This portfolio is a drumhead and decision on media surveies associating to media content and audiences. The intent of the portfolio is to sketch how media. through quantitative and qualitative analysis. are able to bring forth significance. Film theory and unfavorable judgment is relevant to content analysis as it best illustrates the difference between media content. media signifier and media substance. this subject will be discussed as it emphasises the manner in which content. signifier and substance contribute to the production of significance. The 2nd portion of the portfolio will be on media audiences. the nature of audiences. their demands. how they interpret media messages and about the societal and cultural context of media ingestion. To best understand the behavioural and cultural impacts on media audiences and their utilizations and apprehension of the media. field research will be discussed and explained. The portfolio will in decision trade with the measurement of media audiences. the different methodological analysiss and techniques. and for a strictly theoretical illustration of the audience. depth psychology and telecasting will be discussed to supply apprehension of the function of witting and unconscious constructions in the apprehension of the sing experience of movie and telecasting.
2 QUANTITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS
Contexualising the research
2. 1 Research job
The intent of this research is to set up the frequence and the sum of coverage given to offense narratives compared with educational narratives. and the precedence given to each of the narratives in The Citizen newspaper. over a period of five yearss on their front page. in order to determine how The Citizen screens offense versus educational narratives. and wether instruction is given less precedence compared to offense or frailty versa.
2. 2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Of the five yearss of research. how many times was a offense narrative reported on the front page of the newspaper compared to an educational narrative?
Did the newspaper contain any educational narratives on any other subdivisions other than the front page?
What were the recorded gross revenues figures on yearss when a offense narrative was reported on the front page compared with an educational narrative?
2. 3 Method
Research will be conducted over five back-to-back yearss during the last hebdomad of April within this current twelvemonth. The Citizen newspaper is distributed nationally in South Africa while its nucleus readership is chiefly in Gauteng. this will be the targeted distribution site
Quantitative content analysis
Contented analysis is a research method for the aim. systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communicating. ( Berelson 1952: 18 ) Quantitative agencies that the analysis should give precise and accurate consequences as quantitative informations are ever numerical values or frequences where the information revealed by statistics demands to be interpreted before the significance becomes clear. ( Holsti 1969: 3-5 )
Unit of measurement of analysis
The below mensurable units can supply a standard method of analyzing the information. which can be counted and categorised.
The figure of educational narratives and offense narratives will be the unit of analysis.
The below steps will be used:
Establish the frequent distribution of the word “violence” and “education” . Time/ infinite
The frequence and the sum of coverage given and the figure of pages allocated to each narrative. so as to uncover which narrative is given precedence.
Classs will be the meaningful groups into which the above unit of analysis will be allocated.
Types of force
For illustration: Domestic force. spiritual force. sexual force and physical force
Types of instruction
For illustration: Formal. Informal or non-formal instruction.
Categorizing of yearss
For illustration: Day 1. twenty-four hours 2. twenty-four hours 3. etc…
Allocated figure of pages
1 page. 2-3 pages. 4 and more pages.
2. 4 Findings
2. 5 Analysis
As illustrated in the chart The Citizen had covered more offense narratives over the five yearss as compared with educational narratives. For four yearss the front page of the citizen covered politically divine force with each narrative covering the full forepart page or more. An educational narrative merely appeared one time in the front page of the newspaper but more often in other parts of the newspaper. either in the in-between pages or the last pages. The word ‘violence’ dominated the newspaper overall. The Citizen has besides reported high gross revenues over offense narratives as oppose to educational narratives that do non sell much. As a consequence the newspaper limits coverage of educational narratives on the front page in order to maintain high gross revenues.
3 FIELD RESEARCH IN MEDIA STUDIES
The Department of Communication has late launched a public consciousness run on telecasting informing viewing audiences and occupants in Pretoria about the migration from parallel to digital transmittal. the run was followed by unfavorable judgment that the bulk of the Pretoria occupants are still diffident about the migration.
The purpose of the survey is to measure the consciousness and concerns from the community members refering the affairs of digital migration. to seek and set up if the run was effectual and if Pretoria occupants are cognizant of the migration and have any related concerns.
The figure and composing of the focal point group
Two focal point groups made up of 12 occupants from the locations/ townships and 12 occupants from the suburbs/ urban countries in Pretoria Were interviewed.
Through purposive sampling we selected participants from families with two or more telecastings who have entree to more telecasting sets and could exert a pick of programme choice which increased the likeliness of coming across the run.
The interviews were conducted over the weekend at a community Centre. one in the township and another in the suburban country.
On the twenty-four hours of the interview picture cameras were used to capture the interviews and the participants were offered a wages of the captured cartridge holders being used as portion of farther candidacy and advertisement. the possibility of being on Television and winning a household pickup. Because there was a opportunity of participants taking on ‘acting roles’ participants were advised to be honest in responce and act of course. We encourage the participants to be wholly at easiness. talk freely and voice their positions. The twenty-four hours was fun- field twenty-four hours where free nutrient and drinks were served to all the participants and after interview games were played. The twenty-four hours can get down with each participant finishing a Yes/No questionnaire to find if they are cognizant of the run and the original cartridge holder can be screened prior to the interviews. The treatments that followed took on a natural flow with a moderator to steer the interview where the demand rose.
The interview usher asked the undermentioned inquiries:
1. Where you aware of the run prior to today?
3. Is it an effectual run?
2. Make you cognize anyone else. other than yourself. who is cognizant of the run? 4. Make you understand what the run is about?
5. In raising consciousness about the switch is at that place anything you think could hold been done otherwise?
There was a spot of deficiency of engagement and a feel of uncomfortableness from some of the participants. one time the intent of the research was explained and the formality was dropped participants felt at easiness and spoke freely.
The two focal point groups provided changing feedback on the run. Respondents from the urban countries were largely cognizant of the run even though they had alot of inquiries that they felt should hold been answered as portion of the consciousness run. Mostl
4. Measurement MEDIA AUDIENCES
Tshwane FM is one of South Africa’s taking campus-based wireless Stationss. Tshwane FM was started as a undertaking by the Tshwane University of Technology’s Department of Journalism. When the station foremost went on air in March 2004. it operated from the news media broadcast preparation studio. which limited broadcast medium to merely 6 hours a twenty-four hours. In October 2005 the wireless station moved into bran-new studios. These enabled the station to increase its broadcast hours to 19 hours/day from 6am to 1am. In mensurating the audience of the wireless station. it had to be determined if the wireless station had grown in listenership over the last 10 old ages since the twenty-four hours of Inception.
. hypertext transfer protocol: //tshwanefm. co. za/about_us. php
In order to aim advertisement to designated sections more expeditiously the designation of market sections need to be more precise as this is indispensable for success. The research was aimed at bring outing the enigmas of the hearers and their behavior and condensing it into difficult informations. ( Abelman & A ; Atkin 2002 ) . All facets of programming needed to be matched to the wireless station’s capablenesss and restrictions but most significantly. the targeted audience ( Mytton 1999 ) . For this ground. basic information on the size and construction of the hearers is polar to the success of the wireless Station. Programme manufacturers. media proprietors. advertizers and patrons. including media advisers all require elaborate information on the audience to bring forth. sell. advertise and develop content that is relevant to the mark audience.
The research had to turn to a assortment of of import inquiries. for illustration. the size of the wireless station’s listenership or audience as this would find the value of the different programmes. How frequently people tuned into the wireless station or dialed that frequence and who the members or the hearers are.
Coverage or range is an of import index of audience size ( Kent 1994 ) . Audience portion refers to the per centum of entire listening families in the existence whose wirelesss are tuned into Tshwane FM during a peculiar clip slot
What has made it hard to mensurate wireless hearing is the fact that the medium is nomadic and allows people to travel on with their day-to-day activities alternatively of necessitating everything to come to a deadlock. which to an extend is besides an advantage of wireless ( Twyman 1994 ) . Techniques that were used to mensurate audiences of Tshwane FM started with Social studies where respondents were called and questioned on what they were listening to at the clip of the call. when they normally listened and how frequently they listened to peculiar programmes. their wireless hearing wonts.
Technology assisted with carry oning ego administered studies. each clip a hearer logged on to listen online they had to finish a short computer-assisted personal interview which offered an chance to look into a broad scope of issues.
Audience measuring in South Africa
Common pattern in South Africa is to put up joint research organic structures that are responsible for commissioning. coordinating and supervising research for interested parties in the media and advertisement industries ( Kent 1994 ) . Such a joint organic structure holds several advantages. It creates by and large and normally acknowledged informations on media audiences that can inform interested parties. It besides avoids unneeded competition between assorted research administrations every bit good as statements about the virtues and demerits of viing methodological analysiss and steps. In South Africa there is the South African Advertising Research Foundation ( SAARF ) which focuses on listening forms of the services of the SABC.
Measuring audiences for Tshwane FM was non without its challenges. a assortment of methods had to be used. methods designed particularly for wireless. Most of the inquiring was on ‘ usual habits’ when wireless hearing is frequently insouciant and non based on wont. Memory makes it hard to remember wireless hearing and it is besides more hard to place the wireless station listened to. Tshwane FM as a little wireless station had non established a peculiar individuality over and above their programme stuff and this made it hard to separate the station from the remainder. Because wireless hearing happens with other coincident activities. like driving. respondents tended NOT to describe wireless listening as they were making something else at the clip.
5 FILM THEORY AND CRITICISM
5. 1 Theoretical treatment
Auteur theory is theory of filmmaking in which the manager is viewed as the major originative force in a gesture image. how the manager discloses. describes. experiences and finally visualises world in the image. the specific director’s single reading of world. The theory started in France in the late fortiess and was termed the auteur theory by the American movie critic Andrew Sarris. The theory developed out of the cinematic theories of Andre Bazin and Alexandre Astruc. A foundation rock of the Gallic cinematic motion known as the Nouvelle vague. or New Wave. the theory of ‘director-as-author’ was advanced in Bazin’s periodical Cahiers du cinema Two of its theorists. Francois Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard. subsequently became major managers of the Gallic New Wave. The auteur theory. which was derived from Astruc’s construct of camera-stylo ( “camera-pen” ) . holds that the manager. who oversees all sound and ocular elements of the gesture image. is more to be considered the “author” of the film than is the author of the screenplay.
Cardinal ocular elements as camera arrangement. barricading. illuming. and scene length. instead than secret plan line. convey the message of the movie. Supporters of the auteur theory farther contend that the most cinematically successful movies will bear the unmistakable personal cast of the manager.
“The strong manager imposes his ain personality on a movie ; the weak manager allows the personalities of others to run rampant”- Andrew Sarris. The romantic position is that art can non be the consequence of a corporate procedure.
5. 2 Application to ocular illustrations
M. Night Shyamalan is a true illustration of an auteur manager. “In the history of film. it’s hard to believe of a individual film maker with a moneymaking calling built on signature auteurist elements who’s been relegated to anon. work-for-hiredom every bit blatantly as Shyamalan has been” . The first film he directed The Sixth Sense in 1999 was followed by The Village in 2004 and both films have a differentiating manner. about immediately recognizable. Both movies are supernatural thrillers that have a cryptic turn. Academy Award nominated film maker Nathaniel Kahn documented interviews with M. Night Shyamalan’s childhood friends and neighbours. seeking to bring out the director’s most intimate secrets and larn how they’ve been woven into the narratives of his intensely powerful films.
In the documentary/ film. The Buried Secret of M. Night Shyamalan. it is implied that some kind of childhood accident left him with a connexion to the supernatural. his best-known characters. it seems. are a manifestation or personification of the perchance superheroic Shyamalan. Throughout the doccie. fans and friends of Shyamalan speak of the film maker in the kind of hushed. reverent tones that suggest the whispery registry inhabited by Shyamalan’s ain characters. When Kahn drives by the front gate of Shyamalan’s sign of the zodiac. he finds starstruck groupies lounging outside. “Everyone knows … M. Night’s connected to the other side. ” one says soberly. Shyamalan cultivates auteurishtics such as seting himself in the film. merely like Quentin. merely like Hitchcock.
A scene in The Sixth sense where Shyamalan appears on the left.
A scene in the movie. The Village. where Shyamalan appear in the contemplation of the cabinet glass.
In The Sixth Sense. a male child communicates with liquors that don’t know they’re dead and seeks the aid of a demoralized kid psychologist. Shyamalan transformed himself into a disciplined manager through this movie. . The film wasn’t like a Spielberg movie. the closest influence was Hitchcock ( an auteur manager of note ) : the point-of-view redaction. the emotional close-ups of histrions. the arrested development on item. and the eerie mark. It besides adhered to Hitchcock’s definition of panic: “If you want the audience to experience the suspense. demo them the bomb underneath the tabular array. ” We knew the shades were coming to chew the fat with Haley Joel. and that created the suspense. Part Shyamalan’s directorial naming cards is that each of his thrillers runs precisely 106 proceedingss. His movies have without fail revealed him as a manager through his inclinations.
In The Village the population of a little. stray countryside small town believe that their confederation with the cryptic animals that inhabit the forest around them is coming to an terminal. The movie. begins with one of the director’s hallmark spooky amour propres. a preindustrial small town separated from the universe by a forest full of monsters. This can be seen as a metaphor for Shyamalan’s ain existence that is non affected by outward influence or power. His films have their ain internal scheme. their ain naming cards. their ain signature sound effects.
6 PSYCHOANALYSIS AND TELEVISION
6. 1 Theoretical treatment
Psychoanalysis. named by Sigmund Freud. is the scientific theory of the human head and personality and a curative method of look intoing unconscious mental procedure. Freud stated that human personality is the merchandise of the relationship between inner. biologically determined thrusts or impulses and the external restraints of the physical universe and society. Harmonizing to Lucan the unconscious is structured like linguistic communication. for Lacan the unconscious is non a biological abode for thrusts and inherent aptitudes but a lingual and cultural building. Lacan points to the fact that any apprehension of the unconscious demands understanding of linguistic communication.
Desire and pleasance
Eidsvik ( 1978:6 ) suggests that all narrations invoke the viewer’s imaginativeness by initiaIly inquiring the viewing audiences or readers an inexplicit inquiry. ‘ What if… ? . that can merely be answered imaginatively in the narrative. That the inventive narration or narrative phantasy is in itself enjoyable which relieves the force per unit area of defeat both unconsciously and consciously ( californium. Altman 1988:78 ) .
Sing a movie or telecasting entails a mental procedure of denial or disclaimer. a dual suspension of belief and disbelief- believing and non believing simultaneously- in the world of the fiction and arrested development to the pleasances of the fanciful phase. The power of movie and engineering is derived from their ability to convert the spectator that the unreal has been realised ( californium. Metz 1974:5 ) .
The experience of sing telecasting may be compared to Lacan’s mirror phase. where the kid identifies itself in an image. Sing a movie or telecasting is enjoyable to the spectator exactly because he or she has experience of this in babyhood. In sing the spectator identifies with his or her ain act of looking and the expression itself is termed primary designation. The viewer’s designation With his or her ain expression is a beginning of egotistic pleasance.
Primary designation in telecasting coincides with the expression of the camera. and offers the spectator an limitless camera position and possibilities of designation ( californium. Stan1983:27 ) .
Manners of diction
The arrested development and entry to the complex number are help by the ‘modes of enunciation’ . or the specific construction of the text and usage of production techniques that create the Illusion in the spectator that he is detecting his ain phantasies. The term ‘ enunciation’ is derived from structural lingual and refers to both the ‘ said’ and the act of ‘saying’- in other words. a differentiation between a narrative ( as ‘ his-story’ and ‘history’ ) . which refers to the content. and discourse. or the manner the content is communicated.
6. 2 A psychoanalytical analysis of Scandal. the telecasting programme
Scandal is an American political thriller telecasting series starring Kerry Washington. Created by Shonda Rhimes. Kerry Washington’s character. Olivia Pope. is partly based on former George H. W. Bush disposal imperativeness aide Judy Smith. who serves as a co-executive manufacturer. The show takes topographic point in Washington. D. C. and focal points on Olivia Pope’s crisis direction house. Olivia Pope & A ; Associates. and its staff. every bit good as staff at the White House.
She plays Pope’s great strength and great exposure absolutely in synch with each other. a adult female whose encephalon has all the replies but whose bosom still makes hapless picks.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/44609/auteur-theory hypertext transfer protocol: //www. vulture. com/2013/05/the-buried-secret-of-m-night-shyamalan. html hypertext transfer protocol: //www. villagevoice. com/2013-05-29/film/after-auteur-how-m-night-shyamalan-became-just-another-director/full/