fire hoses on marchers, and police dogs biting fleeing demonstrators are burned into the minds of many who lived through that era and still appear in televised histories of the period. The heavy-handed approach had unintended consequences and served to inflame protesters. Situations that might have otherwise been contained with simple crowd-control tactics and the use of physical barriers became largely uncontrollable.
Sherman reminds us that “the mythic power of subjective and unstructured wisdom holds back every field and keeps it from systematically discovering and implementing what works best in repeated tasks. ” American Law Enforcement Today: From the Federal to the Local Level The organization of American law enforcement has been called the most complex in the world. Three major legislative and judicial jurisdictions exist in the United States—federal, state, and local— and each has created a variety of police agencies to enforce its laws.
Unfortunately, there has been little uniformity among jurisdictions as to the naming, function, or authority of enforcement agencies. The matter is further complicated by the rapid growth of private security firms, which operate on a for-profit basis and provide services that have traditionally been regarded as law enforcement activities. Federal Agencies Dozens of federal law enforcement agencies are distributed among 11 U. S. government services (Table 5–2). In addition to the enforcement agencies listed in the table, many other federal government offices are involved in enforcement through inspection, regulation, and control activities.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation, one of the best-known federal law enforcement agencies, is described in the paragraphs that follow. Visit the home pages of many federal law enforcement agencies via Web Extra 5–3 at cjtoday. com. Learn more about staffing levels of federal criminal justice agencies at Library Extra 5–5. The Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation may be the most famous law enforcement agency in the country and in the world.
The FBI has traditionally been held in high regard by many Americans, who think of it as an example of what a law enforcement organization should be and who believe that sworn officer A law enforcement officer who is trained and empowered to perform full police duties, such as making arrests, conducting investigations, and carrying firearms. ii ¦ Lecture Note Discuss some of the problems that arise from the complex structure of American law enforcement. Use examples of jurisdictional disputes, communications difficulties, coordination of joint operations, disparate resources, and varied change. ISBN: 0-536-09974-X
Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Policing: History and Structure CHAPTER 5 171 ¦ Lecture Note Outline how the FBI’s function and primary activities have changed since the bureau’s early days—and how terrorist attacks on the United States have had a special impact on such activities. TABLE 5–2 AMERICAN POLICING: FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES Note: Virtually every cabinet-level federal agency has its own Office of the Inspector General, with enforcement authority.
Department of Agriculture U. S. Forest Service Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Enforcement National Marine Fisheries Administration Department of Defense Air Force Office of Special Investigations Army Criminal Investigation Division Defense Criminal Investigative Service Naval Investigative Service Department of Homeland Security Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Federal Protective Service Transportation Security Administration U. S. Coast Guard U. S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP; includes U. S. Border Patrol) U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) U. S. Secret Service
Department of the Interior Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Land Management Fish and Wildlife Service National Park Service U. S. Park Police Department of Justice Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Bureau of Prisons Drug Enforcement Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation U. S. Marshals Service Department of Labor Office of Labor Racketeering Department of State Diplomatic Security Service Department of Transportation Federal Air Marshals Program Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service–Criminal Investigation Division Treasury Inspector General for Tax Enforcement U. S.
Postal Service Postal Inspection Service Other Offices with Enforcement Personnel AMTRAK Police Bureau of Engraving and Printing Police Department of Energy Environmental Protection Agency–Criminal Investigations Division Food and Drug Administration Tennessee Valley Authority U. S. Capitol Police U. S. Mint U. S. Supreme Court Police Washington, D. C. , Metropolitan Police Department FBI agents are exemplary police officers. William Webster, former director of the FBI, reflected this sentiment when he said, “Over the years the American people have come to expect the most professional law enforcement from the FBI.
Although we use the most modern forms of management and technology in the fight against crime, our strength is in our people—in the character of the men and women of the FBI. For that reason we seek only those who have demonstrated that they can perform as professional people who can, and will, carry on our tradition of fidelity, bravery, and integrity. ”31 The history of the FBI spans almost 100 years. It began as the Bureau of Investigation in 1908, when it was designed to serve as the investigative arm of the U. S. Department of Justice.
The creation of the bureau was motivated, at least in part, by the inability of other agencies to stem the rising tide of American political and business corruption. 32 The official purpose of today’s FBI is succinctly stated in the agency’s mission statement: “The Mission of the FBI is to protect and defend the United States against terrorist and foreign intelligence threats, uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States; and to provide leadership and law enforcement assistance to federal, state, local, and international agencies and partners. ”33 It remains the FBI’s overriding riority to predict and prevent terrorist attacks. The threat posed by international terrorism, and in particular from Al Qaeda and related groups, continues to be the gravest we face. —FBI Director Robert S. Mueller, IIIiv Fidelity, bravery, and integrity. —Motto of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. 172 PART 2 Policing CJ CAREERS FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION Name: Kevin Kendrick
Position: Section Chief, Executive Development and Selection Program, Administrative Services Division City: Washington, D. C. College Attended: Wayne State University Year Hired: 1981 “Seeing the good work that officers were doing when I was in school at Wayne State opened my eyes to the possibility of a career in law enforcement. I saw this as a wonderful opportunity to do something positive. Every day at the FBI is different. I can honestly say this is the greatest part of the job: the variety of assignments, the interaction with other agencies and the community.
It’s an incredible way to get things done. We do something that means something. We are having an impact on people’s lives. ” TYPICAL POSITIONS Special agent, crime laboratory technician, ballistics technician, computer operator, fingerprint specialist, explosives examiner, document expert, and other nonagent technical positions. FBI activities include investigations into organized crime, white-collar crime, public corruption, financial crime, fraud against the government, bribery, copyright matters, civil rights violations, bank obbery, extortion, kidnapping, air piracy, terrorism, foreign counterintelligence, interstate criminal activity, fugitive and drug trafficking matters, and other violations of federal statutes. The FBI also works with other federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies in investigating matters of joint interest and in training law enforcement officers from around the world. EMPLOYMENT REQUIREMENTS General employment requirements include (1) an age of between 23 and 37; (2) excellent physical health; (3) uncorrected ision of not less than 20/200, correctable to 20/20 in one eye and at least 20/40 in the other eye; (4) good hearing; (5) U. S. citizenship; (6) a valid driver’s license; (7) successful completion of a comprehensive background investigation; (8) a law degree or a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university; (9) successful completion of an initial written examination; (10) an intensive formal interview; and (11) urinalysis. A polygraph examination may also be required. OTHER REQUIREMENTS
Special-agent entry programs exist in the areas of law, accounting, languages, engineering/science, and a general “diversified” area. They require a minimum of three years of full-time work experience, preferably with a law enforcement agency. Candidates who otherwise meet entry requirements and who possess one or more of the following critical skills are currently deemed essential to address the agency’s increasingly complex responsibilities and will be given priority in the hiring process: (1) computer science and other information technology specialties; (2) engineering; (3) physical sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, and o on); (4) foreign language proficiency (Arabic, Farsi, Pashtu, Urdu, Chinese [all dialects], Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese); (5) foreign counterintelligence; (6) counterterrorism; and (7) military intelligence experience. The FBI emphasizes education and especially values degrees in law, graduate studies, and business and accounting. Most nonagent technical career paths also require bachelor’s or advanced degrees and U. S. citizenship. SALARY Special agents enter the bureau at Government Service (GS) grade 10 on the federal government’s pay scale and earned 40,419 in the summer of 2004 while undergoing training at the FBI Academy. Upon graduation, agents’ pay rises to between $53,743 and $58,235, including locality and special availability pay. Special agents can advance to GS-13 in field assignments and to GS-15 or higher in supervisory and management positions. BENEFITS Benefits include (1) 13 days of sick leave annually, (2) two and a half to five weeks of paid vacation and ten paid federal holidays each year, (3) federal health and life insurance, and (4) a comprehensive retirement program. DIRECT INQUIRIES TO:
Federal Bureau of Investigation J. Edgar Hoover Building 935 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W. Washington, DC 20535–0001 Phone: (202)324–3000, or check your local telephone book Website: http://www. fbi. gov, or visit http://fbijobs. com For additional information on employment opportunities in the criminal justice field, view the careers portion of the CD-ROM included with this book. ISBN: 0-536-09974-X Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Policing: History and Structure CHAPTER 5 173 FBI headquarters are located in the J. Edgar Hoover Building on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D. C. Special agents and support personnel who work at the agency’s headquarters organize and coordinate FBI activities throughout the country and around the world. Headquarters staff determines investigative priorities, oversee major cases, and manage the organization’s resources, technology, and personnel. The daily work of the FBI is done through 56 fi