Positivist Is Approach Used In Research Methodologies Of Various Researches Essay

Positivist is an attack used in the research methodological analysiss of assorted researches. Research workers follow certain research doctrines in order to transport out their survey efficaciously. It is a method an writer follows for assemblage, analysing and utilizing informations for the research intent. One of the of import doctrines indentified in a research is positivism. Harmonizing to Levin, ( 1988 ) , Positivist research workers are of the sentiment that the world can be observed and viewed in an nonsubjective mode. Positivists feel that the informations aggregation can be carried out in the society and is related to people and their thoughts ( May 1997 ) .

Some of the methods used in positive doctrine include informations aggregation through observation, experimentation, and roll uping informations through study. These collected information and informations are so statistically analyzed to obtain consequences and hypothesis is proved through empirical observation ( Schiffman and Kanuk 1997 ) . Positivists largely deliver their consequences in a generalised mode and follow deductive attack. To be precise a rationalist research will set frontward a hypothesis which will be studied based on the information collected. This will so be through empirical observation analyzed and the hypothesis will be rejected if disproved in the experiment and accepted if the hypothesis is proved. Positivist research doctrine is made usage in quantitative every bit good as qualitative surveies. The research based on this attack is largely nonsubjective and is meant to be based on facts and figures ( Nagy, 2010 ) .

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Social constructionist

Social constructionist is something that is socially oriented. Social constructionist attack is used in research work. Social constructionist attack or position is chiefly concerned with building world socially and in such a instance the writer will analyse the procedures. This attack is chiefly concerned with observing and understanding people and in such a instance people interact with each other making and depicting themselves every bit good as their environment ( Shotter, 1993 ) . Peoples will affect their positions and respond to each other in different manners. Social constructionism involves merchandises and procedure with human interaction and communicating therefore is more societal ( Leeds-Hurwitz, 1995 ) .

In this attack more importance is given to the group or people who are in an interaction instead than on a individual person. Communication among people is considered extremely of import and is linked to world and relationship. Communication is meant to increase the cognition and imparts significance and generates societal duty ( Penman, 1992 ) . Social constructionists are people who study the relationship and communicating among people and their function in conveying in better societal fundamental law and distributing cognition.

B. Research Designs
Survey Research design

It is an of import method used in research design wherein the information assemblage is done with the aid of study. Data is collected by manner of a study and the study will incorporate certain inquiries and points that will be answered to present the consequences. There are certain of import facets to study in footings of garnering alone information that can non be obtained from any other beginning. Using a study method an indifferent sampling can be done and the population can be represented in a proper manner ( Sapsford, 2007 ) .

When a study method is done the information collected is largely in a standardised signifier since the same types of inquiries are being asked to the respondents. The respondents will reply all the inquiries harmonizing their thought sing the peculiar subject. Survey method is done with the aid of simple questionnaires in paper every bit good as based on an in-depth interview. One of the of import facets of study research is taking the right study method. The determination is important and is more dependent upon the type of study, the subject involved and the sort of people associated and under survey. The importance, advantages and disadvantages of the type of research besides needs to be considered good by the research worker.

Quasi-experimental design

Quasi experimental design is an experimental design where the use of the intervention variable takes topographic point. It is a method of research design wherein a group is selected without any random pre choice procedure, and on this chosen group a variable is tested. When this method is used in a research work the writer will split the group under survey into different classs and so a variable will be studied based on this class ( Broota, 1989 ) . The quasi experimental design is largely concerned with societal scientific disciplines and psychological science. The experimenter can non delegate the group to the intervention conditions, but the intervention variable can be assigned to the groups divided. In most of the instances the research worker utilizing this research design will non hold full control over everything. Quasi experimental research design is largely utile in bring forthing generalised consequences. This survey is largely concerned with single instance surveies.

Case method

aa‚¬A“Case method is empirical question that, investigates a modern-day phenomenon within its real-life context ; when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are non clearly apparent and in which multiple beginnings of grounds are usedaa‚¬A? , ( Yin, 1984 ) . Case survey method is an of import research design method that is followed by many research workers in order to understand assorted types of issues and complex procedures that have been antecedently studied, and will assist widen experience and reenforce the survey already done. Case survey is concerned with the elaborate or in depth analysis of a few events, therefore doing a really specific survey.

Case method involves 6 stairss:

Identifying and explicating the research inquiry

Choosing the informations assemblage techniques

Preparation Data aggregation

Data aggregation to the concerned field

Analysis of the informations

Fix a concluding study

Critics of the method say that the method trades with survey of specific topics at a limited degree therefore a generalised consequence can non be obtained.

Ethnography is the attack that helps in the acquisition of assorted societal, cultural and other facets of people in an organisation, community etc. Ethnography can be done in a scientific, fact-finding set ups and when the research worker acts as the informations aggregation instrument himself ( Le Compte, 1999 ) . The research worker besides will utilize certain research methods every bit good as many other manners of informations aggregation without any sort of prejudice or influences. Ethnography is chiefly concerned with the research or question, placing and detecting of import things, developing new relationships among variables.

Ethnography research design is job oriented, concerned with the peculiar group or community under survey. It is done with the aid of people engagement and support. Ethnography largely contributes to and points to convey about a societal alteration. Ethnography research is carried out in a natural environment, in which there is a face to confront interaction among the participants, their behaviour and positions are analyzed with the aid of both quantitative and qualitative informations. The research worker besides makes usage of the inductive and synergistic research attacks.

Experimental design
Experimental design is the method of be aftering out a survey to run into specific aims and ends. Experiments need to be decently planned so that the research worker knows what data demands to be collected, what sample size demands to be taken from the population and the types of research inquiries that has to be included. In an experimental research design the participants in a research are indiscriminately allotted to different experimental and control groups ( Marczyk et.al, 2010 ) . Experimental design is considered to be more standardised and the 1 with more cogency in consequences. It is one of the strongest research designs that is being extensively used in assorted sorts of researches. In the experimental research design the research worker will roll up the relevant information sing the subject and analyse them to prove his hypothesis. Based in the analysis the hypothesis will be proved or disproved and the consequences will be analyzed good plenty to obtain consequences.

Action research
Action research is a procedure of developing inquiries, informations aggregation, analysis and make up one’s minding a class of action. Harmonizing to Lewin, ( 1946 ) action research is a method of seeking, planning and developing an action program to obtain consequences. Action research is an synergistic procedure that is chiefly concerned with work outing jobs and happening suited solutions and doing a proper determination in assorted issues refering persons in a squad or organisation.

An organisation based action research is indispensable in the sense that it involves participants, or topics and presenting a practical solution to their issues by developing an synergistic manner. Action research in any organisation can merely be carried out merely with the aid of certain specific accomplishments. A research worker needs to do usage certain indispensable tools in order to make an action research in any community or organisation ( Stringer, 2007 ) .

Grounded theory
Unlike the old mentioned research designs grounded theory does non see the variables. Grounded theory is the procedure of qualitative research design in which the information collected are analyzed in a systematic mode to obtain a theory. Grounded theory is besides considered to be a general research which besides involves quantitative research and is an inductive procedure. Grounded theory is a structured process in which a theoretical account is given and major issues of the participants are discussed ( Bryant, 2002 ) .

There are certain stairss in the grounded theory procedure that needs to be decently followed in order to develop theories.

Preparation is the first measure that is followed in the theory, and so the following measure is that of informations aggregation in primary or secondary manner, after the informations are collected they need to be decently analyzed so that the appropriate consequences can be obtained. It is based on this analysis that the theory is developed. Memoing is the nest measure in the procedure wherein the theorisation of the thoughts in the analysis takes topographic point, the last measure in the procedure is that of screening and making a theoretical lineation.

Co-operative question
Co-operative question is a method developed by John Heron which is besides called by the name collaborative question. Co-operative question is a research method where the research is carried out with people who have similar thoughts and issues and non on the people. In a concerted question people come together and will discourse their issues and concerns which are largely similar and who have similar thoughts. Peoples in the group will lend thoughts to the group and they work and move together as portion of the research. The research worker therefore will be able to place the issues and involvements of the group members and detect them good being with them ( Heron, 1996 ) .

A systematic method of apprehension and taking action is the kernel of co-operative question. In a co-operative question group the each of the members will be involved in a rhythm of action and contemplation. As a first measure the research worker is required to convey the people of common involvement together and so they discuss upon their major concerns and issues and place what they want to work out. Then the group members will make up one’s mind upon an action program that they will follow in order to understand their ain issues and behaviours every bit good as that of the others.

There are many other types of research designs besides that adult male research worker usage in their researches which are explorative, descriptive and causal research, focal point groups etc.

Question 2

Research subject
Research subject is one of the most of import parts of research since without a research subject no research can be carried out. A research worker needs to make an extended literature study of the assorted books, diaries, and other web sites so that they can understand their topic in deepness and this decide eventually upon the subject that they want to carry on a survey on. Research subjects are extremely indispensable constituents of an MBA thesis as the research can be carried out in the right way merely with the aid of subject. The research subject must be formulated in a specific mode and should be able to steer the research worker in carry oning the survey ( Johnson, Christensen, 2010 ) . An MBA pupil should place the subject that is best needed and relevant to his survey and carry on a constructive research based on it so that the survey will lend to increasing his cognition degree in direction topics. The research subject must be strong, concise, specific and relevant to the field of survey. The subject must be clear and non obscure or drawn-out. The pupil besides needs to acquire familiarized with the research subject after placing the research subject.

Research inquiries
A research work is normally carried out in order to happen replies to certain inquiries. These inquiries are formulated as portion of the research in order to contract down the whole research work. The research inquiries are the things that you want to happen out as portion of the research work. Research inquiries can be formulated by the pupils after a proper survey of the affairs related to the subject is done and the research worker will so acquire a clear thought sing what has replies are to be obtained in the survey ( Douglas, 1979 ) .The research inquiries will besides assist the pupil make the right aims of the research. The inquiries must be critical and valid with regard to the survey, the replies of these inquiries should being out a new construct or thought. The inquiries derived must be practically executable to reply and happen a consequence on. Research inquiry is an indispensable ingredient in the research work of any MBA pupil. It is the basic job identified in the research that is considered as the research inquiry.

Research hypothesis
Research hypothesis is formulated with the aid of research inquiries and in an experimental manner of research. A anticipation of a relationship between two variables or factors is called Hypothesis. Before the writer carries out a research the hypothesis is formulated. The hypothesis preparation involves the procedure of bordering the research inquiries in a testable mode. The hypothesis will picture what the research worker is seeking to turn out or confute in the research. The research hypothesis is written as H1 and H0 in some individual sentences. In the research it is the void hypothesis that is tested. If the void hypothesis is disproved so the research hypothesis is accepted, but if the void hypothesis is proved so the research hypothesis will be rejected. Thu the analysis portion is carried out based on these hypotheses. It is the research job that is depicted in the research hypothesis ( DavidAA & A ; Sutton, 2004 ) . Hypothesis is an of import component in the research that is used to steer the research worker in the work. The research worker can concentrate on the hypothesis and direct his surveies towards the job. The research worker will besides acquire a clear thought on where to happen the right information related to the subject. The hypothesis becomes a theory when it is tested and proved.

Research aims
Research aims in a survey are the of import things that need to be achieved in a survey. The aims in a research and the job statements should be linked. Objective in a survey can be both primary and secondary aim. The general aim of the survey is meant to depict what the research will give in general footings ( Saunders, 2003 ) . The general aims can be logically divided into specific aims which are connected to each other and the general aim. The specific aim is meant to analyze the specific jobs or smaller issues concerned with the survey. All the specific aims if proved will together lend towards the general or the chief aim of the research. An MBA research should hold an aim and it is based on this aim that the research work will be carried out. Research nonsubjective brings greater specificity to the research work.

All these parts in a research are indispensable for an MBA thesis and they follow a logical order in the survey.

Question 3

In order to transport out a research efficaciously the research worker needs to follow a proper research design.

Design and development

of study instruments

Sample choice

Data aggregation



The above diagram illustrates a research design utilizing which a research can be carried out. Harmonizing to Fraser, ( 1998 ) the theoretical account the writer explain that the research worker needs to develop a method of study like questionnaires and interview for informations aggregation, besides the sample population to whom the questionnaires will be given besides needs to be analyzed. After the information aggregation is done the research worker so needs to analyse the collected informations quantitatively and qualitatively utilizing assorted statistical tools. Then the consequences obtained are discussed and hypothesis is proved or disproved.

Question 4

There are chiefly 4 types of graduated tables used in a research as follows in decreasing degrees

Ration scale- Absolute nothing

Interval scale-distance

Ordinal scale- properties can be ordered

Nominal scale- properties are named

These graduated tables help the research worker standardize and roll up informations in an effectual mode, so that they can be interpreted and measured expeditiously. The measuring graduated tables besides help the research worker in make up one’s minding as to what statistical tool demands to be used for analysing the information collected. Data analysis will be less sensitive if lower degrees of measurings are used ( Nash & A ; Barnier, 2008 ) .

Ratio graduated table measuring is concerned with absolute nothing, and the research worker can develop a ratio with the variables in the survey. It is more advisable to hold a higher degree graduated tables like ratio or interval. Count variables in a research are all ratios in a research.

Interval graduated table: in instance of this graduated table there is a significance for the distance between variables. It is easy to construe the distance between the variables. In this graduated table of measuring the norm of the variable is calculated. Eg. Temperature fluctuations

Ordinal graduated table: in ordinal graduated table the variables are kept in a rank or are ordered, in this instance the distance between the variables do non hold any significance. The properties will be given a step or order like strongly hold, hold, differ etc.

Nominal scale- in instance of numerical measuring the name of the property is of import. Eg. Jersey figure of football squad

Questionnaires are of import inexpensive tools for informations aggregation from a big figure of populations. A research worker will make questionnaires based on the subject under survey. A structured questionnaire is an of import constituent of a research since it will assist the research worker collect informations that needs to be analyzed. The questionnaire will incorporate some of import inquiries related to the subject that are relevant to the population under survey and the aims of the research ( Neelankavil, 2007 ) .

There are certain of import properties of a questionnaire:

The inquiries will be relevant to the peculiar subject

The replies to these inquiries will reply research inquiries besides

The questionnaire will put based on the research aims

They include both closed and unfastened ended inquiries

Questionnaire will be short and precise

There are certain hapless designs properties like, the respondents may be biased in the response they give, and the research worker will non be able to acquire the exact response of the respondents since face to confront interaction is non possible.


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