Possibility thinking Essay


Most people accept that early old ages instruction should take to develop kids ‘s creativeness but this raises a figure of inquiries ; viz. what is creativeness? How does it associate to imaginativeness, self look and intelligence? What ways can creativity be taught and assessed and why is it valuable? Fostering kids ‘s creativeness involves more than the originative corner in the schoolroom it involves recognizing their originative battle manifested by immature scholars. Harmonizing to Wilson ( 20.10.05 ) ‘It is of import that we foster creativeness at an early phase so that kids are more prepared to take an active function in their ain acquisition, develop better self-pride and are more willing to take opportunities. ‘

‘Possibility believing ‘ is at the bosom of all creativeness in immature kids. ( Craft 2002 ) Possibilities are generated by kids in all countries of larning e.g. drama, music and scientific question. It allows kids to research inventive ways to bring forth a assortment of results e.g. is a banana a fruit or is it a telephone? The possibilities to develop kids ‘s originative thought are eternal.

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‘Possibility believing ‘ has been acknowledged in some educational literature on creativeness but it has non been to the full accepted by some educationists ( Craft 2001 ) . Jeffrey ( 2005 ) believes it is at the nucleus to creative acquisition and represents the ‘being inventive ‘ portion of the current policy model for creativeness in England. Craft and Jeffrey ( 2004 ) believe that possibility believing involves enabling kids to happen and polish jobs every bit good as work out them.

The purpose of this research is to look into whether possibility thought is at the bosom of creativeness in immature kids. I hypothesise that:

  1. Possibility thought is at the bosom of creativeness in immature kids
  2. Creativity and imaginativeness allows immature kids to larn and develop
  3. Possibility thought will merely take topographic point if grownups give kids clip and infinite
  4. The resources, environment and available undertakings affect the possibilities for originative thought

Literature Review

Creativity has been described as ‘a ocean trip of find ‘ ( Craft 2008 ) . When it comes to creativeness in schools the 2nd half of the twentieth century can be foremost seen as a drouth following the debut of the National Curriculum in 1989 which rejected kids centred course of study patterns. After 1999 there were legion chances for creativeness in footings of course of study and larning due to a displacement in values in educational proviso and the landscape of the schoolroom.

During the terminal of the 20th and the start of the twenty-first century creativeness has become important in instruction due to the advice of the National Advisory Committee on originative and civilization instruction ( NACCCE 1999 ) led by Sir Ken Robinson and research workers such as Forests and Craft ( 1997 ) and Harland et Al ( 1998 ) . The cardinal findings from their work was that ‘creative larning ‘ involves kids sing invention in the schoolroom, control over activities, together with a sense of ownership in their acquisition. These characteristics are characteristic of originative instruction ( Jeffery and Woods 2003 ) .

The NACCCE saw creativeness as ‘imaginative activity, fashioned so as to bring forth results that are original and of value ‘ ( NACCCE 1999 pg 29 ) . The attack together with associating creativeness with civilization saw a displacement off from the position that creativeness was merely come-at-able by the gifted and a position of ‘learning as authorization in and beyond the schoolroom ‘ ( Jeffrey and Craft 2001, Sefton-Green 2008 ) .

From 2002 the constitution of originative partnerships has promoted originative acquisition. The most recent course of study constabularies of creativeness within the early old ages are the Early Years Foundation Stage ( DFES 2007, DCSF 2008 ) which continues to stress the significance of creativeness. It encourages pupil battle and offers instructors a agencies of individualized acquisition ( Hargreaves 2008 ) . The message seems to be creativeness is for everyone everyplace!

However there are jobs as to how creativeness is documented, assessed and how patterned advance is supported ( Rose 2008 ) . ‘Learning through the humanistic disciplines has the possible to excite unfastened ended activity that encourages find, geographic expedition, experimentation and innovation lending to a kid ‘s development ‘ ( Bernadette Duffy 2006 ) . Music, dance, and play enable kids to show their feelings. Creativity and imaginativeness in the visible radiation of Every Child affairs, Certain Start and the Foundation Stage course of study enables immature kids to larn and develop whilst showing their feelings, ideas and responses.

Anna Craft ( 2000 ) introduced and developed the impression of possibility thought as nucleus to small hundred creativeness. Possibility thought is means by which intelligence, self-creation, self-expression and know-how are bought together and expressed, It finds a manner around a job by presenting inquiries and happening a job through placing a inquiry or subject to be investigated. Fostering immature kids ‘s possibility thought involves traveling their thought on from ‘what does this make? ‘ to ‘what can i do with this? It involves a move from the convergent to more divergent thought.

The paper ‘Pedagogy and Possibility Thinking in the Early Old ages ‘ ( Cremin, Burnard and Craft May 2006 ) sought to place what characterises possibility believing expanded on immature kids ‘s acquisition experiences and how instructors pedagogical patterns Fosters this critical facet of creativeness. Possibility thought is cardinal to creative acquisition and at the bosom of all originative battle. A 12 month survey carried out in a primary school by University research workers showed that instructors use the pattern of ‘standing back ‘ whilst giving pupils clip and infinite so as to further possibility believing. Surveies undertaken by the squad ( Craft 2001, Burnard et al 2006, Chappel 2006, Cremin et al 2006 ) suggest that the construct of Possibility thought has originative battle across all contexts. Possibility believing implies attending to impact of thoughts and raisings ‘trusteeship ‘ ( Claxton 2008 ) .

The Curriculum Guidance for the foundation phase emphasizes that creativeness ‘begins with wonder and involves kids in geographic expedition and experimentation. They draw upon their imaginativeness and originality. They make determinations, take hazards and drama with thoughts. If they are to be genuinely originative, kids need the freedom to develop and the support of grownups ‘ ( DFES 2000:118 ) . The work of research workers such as Craft ( 2002 ) , Csikszentmhalyi ( 1997 ) , Fisher ( 1990 ) and Lipman ( 1988 ) has demonstrated the value of creativeness in larning in the early old ages. In the foundation phase course of study papers creativeness is presented as a ‘subject ‘ and promoted in countries such as dance, music and narratives. However they argue ‘young kids ‘s acquisition is non compartmentalised ‘ ( DFES:45 ) . Thus topics such as mathematics should supply chances for originative thought as instructors need to recognize the importance of creativeness throughout the whole course of study so as to develop kids ‘s originative thought and widen their acquisition whenever possible. ( Worthington and Carruthers 2005 )

Given the gait of alteration in the twenty-first century ‘education needs to be originative whilst heightening the creativeness of both immature kids and the grownups who work with them ‘ ( Facer 2007 ) .


The research worker chose to utilize a combination of both secondary beginning stuffs alongside primary beginnings. The already published literature provided her with a solid base on which she was able to get down to establish the probe every bit good as supplying the research worker with possible countries to research and correlativities to look out for when transporting out her research.

The primary beginnings enabled her to back up the research that already existed and helped to pull balanced decisions when it came to replying the research inquiry. This made her probe current and valid but will besides help the research worker ‘s future pattern.

‘Research in instruction is a disciplined effort to turn to inquiries or work out jobs through the aggregation and analysis of primary informations for the intent of description, account, generalization and anticipation ( Anderson et al, 1998 ) .

There are many types of research but they all portion the following basic features ;

‘They are all, or purpose to be planned, cautious, systematic and dependable ways of happening out or intensifying understanding ‘ ( Blaxter et al, 2001, p.5 ) .

The research worker used a assortment of primary methods:

  1. Unstructured interviews

Unstructured interviews are a qualitative method of research that provides informal, unfastened ended fluxing conversations. The advantage of this method, when discoursing a subjective country such as creativeness is that it provides in deepness information. Interviews provide valid and utile information which will enrich her research and by garnering sentiments on possibility of believing she will derive insight into the benefits and motive it provides to immature kids.

  1. Participant Observations

The research worker will transport out open observations in a assortment of scenes viz. a primary school, a playgroup and a residential place. She will utilize open observations whereby grownups, and kids are cognizant of her presence so as to avoid ethical issues. The research worker chose participant observations so that as a sure grownup she could fall in in with the originative activities and therefore to the full understand what was go oning in each single scene. The research worker was besides acute to detect how an grownup intercession and presence affected the kids ‘s originative procedure.

Ethical motives considered

There are research concerns specific to kids and immature people set out in the British Educational Research Association ( BERA ) ethical guidelines. Chiefly, these are focused upon the informed and valid consent of participants, and ways of guaranting that this is attained ( Lindsay, 2000 ) . It was ensured that the BERA ethical guidelines were followed. This included, informing the primary school instructor, playgroup leader and childminder what the research entailed and what would be expected of the kids included in the sample. In line with ethical issues it was stressed that the information would stay anon. .

Empirical chapter 1: Observations


Observations are an interpretivist attack. Interpretivism emphasizes that people have consciousness affecting personal beliefs, values and readings and these act upon the manner people out. They do non merely react to forces outside of them. ( K.Browne 2006 )

The research worker aims to construe the values and feelings of both persons and the group. The information will be in-depth and on a micro graduated table.


  1. Participant observations aim to develop an apprehension from the position point of the topics of the research without leting the research workers ain values and biass to falsify the observation.
  2. Children pose inquiries and happen solutions to excite originative thought.
  3. If immature kids are prepared to take hazards they are more originative.


Participant Observation

The first undertaking of any research is to garner information. The research worker will be making this by transporting out observations so that accounts and correlativities can be made. The information generated will supply her with sentiments about the extent to which ‘possibility thought ‘is at the bosom of creativeness in immature kids.

She will transport out three observations the first at a primary school in Stafford where she will detect a twelvemonth one numeracy lesson. The 2nd at a playgroup in Wolverhampton and eventually the tierce at the residential place of a childminder in Northampton. The observations will be open and participant. The research worker will be honest with the kids and grownups so they understand what she is making. All observations will take topographic point in a non-threatening, safe ambiance. At both the playgroup and childminders home the kids will be either playing or involved in originative activities. At school the twelvemonth one student will be involved in a numeracy lesson. The research worker will utilize an observation sheet to enter information and compose the observations up at a ulterior day of the month. She has chosen participant observation as the research worker joins the group being studied and can therefore see things through their eyes.

Observation 1

  1. Participants

Barnfield Primary school Stafford twelvemonth one category

25 students

14 misss

11 male childs

  1. Materials

Numeracy lesson program on form

  1. Procedures

First she wrote to the caput to inquire permission to transport out the observation and so visited the school on Monday 14th December 2009 for a pre-visit to discourse the observation with the category instructor. She carried out the observation on Tuesday 12th January 2010.

  1. Analysis

The information will be written up on the observation sheet and analysed at a ulterior day of the month.

Observation 2

  1. Participants

Portobello Community Centre pre-school playgroup

8 kids

5 male childs

3 misss

  1. Materials

Cut out caribous, card

Construction playthings

Observation sheet

  1. Procedures

First she contacted the drama leader by telephone to discourse the observations. She carried out the observations on the 7th December 2009 and the 18th January 2010.

  1. Analysis

The information will be written up on the observation sheet and analysed at a ulterior day of the month.

Observation 3

  1. Particpants

Registered childminders home in Northampton. At present she looks after male childs aged seven and five and a miss aged three.

  1. Materials

Toys e.g doll house, animation and magnetix

Musical instruments e.g membranophones and Shakerss

Observation sheet

  1. Procedures

The kid minder is a household friend so the research worker made contact by phone. The research worker so visited on Monday 21st December 2009 to transport out the observation.

  1. Analysis

The information will be written up on the observation sheet and analysed at a ulterior day of the month.

Consequences from observations

The research worker chose to detect immature kids in a assortment of scenes. The kids at school were involved in a directed undertaking viz. a numeracy lesson about form. The kids at playgroup and at the childminders place were either playing or involved in semi-structured activities which gave range for creativeness and allowed for personal look, unlike the numeracy lesson the drama, art and music undertakings excluded the notation for right and incorrect.

The kids in all 3 scenes produced a assortment of consequences and their range for creativeness was dependent upon

  • The environment
  • The activity
  • The resources available
  • The degree of big support and intercession

Discussion of Playgroup Observation 1

The observations at the playgroup showed three facets of the procedure utilizing the Possibility Thinking model viz. :

  • Presenting inquiries
  • Play
  • Submergence and doing connexions

They besides included three facets of procedure result:

  • Bing inventive
  • Invention
  • Hazard taking

There was small grounds of development or invention but this was likely due to the fact that the kids were aged between two to four. The first observation on 7th December 2009 showed the childs involved in a Christmas workshop devising cards and 3D caribous. The kids were excited and invariably posing inquiries about what colors and stuffs to utilize. The kids were immersed in the activity and the results were inventive and showed they were happy to take hazards. The childs were confident and supported by legion grownups therefore the degree of big supervising was high.

Discussion of Playgroup Observation 2

The 2nd observation took topographic point at the playgroup on January 18th 2010. The child ‘s were allowed to play in the sand and H2O, place corner and with building playthings such as bricks and Lego. The male childs were more interested in the building toys, whilst the misss predominately played in the place corner.

All kids were immersed in drama and asked inquiries. They were inventive and took hazards ; nevertheless there was small grounds of invention or development. The degree of big supervising was rather high nevertheless the intercession by the grownups was low.

Discussion of Childminders Observation

The research worker visited a childminder ‘s place on Friday 18th December 2009 when she was looking after three kids. The childs played with building playthings, saber saws, dolls house, and my small ponies. They so played with musical instruments such as a membranophone set and maracas. The kids were thrilled to do music.

The three kids invariably chatted to each other. They played together and on their ain. The male childs were immersed in making a animation path and Lego theoretical accounts whereas the miss immersed herself in the fanciful universe of my small pony.

All three kids were inventive and originative particularly when the musical instruments appeared. They discovered different sounds and ways of doing music and formed a mini set.

Discussion of Numeracy Lesson observation ( twelvemonth one on form )

The research worker expected the lesson to hold limited chances for creativeness due to infinite and construction restraints. She views numeracy as a factual, uncreative lesson which focuses on the apprehension of set regulations. However the research worker was surprised that the student ‘s thoughts were welcomed and they could present inquiries. The kids could non truly bring forth original work as there were right and incorrect replies although they did research different methods to acquire at that place so were given some ownership for their ain acquisition. There was besides some range for development and invention in their work.

Decision of observations

The purpose of participant observations is to develop an apprehension from the point of position of topics without bias. The research worker achieved this by detecting childs and their grownup supervisors in a assortment of scenes whilst going a full sure member of the group. All the kids posed inquiries so as to happen solutions to excite originative thought. The childs at both the playgroup and childminders place had more chances to take hazards than those in the schoolroom so had more opportunity to be originative.

Empirical Chapter 2: Unstructured Interviews


An unstructured interview is like a guided conversation. The interviewer has the subject to cover but inquiries are open-ended. The research worker seeks to set the respondent at easiness, in a relaxed informal state of affairs and hopefully the inquiries will trip farther treatment. The interviewer aims to obtain farther deepness than is possible in a structured interview. Unstructured interviews are from an interpretivist attack and supply qualitative informations as they are concerned with people ‘s feelings and positions.


  1. Unstructured interviews provide rich, elaborate information where by the respondents can show their feelings about the issue of creativeness and possibility thought.
  2. Certain undertakings such as art, music, play and dance are more suited to originative thought.
  3. The acquisition environment and instruction schemes need to supply range for imaginativeness if kids are to bring forth a assortment of results and therefore suit originative acquisition.


Unstructured interviews

The research worker will interview three grownups and carry on the interviews like a treatment with open-ended inquiries. She will be careful non to act upon the answers so as to avoid interviewer prejudice. She will compose down the answers on an interview sheet but seek non to interrupt the flow of the interviews. The answers will hopefully bring forth rich, qualitative information and comparings between interviews can be drawn. The usage of interviews, stimulate contemplation and critical conversations about possibility thought as a signifier of battle and scheme of creativeness and the originative thought procedure. The examining inquiries will let the grownups to concentrate on what they consider to be important in the originative acquisition experiences.

Interview 1

  1. Particpants

Barnfield Primary School Stafford Year one category instructor.

  1. Materials
  2. Procedures

The research worker wrote to head to inquire permission to interview a category instructor. The research worker visited the school to run into the instructor on Monday 14th December. The research worker carried out the interview on Tuesday 12th January 2010.

  1. Analysis

The research worker will compose the interview up on the interview sheet and compare the three interviews.

Interview 2

  1. Particpants

Portobello Community Centre playleader

  1. Materials
  2. Procedures

The research worker contacted the drama leader by telephone to discourse the interview. The research worker so carried out the interview on January 18th 2010.

  1. Analysis

The research worker will compose the interview up on the interview sheet and compare the three interviews.

Interview 3

  1. Particpants

Registered childminder who is besides a qualified instructor.

  1. Materials
  2. Procedures

The research worker contacted the childminder by phone to discourse the interview. The interview was carried out on Monday 21st December 2009.

  1. Analysis

The research worker will compose the interview up on the interview sheet and compare the three interviews.

Consequences from Interviews

The research worker chose to interview the three grownups who were involved in her observations. The inquiries had a focal point related to creativeness and possibility thought but were unfastened ended so allowed for development. All grownups were interviewed in a quiet environment where they felt at easiness.

The three grownups all said they used similar schemes to promote creativeness viz. standing back and supplying a safe environment, with multiple resources that encouraged originative thought. Two out of three grownups were diffident that possibility thought was cardinal to originative acquisition but thought schemes such as presenting inquiries and giving kids clip and infinite does develop the notation of possibility thought. All three grownups thought the environment was of import for originative acquisition and believed a safe, disputing experience helps to supply chances for inventive experiences. All three grownups felt some undertakings were more suitable to creative believing such as dance, music and play nevertheless the category instructor thought topics such as maths and scientific discipline should supply chances for originative thought.

Discussion of Interviews with twelvemonth one instructor, play leader and registered childminder

All three grownups interviewed discussed different schemes they used to promote kids to be originative that included giving childs clip and infinite and supplying a assortment of resources which allowed kids to research activities in inventive ways. The kids were allowed to present inquiries and take hazards. They felt the environment and the undertakings offered were important to creative thought nevertheless merely the category instructor thought possibility thought was cardinal to creative larning. They all thought that creativeness begins with wonder and is developed if kids are given the chance to research and experiment with different resources and thoughts.

Decision of interviews

The purpose of unstructured interviews was to supply rich indistinguishable information whereby respondents could show their feelings about creativeness and possibility thought. All three interviewees gave the research worker elaborate penetration into the grownup ‘s positions about the research issue. All three interviews felt certain undertakings such as art and music were more suited to originative thought. They gave a elaborate history of how the acquisition environment and schemes such as giving kids clip and infinite provide chances for imaginativeness and originative acquisition.


NACCCE ( 1999 ) argued ‘creativity is inventive actively fashioned so as to bring forth results that are both original and of value ‘ . Harmonizing to Craft possibility believing ‘is at the bosom of creativeness in instruction. ‘ This thought has deductions as the battle of scholars harmonizing to Jeffrey ( 2005 ) leads to ‘engagement with jobs ‘ .

‘Fostering kids ‘s possibility thought can be seen as constructing their resiliency and assurance and citing their capablenesss as confident adventurers, intending shapers and determination shapers. ‘ ( Craft 2005 ) .

Possibility believing involves job determination and resolution. Creative instruction may further learner creativeness providing there are co-participative partnerships between instructors and scholars, in which they explore issues, pose inquiries, place jobs and reflect upon their thought and acquisition. The cardinal factor being that ‘the control has to be handed back to the scholar ‘ ( Craft and Jeffery 2003 ) .

In seeking to unknot the issues of what constitutes possibility thought in the acquisition experiences of immature kids and how instructors, drama leaders and childminder ‘s surrogate possibility thought as an facet of creativeness, the research worker carried out observations and interviews. She used examining inquiries and encouraged the grownups to prosecute in in-depth brooding pattern.

Following close observations in each context utilizing the possibility believing certification model and farther interviews with the grownups in charge, core countries of possibility thought in kids ‘s acquisition were identified. They included the three facets of procedure i.e presenting inquiries, play submergence and inversion. They besides included the three facets of procedure result i.e being inventive, invention and hazard pickings.

The observations were written up in the visible radiation of the three-fold-structure. Many of the childs were involved in hazard pickings and were immersed in an activity. On the results there was small grounds of development and the inquiry of taking knowing action was debatable as many of the kids were excessively immature. In footings of procedure outcome the notation of invention was besides hard as what might be normal for one kid in one peculiar environment may non be normal for another. The separation of procedure and result is non easy during the early old ages as immature kids frequently take hazards to travel their thought frontward but this may non be an result. The integrating between originative instruction and acquisition besides seemed to further possibility thought. If immature kids feel safe they gain assurance as with the kids in all three experimental scenes.

The three interviews highlighted the fact that they all tried to further creativeness in their childs by supplying a exciting acquisition environment which allowed the kids to present inquiries and research a assortment of results in an inventive manner. The grownups tried to stand back but felt some undertakings were more suitable to creative believing than others.

The purpose of the research was to look into whether possibility thought is at the bosom of creativeness in immature kids. Research workers such as Professor Anna Craft believe it is so every bit does one out of three of the grownups interviewed. Many research workers such as Craft, Jeffrey, Burnard and Chappel all feel creativeness and imaginativeness allow immature kids to larn and develop.

If kids are to be originative, grownups need to give them freedom to develop. Cremin, Burnard and Craft ( 2006 ) found that in a 12 month survey carried out in schools ; that instructors needed to ‘stand back ‘ and give kids clip and infinite to further possibility thought. The observations and interviews carried out by the research worker reinforced this.

The concluding hypothesis was that the resources, environment and undertakings affect the possibilities for originative thought. The observations and interviews with grownups confirmed this. Deciding whether the motive of students based on the originative scene was hard to find as she merely carried out observations in three scenes and merely interviewed three grownups, therefore her findings were limited.

Possibility thought does look to act upon creativeness but the sample was little and the determinations the research worker made were subjective and non based upon nonsubjective scientific testing.


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