Power Crisis in Tamilnadu and Remedial Measure to over Come Essay

The Power Crisis in Tamil Nadu Viable Remedial Measure to Over Come K Chandrasekar1* C Bharath Kumar2 Load shedding which was originally meant for an hour or so, has now been extended to Abstract: Electric generation system in Tamil Nadu is suffering with a serious problem of load shedding, power shortage due industrial and technological development without having any proper intension for increasing the resource of power. But we have the immense resource to fulfill our power need.

As India is subtropical it can get a year around light energy and this energy can be used as power resource for the production of electricity. As it is a non exhaustible resource it can give year around output of power. Our nuclear mission is only to increase export of thorium based nuclear fuel but it should have an ultimate aim to fulfill the basic needs of the country. Without power we can’t imagine our life because we are inbounded with the technology which needs power as basic requirement for the development and easy living.

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Keywords: hydropower, radiation energy, hydrogen economy, transmission loss, power shortage. three hours in many suburbs of the city, the industries in and around the city (High Tension power consumers) have been hit hard by strict regulations on hours of load shedding, with many units being forced to shut down operations for an entire day each week. Industry sources are also upset over the fact that while manufacturing units consume only 35% of the 9500 MW power consumption in Tamil Nadu, they are being forced to suffer load shedding far more than domestic consumers.

Many units have begun operating shifts with the help of diesel generators, but this is proving to be an expensive solution which is affecting the bottom line. The multinationals are being given power at the expense of domestic companies. While there may be no basis for such a view, it does indicate that the state government has laid the ground for a potentially explosive situation on the power front. There is no short term solution to the power crisis in the city and the state. The state can still claim to have surplus power for it has around 10500 MW installed capacity. However real time production is less.

But we are expecting relief will be there to some extent is expected when the Koodamkulam plant is commissioned in about six months from now. Most of the newly approved power units are only in the land identification stage right now. The losses in transmission and distribution of power are also significant with the State-Controlled Electricity Board not performing at expected levels. I. INTRODUCTION: The power crisis has come to stay in the state of Tamil Nadu. For many months now, power cuts for over six hours in the towns and villages of the state have been the normal.

Chennai, which till recently was spared the rigours of power shedding has now been brought into the ambit. In this position ‘a question on the state trying to attract more and more investment, giving assurances of uninterrupted power supply’. 1* K Chandrasekar, Department of electronics and communication engineering, Tamil Nadu College of engineering, Karumathampatti 641663 Mail: [email protected] com Mobile: 9791218325 2 C Bharath Kumar, Department of electronics and communication engineering, Tamil Nadu College of engineering, Karumathampatti Mail:[email protected] om Mobile: 9865395548 The state government has on the other hand approached HT (High Tension power consumers) consumers with a proposal that they share the cost of power during evening hours. This if accepted will ensure that there is some relief given to units that rely on generators for their power during evening and other peak requirements. III. TOTAL RESOURCE USED FOR POWER GENERATION IN INDIA Fossil fuel Hydro Nuclear Other : 81. 7% : 14. 5% : 3. 4% : 0. 3% Our power generation mainly depends on II.

SHORTAGE OF POWER REASONS: the thermal power plant only but that resource cannot be used for ever because it cannot be Theft of Power:- Power thefts by factories, farms etc. are increasing and remedial measures are expected to be taken at appropriate levels. ? ? ? Non-Stringent/Over-usage of power by the Consumers/Public:Awareness must be created in the minds of the consumers, to use power stringently. Wastage of Power in Functions: Both in the private functions and public functions steps must be taken to reduce over-use of decorative lights etc. Shortage of Power Generation/Supply:- At Neyveli, the workers are on agitation/strike on various demands, which affects thermal power generation. ? Tamil Nadu is at present getting only 7,195 MW of of power against the MW. requirement ? ? ? ? 8,000 Year Electricity production Rank Percent Change 0. 00 % 2. 61 % 1. 75 % 13. 25 % 5. 50 % 0. 00 % 8. 79 % Date of Information 2001 2001 2002 2003 2004 2007 est. 2007 est. 2009 est. renewable. We are wasting the renewable resource like hydro power in which India can alone produce 1, 48,701 Megawatts but we are producing only 36,878 MW.

A. Our rank in production of electric power is 5th. Electricity – production: 723. 8 billion kWh (2009 est. ) 2003 533,300,000,000KW 7 2004 533,300,000,000 KW 7 2005 547,200,000,000 KW 7 2006 556,800,000,000 KW 7 2007 630,600,000,000 KW 5 2008 665,300,000,000 KW 5 2009 665,300,000,000 KW 5 2010 723,800,000,000 KW 5 Table1: Gives the last 7 year electricity production in India[1] Wind mills are supplying 1,500 MW Hydel sources 1,000 MW Thermal 2,520 MW Power stations using gas are generating 321 MW. The state is getting 1,754 MW from the central pool, besides 100 MW from Kerala. The situation will not ease till the Russianaided year. India is blessed with immense amount of hydro-electric potential and ranks 5th in terms of Koodankulam Nuclear Power IV. POTENTIAL IN INDIA: station’s first unit is commissioned next Year 2009 2010 B. Electricity – imports: 5. 27 billion kWh (2009 est. ) Electricity imports 3,189,000,000 KW 5,270,000,000 KW Rank 40 33 65. 26 % Percent Change Date Information 2006 est. 2009 est. of Table2: Gives the last 2 year electricity import in India[1] exploitable hydro-potential on global scenario.

As per assessment made by CEA, India is endowed with economically exploitable hydro-power potential to the tune of 1 48 700 MW of minimum production capacity. The basin wise assessed potential is as under: Basin/Rivers Indus Basin Ganga Basin Central Indian River system Minimum Production Capacity (MW) 33,832 20,711 4,152 As Tamil Nadu has two power plant under construction which can satisfy the power demand in Tamil Nadu by 2012 [2] 1. Thermal Power Thermal power is the largest source of power in India. There are different types of Thermal power plants based on the fuel used to generate the steam such as coal, gas, Diesel etc.

About 75% of electricity consumed in India is generated by Thermal power plants[1]. 2. Coal or Lignite Based Western Flowing Rivers of 9,430 southern India Eastern Flowing Rivers of 14,511 southern India Brahmaputra Basin Total 66,065 1,48,701 Table3: Gives the potential of hydropower plant[2] In addition, 56 number of pumped storage projects have also been identified with probable installed capacity of 94,000 MW. In addition to this, hydro-potential from small, mini & micro schemes has been estimated as 6,782 MW from 1,512 sites. Thus, in totality India is endowed with hydro-potential of about 2, 50,000 MW.

Table3gives potential of India in hydropower generation A. Potential of Tamil Nadu: Nuclear is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydro and wind power. As of 2010, India had 19 nuclear power reactors in operation generating 4,560 MW while 4 other are under construction and are expected to generate an additional 2,720 MW. Nineteen nuclear power reactors operated at six sites by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India produce 4,560. 00 MW, 2. 9% of total installed base. More than 50% of India’s commercial energy demand is met through the ountry’s vast coal reserves. Public sector undertaking National Thermal Power Corporation and several other state level power generating companies are engaged in operating coal based Thermal Power Plants. Apart from NTPC and other state level operators, some private companies are also operating the power plants. Here is some list of currently operating Coal based Thermal power plants in India. As on March 31st 2010, and as per the Central Electricity Authority the total installed capacity of Coal or Lignite based power plants in india are 86003. 38 MW. 1] Table5 gives the details of power production in Tamilnadu. Power station State Region Unit wise Capacity Installed Capacity (MW) Power station Installed Reactor Capacity State (MW)units (MW) Under construction (MW) Neyveli TPS 1 Tamilnadu Southern 6 x 50, 3 x 100, 2 x 1020 210 Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant Neyveli TPS 2 Tamil 1000 x 2 nadu 2000 Tamilnadu Southern 7 x 210 1470 Table5: Gives the potential of thermal power plant[2] 3. Madras Atomic Power Station Tamil 500 x 1 nadu 500 Gas or Liquid Fuel Based Table4: Gives the potential of nuclear power station in Tamil Nadu[2]

As on March 31st 2010, and as per the Central Electricity Authority the total installed capacity of Gas based power plants in India is 17,220. 85 MW.. This accounts for 10% of the total installed capacity. GAIL is the main source of fuel for most of these plants. Here is some list of presently operating plants. [1] Power station Southern Region 1 3 Unit wise Capacity Installed Capacity (MW) 359. 577 supply this extra electricity, total generating capacity should jump by 90 giga watt (GW) to 241 GW, with an increased emphasis on nuclear, clean coal and renewable, including solar and smallhydro.

Factors like increasing economic activity, wealth and population, an improved standard of living and infrastructure developments are all expected to underline a continuous increase in demand for power in the next decade. Coal, which already provides almost 70 per cent of India’s power, would remain the dominant primary fuel, holding out commercial opportunities to those producers who are global leaders in high efficiency, clean-burn plant. VII. NEW ENERGY RECOMMENDED FOR FUTURE IS SUN LIGHT: Table6: Gives the potential of gaseous power plant[2] V. INSTALLED CAPACITY:

The total installed capacity of India is 36878 MW. A. BARRIERS The energy of running water has been exploited for very many years. However, traditional approaches have suffered disadvantages due to environmental factors. For example: • Building a dam across a river floods the land that would otherwise be available for use, alters the landscape, affects the local community that would have lived and worked on the flooded land, alters the character of the river, and prevents the free movement of fish; Diverting a river affects the nature of the countryside and does not lend itself to use on a large scale.

Permanent complete or partial blockage of a river for energy conversion is adversely affected by variations in flow. Building large-scale hydro power plants can be polluting and damaging to surrounding ecosystems. Changing the course of waterways can also have a detrimental effect on human communities, agriculture and ecosystems further downstream. Hydro projects can also be unreliable during prolonged droughts and dry seasons when rivers dry up or reduce in volume. Sun light alone has emitting countless neutrinos which can be used to convert natural uranium to enriched uranium Sun alone has the capacity to give nergy for our need only solar cells and other light equipments can alone use light properly. Neutrino is only thing that we are getting as countless as it is free of cost it can be converted into radioactive material to produce electricity. VIII. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESOURCE: • • • India has announced intentions to export power reactors to other nations and is developing an advanced design for that purpose. The head of India’s Atomic Energy Commission, Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) adapted to use low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel.

The original design is fuelled by a mix of uranium-233 and plutonium bred from thorium using fast neutron power reactors earlier in a thorium fuel cycle. The LEU variant is suitable for export because it does away with the plutonium, replacing it with uranium enriched to 19. 75% uranium-235. Producing 300 MW, the unit is less than one third the capacity of a typical large reactor. It is designed to operate for up to 100 years and has a “next generation” level of safety that grants operators three days grace in the event of a serious incident and requires no emergency planning beyond the site boundary under any circumstances.

The design is intended for overseas sales, and the AEC says that “the reactor is manageable • ESTIMATION FOR NEXT DECADE Electricity consumption in India currently at some 600 Tera Watt hour (TWh) annually, is set to double by next decade, surpassing the Russian levels in the process. KPMG’s Global Advisory Practice released a power industry research published under the title, “Think BRIC! reveals that in order to VI. with modest industrial infrastructure within the reach of developing countries. The new fuel mix, AEC said, produces less plutonium than mainstream light-water reactors and what it does produce contains three times the proportion of plutonium-238, lending it proliferation resistance. Furthermore, it leaves only half the amount of long-lived radioactive waste per unit of energy compared to mainstream light-water reactors. As well as introducing India as a potential new major player in reactor sales – especially to new markets – the announcement reaffirms India’s commitment to proceeding with the thorium fuel cycle using the original AHWR as the final stage.

India was effectively isolated from international nuclear trade from 1992 until early this year when a US-led initiative resulted in special arrangements for India under the Nuclear Suppliers Group, based on an India-specific safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency. Overseas firms can now do business with India, which is keen to import uranium and large power reactors. In turn, India may now offer its goods and services to the wider world. The long-term goal of India’s nuclear program has been to develop an advanced heavywater thorium cycle.

The first stage of this employs the pressurized heavy-water reactors and light water reactors, to produce plutonium. Stage two uses fast neutron reactors to burn the plutonium and breed uranium-233 from locally mined thorium. The blanket around the core will have uranium as well as thorium, so that further plutonium is produced as well. In stage three, AHWRs burn the uranium233 from stage two with plutonium and thorium, getting about two thirds of their power from the thorium. The first AHWR is meant to start construction in 2012, although no site has yet been announced.

A prototype 500 MWe fast neutron reactor being built at Kalpakkam should be complete in 2011. IX. POWER SUPPLY UNITS INDIA: Power is derived from various sources in India. These include thermal power, hydropower or hydroelectricity, solar power, biogas energy, wind power etc. the distribution of the power generated is undertaken by Rural Electrification Corporation for electricity power supply to the rural areas, North Eastern Electric Power Corporation for electricity supply to the North East India regions and the Power Grid Corporation of India Limited for an all India supply of electrical power in India. . Thermal Power in India is mainly generated through coal, gas and oil. India coal power forms a majority share of the source of power supply in India. The electric power in India is generated at various thermal power stations in India. The power generated at these thermal power plants is then distributed all over India through a network of power grid at regional and national levels. The power ministry organization responsible for the thermal power management in India is the NTPC. 2. Hydropower is India is one of the mega power generators in India.

Various hydropower projects and hydro power plants have been set up by the ministry of power for generation of hydro power in India. Various dams and reservoirs are constructed on major rivers and the kinetic energy of the flowing water is utilized to generate hydroelectricity. The power generator here is the running water. The hydroelectric power plants and the hydro power generation companies are managed by the National Hydro Electric Power Corporation (NHPC). 3. Wind Power in India is available in plenty as India witnesses high intensity winds in various regions due to the topographical diversity in India.

Efforts have been made to utilize this natural source of energy available free of cost for wind power generation. Huge wind energy farms have been set up by the government for tapping the wind energy by using gigantic windmills and them converting the kinetic energy of the wind into electricity by the use of power converters. The wind power advantages start with the very fact that a wind energy power plant does not require much infrastructure input and the raw material i. e. wind itself is available free of cost. 4.

Solar Power in India is being utilized to generate electricity on smaller scale by setting up massive solar panels and capturing the solar power. Solar power India is also being utilized by the power companies in India to generate solar energy for domestic and small industrial uses. Fig2: Gives new way of production of energy form tidal energy and wave energy[2] Fig1: Gives the potential of production of electricity from global radiation 6. Wind energy: India’s current electricity installed capacity is 135 401. 63MW. Currently there is peak power shortage of about 10 % and overall power shortage of 7. 5 %. h The 11 plan target is to add 100 000 MW by 2012 and MNRE has set up target to add 14500 MW by 2012 from new and renewable energy resources out of which 50 MW would be from solar energy. The Integrated Energy Policy of India envisages electricity generation installed capacity of 800 000 MW by 2030 and a substantial contribution would be from renewable energy. This indicates that India’s future energy requirements are going to be very high and solar energy can be one of the efficient and eco-friendly ways to meet the same. 5. Nuclear Power in India is generated at huge nuclear power plants and nuclear power stations in India.

A nuclear power plant generates the electricity using nuclear energy. All the nuclear power plants in India are managed by the Nuclear Power Corp of India Ltd (NPCL). The electricity from all India nuclear plants is distributed by the NPCL as per the nuclear power project scheme. Renewable energy sources include wind power; wave power; Ocean Thermal Exchange Capacity (OTEC) – based on temperature differences in ocean layers; solar power; hydropower; fuel cells and biofuels – also known as biomass fuels – such as alcohol from sugar; methane from organic waste; or charcoal from trees.

The key characteristic of renewable energies is that the energy sources are continually available. Investigate one such source of power – water – in the following scene about a typical water mill Fig3: Gives high efficient wind mill used for the production of energy 7. Hydrogen economy • Hydrogen can be manufactured at roughly 77 percent thermal efficiency by the method of steam reforming of natural gas. When manufactured by this method it is a derivative fuel like gasoline; when produced by electrolysis of water, it is a form of chemical energy storage as are storage batteries, hough hydrogen is the more versatile storage mode since there are two options for its conversion to useful work: (1) a fuel cell can convert the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in the process, produce electricity, or (2) hydrogen can be burned (less efficiently than in a fuel cell) in an internal combustion engine. [6] • • Graph1: Gives the energy usage of world consumption Permanent Magnets. Dr. Tom Bearden has two working models of a permanent magnet powered electrical transformer. It uses a 6-watt electrical input to control the path of a magnetic field coming out of a magnet.

By channeling the magnetic field, first to one output coil then a second repeatedly and rapidly, the device can produce a 96-watt electrical output with no moving parts. Multiple inventors have working mechanisms that produce torque from permanent magnets alone. [More] Super-Efficient Electrolysis. Water can be broken into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity. When water is hit with its own molecular resonant frequency, it collapses into hydrogen and oxygen gas with little electrical input. Hydrogen fuel can drive engines (like in your car) for the cost of water. [More] Cold Fusion.

Though initial claims were debunked, cold fusion is very real. Not only has excess heat production been repeatedly documented, but also low energy atomic element transmutation has been catalogued, involving dozens of different reactions. [More] There are dozens of other systems. Many are viable and well tested. But this short list is sufficient to make the point: new energy technology is here. It offers the world pollution-free energy abundance for everyone, everywhere. It is now possible to stop the production of “greenhouse gases” and shut down the nuclear power plants.

Transportation and production costs for just about everything can drop dramatically. Yet all these wonderful benefits that can make life on this planet so much easier and better for everyone have been postponed for decades. Fig4: Modern water working wheel for higher efficiency of power production: X. RESEARCHES INCREASE THE POWER PRODUCTION: • Radiant Energy. Nikola Tesla’s Magnifying Transmitter, T. Henry Moray’s Radiant Energy Device, Edwin Gray’s EMA Motor, and Paul Baumann’s Testatika Machine all run on Radiant Energy. This natural energy can perform the same wonders as ordinary electricity at less than 1% of the cost.

It does not behave exactly like electricity, however, which has contributed to the scientific community’s misunderstanding of it. The Methernitha Community in Switzerland currently has 5 or 6 working models of fuelless, self-running devices that tap this energy. [More] Hydro research centres Alps Power Technologies (P) Limited The company is manufacturing small turbines and genset up to 1000 KW, complete with microprocessor based static excitor system, microprocessor based digital governor, remote operation and telemetry and telecontrol system, chartless recorder for data etc.

The company has its own manufacturing and testing facilities at its works, in ghunna industrial area, Saharanpur, India Flovel Mecamidi Flovel Mecamidi Energy Private Limited (FMEPL) is a joint venture between Flovel MG Holdings Private Limited, India and Mecamidi S. A. , France. Promoters of Flovel MG Holdings Private Limited along with its core team have decades of experience in marketing, design, manufacture, supply, erection, commissioning & servicing of hydro power projects of all types both for local as well as export markets Karshni Intertech Pvt. Ltd XI. NEW ENERGY RESOURCE NEEDED TO

IMPLEMENT Really amazing are the innovative ways solar power is put into use. Now a team of scientists working in Sandia National Laboratories is focusing on exploring basic steps to make synthetic liquid fuel with the help of solar panels. The goal is that this will help considerably reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Conversion goals: • The team is using a cerium-oxide-based system to turn CO2 into carbon monoxide. They are aiming to convert water in a similar way into hydrogen with the help of solar power as well. Using both of these to produce synthetic fuel. Karshni Intertech Pvt.

Ltd is a manufacturer, wholesale supplier, exporter of hydro energy products. Their range of products include hydro energy system components (small), hydroelectric turbines (small), solar charge controllers, water pumping windmills, wind energy system components (large), backup power systems, 100% renewable energy farming , fully integrated systems. Multitek Consortium Multitek Consortium is a hydro energy based company located in Delhi, India. Their range of products hydro energy system components (small), water pumps, turbine machines, gates and hoists, penstock etc.

Nagalaxmi Industries Nagalaxmi Industries are manufacturers of industrial structures for thermal, hydel, nuclear power station, food industries, pharmaceutical, chemical, cement etc. SBA Hydro Systems Pvt. Ltd • • Counter rotating ring receiver reactor recuperator (cr5): A. Converting CO2: This two-chambered machine is using rotating rings of cerium oxide and a huge parabolic mirror heating up the solar energy to 1500 degrees which releases oxygen from cerium oxide and the oxygen gets pumped out.

The rotation takes off the cooling deoxygenated ring into other chamber where it again reacts with the pumped CO2 to produce cerium oxide and carbon monoxide. A steady stream of carbon monoxide is produced. Plan is to utilize the CO2 from power-plant chimneys initially, but ultimately they are planning to take CO2 directly from the air. B. Converting water: SBA Hydro Systems Pvt. Ltd is a manufacturer, wholesale supplier, exporter of hydro energy products.

Their range of products include hydro energy system components (small), hydro energy system components (large), hydro energy systems (large), hydro energy systems (small), hydroelectric turbines (small), hydroelectric turbines (large). Potential of hydro power production: Sl. State No. Projects Installed Nos. 1 Tamilnadu 15 Capacity (MW) 90. 050 Projects under Implementation Nos. 4 Capacity (MW) 13. 00 In a similar process another reactor can produce water in the same way but instead of CO2, water is introduced and a stream of hydrogen is produced. C. Syngas – the synthetic fuel: Now once again solar energy is utilized.

By using mirrors, concentrated solar energy at 400 degree Celsius helps in forming calcium carbonate by causing reaction between CO2 and calcium oxide. Now calcium carbonate is again heated to 800 degrees with solar power and another reaction takes place releasing pure CO2 and calcium oxide. In a similar way in another reactor with CO2 and zinc oxide, zinc metal and oxygen molecules are produced. Combining with zinc, steam and CO2 Table7: Gives no of hydro power plants in Tamil Nadu produce synthetic fuel called Syngas and zinc oxide. D. CO2 based power:

James Miller, a combustion chemist at Sandia, says in New Scientist, “This area holds out promise for technologies that can produce large amounts of carbon-neutral power at affordable prices, which can be used where and when that power is needed. ” XII. CONCLUSION Not only Tamil Nadu suffering from power crisis every nook & corners of world has power crisis due to increasing in both technology & science needs power to establish their own unique among all. But they are not aware of resource they have. A proper planning alone can overcome this major problem which can reduce the growth rate of the nation.

I recommend the use of renewable resource like wind; sun light, tidal wave energy, hydro energy and geothermal energy. REFERENCE [1] Statistical reference: Central Intelligence Agency [2] www. indianportal. com [3] Beerbaum B. and G. Weinrebe Solar thermal power generation in India: a techno-economic analysis, Renewable Energy, 21, 2, 1 2000, 153-174. [4] Kalogirou S. A. , Solar thermal collectors and applications, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 30, 3, 2004, 231295. [5] National Renewable Energy Laboratory, India [6] http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Energy_Resou rces

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