Practice Exam 1 BLY 122

simple diffusion
Organisms that are dependent on oxygen for cellular respiration depend on which of the following processes to move oxygen into cells?
growth by mitosis (Are an adaptation – the ability to survive long periods of unfavorable conditions, cell walls, the presence of hairs, spines, and toxins)
Most plants are firmly rooted in place and are not mobile. Which of the following is not an adaptation to this condition?
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Which of the following terms describes the process by which a fertilized egg develops into a multicellular organism with hundreds of different cell types, each with different structures and functions?
rare; higher ATP requirements
C4 plants are usually ________ in shady habitats because C4 photosynthesis has ______________ than the C3 pathway.
There is no advantage for the gametophyte to grow tall because gametes must be produced near the ground where the water needed for their free-swimming sperm is most likely to be found.
In ferns, both the gametophyte and sporophyte are physiologically capable of surviving on their own. What is the most likely reason that vascular tissues are present only in the sporophyte generation?
The plant can still take up water from the vase via an “evaporative pump”.
From personal experience, you may have noticed that cut flowers placed in a vase with tap water continue to be “alive” for several days. What is the most likely explanation as to why these cut flowers don’t immediately wither and die?
Ancient eukaryotic cells resembled archaeal cells and these ancient cells acquired symbiotic bacteria that eventually took up permanent residence to become mitochondria.
There are two competing theories put forth to explain the origin of eukaryotic cells. Which of the following correctly states one of these theories?
by transporting more phosphorus across the root endodermis
A rosebush needs to increase the concentration of phosphorus in the water within its xylem. Assuming that there is plenty of usable phosphorus dissolved in the water of the surrounding soil, how can the rosebush achieve this?
It would stop, as water transport relies on H2O molecules being connected by hydrogen bonds.
If water molecules (H2O) suddenly stopped forming hydrogen bonds with one another, how
would water transport in vascular plants change (if at all)?
fern spores and gymnosperm seeds
Which of the following play the same functional role in dispersal?
The non-gamete cells of the male gametophyte control the growth and development of the pollen tube.
Why is it significant that pollen contains a multicellular male gametophyte rather than just male gametes?
All of these choices are correct. (They compartmentalize energy metabolism, they reproduce sexually, their genomes are larger than those of prokaryotes).
Why are eukaryotic organisms so much more diverse than prokaryotic organisms?
Yes, because the phloem has been disrupted and sugar transport will no longer occur.
You would like to cut down a tree in your backyard, but you have no axe or chainsaw. Instead, you cut around the trunk of the tree with a pocketknife and peel off the “bark” in a three-inch thick strip. You are confident that this action will kill the tree. Are you correct?
The passive movement of a solute from a point of high concentration to a point of low concentration is known as:
root tips
Undifferentiated cells of plants are most likely to be present in which of the following tissues?
circulatory system
In humans and many other animals, what organ system is involved in bulk transport of nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules?
During oxygenic photosynthesis, water is ____________ and loses electrons (i.e., it serves as an electron donor).
The germination rate will be higher in the uncovered seed set.
A high school student is carrying out a science project. She plants alfalfa seeds, and encloses an area planted with one set of alfalfa seeds within a box covered in red cellophane (which reflects light of red wavelengths). She leaves another set of planted alfalfa seeds uncovered. What do you expect she’ll find in these two alfalfa populations when her science project is over?
A researcher examines a piece of oak tree bark under a microscope. He notices many small holes or spaces within his bark sample. What are these areas?
soil water; surface water
Vascular plants hydrate photosynthetic cells using _________, whereas bryophytes do so using _____________.
tracheids; fibers and vessel elements
The wood of gymnosperms is composed of ____________, and the wood of angiosperms (e.g., a cherry blossom) can consist of ____________.
The spores would dry out more quickly.
If a moss had a mutation that inhibited the production of sporopollenin, which of the following would occur?
An inhibitor of mitosis would most likely have the greatest effect on the ____________ of a plant.
Fe3+ / Fe2+ (pH 2)
Cellular respiration may occur in environments where oxygen is absent such as the subsurface layers of the microbial mats depicted in Figure 26.7. In such places, molecules other than oxygen must be used as the terminal electron acceptor used to produce energy for the cell.
The tree may have experienced a drought or had limited access to nutrients during that time period.
A botanist is studying the growth rings of a redwood tree. She notices that three concentric rings are very thin compared to the surrounding growth rings. What can she deduce from the occurrence of these thin growth rings?
the functional specialization of subsets of cells in the organism
Which one of the following is a characteristic of complex multicellular organisms, but not simple multicellular organisms?
No, the butterflies may not have a natural predator in this environment; thus they could be displacing several species of nectar consumers.
Angiosperms (flowering plants) attract and reward pollinators, and they provide resources for seeds only after fertilization.

You are on an expedition into a tropical rainforest. You notice a tall plant with large, long, conical purple flowers that produce nectar. When you ask your guide about the plant, she pulls out a large pink fruit from her bag and explains that it is from the plant with the purple flowers. After tasting the fruit you decide to bring the plant back home and cultivate it.

Because you live in a different climate than the rainforest, you decide to grow the plants in a greenhouse. You are surprised when, after a few weeks, no fruit is growing.

You decide that the plants need a pollinator for reproduction. You place a beehive in the middle of the greenhouse. Again, a few weeks later, no fruit is produced.

You remember seeing a particular butterfly on the purple flowers during your trip to the rainforest. After obtaining a few of these insects, you release them into the greenhouse. A few weeks later, the pink fruit is growing! In the process though, a few butterflies have escaped. Is this an environmentally safe solution?

through differences in ribosomal RNA sequences
Recall that archaea and bacteria used to be grouped in the same category. How were archaeons first distinguished from other prokaryotes?
green algae (Codium and Caulerpa)
Which one of the following organisms has coenocytic organization?
Interior cells are exposed to a different physical and chemical environment than exterior cells.
Which of the following is characteristic of complex multicellularity?
a dynamic cytoskeleton, dynamic system of membranes, relatively limited metabolic capabilities
Which one of the following correctly lists features of eukaryotic cells that distinguish them from prokaryotic cells?
stomatal opening
The timing of __________ is a feature distinguishing CAM and C4 photosynthesis.
All of these answer options are correct. (E. coli acquired the genes conveying antibiotic by conjugation with other bacterial cells, e. coli acquired the genes conveying antibiotic by transformation, spontaneous mutations conveying antibiotic-resistance arose in the E. coli population of the petri dish).
A researcher has a petri dish containing several species of bacteria, but no viruses. She notices that the population of E. coli in her petri dish has no antibiotic resistance. Two weeks later, she reassesses the bacteria and finds that the E. coli have acquired antibiotic resistance. How could this have happened?
a renewable resource
From the plant’s perspective, which term best describes carbohydrates in the context of symbiotic relationships with bacteria?
Vascular cambium continues to divide, and cells of its inner surface differentiate to form additional secondary xylem cells.
As trees get larger and the number of leaves increase, transpiration rates rise and demand for water increases. How do plant tissues meet this demand for water?
Plant cell growth is confined to:
gene regulation
What allowed multicellular eukaryotic cells to generate multiple, interacting cell types during development?
vacuole; organic acids
The capacity of the ___________ to store ____________ can limit the rate of carbohydrate production in CAM leaves.
Multicellularity helps organisms avoid predation.
Which one of the following is a selective advantage of simple multicellularity over single-celled organisms?
K+ and Cl- diffuse from high to low concentration
Stomatal closure is passive because ______________.
The roots will grow downward back into the soil because the statoliths are redistributing due to gravity and that will change the direction of growth.
You have a really leafy houseplant that completely shades the soil in the pot where it is growing. You notice that some roots are starting to penetrate through the soil (likely these are new roots growing from the pericycle of an existing root). If you do nothing, what would you expect to happen to the growth of these roots and why?
leaf-cutting ants
In terms of carbohydrate production, which would be most devastating to a plant?
O2 is much more abundant than CO2 in today’s atmosphere.
If the concentrations of CO2 and O2 were equal in the atmosphere, rubisco would favor CO2 over O2 as a substrate by about 2000:1 at 25°C. Why, in today’s atmosphere (and at 25°C), is the photosynthesis/photorespiration ratio of C3 plants only about 4:1?
a streamlined simplicity that has occurred over evolutionary time.
Some single-celled organisms live inside other cells, lack many of the organelles that most eukaryotes have, and have a relatively small number of genes in their genomes. These characteristics suggest:
All of these choices are correct. (move, change shape, and engulf other cells).
A cytoskeleton enables eukaryotic cells to:
unicellular organisms
Choanoflagellates are:
They may be prokaryotic.
Which of the following is NOT true of protists?
Vascular cambium is one of two lateral meristems, the other being cork cambium. A plant grows in diameter primarily through divisions of the vascular cambium. If you pull a small piece of bark off a tree, and then look at its inside surface, what tissue are you looking at (ignore any remaining cells of vascular cambium that may be left)?
They are holes in the cell wall through which the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of adjacent cells are connected.
Which of the following is true of plasmodesmata?
An organism that acquires energy from the sun and uses C6H12O6 as a carbon source would be classified as a:
It allows prokaryotes to reproduce quickly.
Which one of the following is an advantage of the size of the prokaryotic genome?
archaea, bacteria, and eukarya
A biologist draws a tree of life having only three branches. Which of the following groups did the biologist most likely choose for her diagram?
Due to vegetative reproduction, his plants are not genetically diverse.
A strawberry farmer’s crop has been devastated by a fungal infection. The farmer searches for any fungi-resistant strawberry plants in his fields, but finds none. Why?
germination during warm days in autumn.
In order to germinate, seeds of many temperate-zone species require a prolonged exposure to temperatures below some critical threshold. This prevents:
cell adhesion, cell communication, regulated growth and development
In which order were the key features of complex multicellularity likely to have appeared?
apical dominance
Recall that in many plants, if the shoot apical meristem is removed, axillary buds become active and new lateral branches form. What is this an example of?
on the left (shaded) sides of the stems, facing away from the window
A woman is growing an African violet on her windowsill. After several weeks, she notices that the plant is leaning toward the right, in the direction of the window. In the stem(s) of her African violet, where would you expect to find most of the auxin?
Many Northern Hemisphere grain farmers plant ‘winter wheat’ in the fall; these crops germinate quickly, and then over-winter before resuming growth and flowering in the spring. Winter wheat thus likely requires ____________ before completing its life cycle.
of the cells in a group of cells to avoid predation.
An advantage that simple multicellular eukaryotes have over single-celled organisms is the ability:
There are several reasons bacterial groupings based on morphology, physiology, and other metabolic characteristics may not be supported by molecular phylogenies produced from rRNA genes. Consider the statement below as a possible reason for this discrepancy.

If the genes used to generate molecular phylogenies were subject to horizontal gene transfer, then they will not reflect the true evolutionary history of the microorganisms in which they occur.

Either 1n or 2n, depending on whether the organism predominantly exists as a haploid cell or a diploid cell.
Mitotic cell division in unicellular eukaryotes can result in a cell that is:
the development of a system that enabled bulk transport.
The evolution from simple multicellular organisms to complex multicellular organisms required:
Stems need to counteract the force of gravity (and support leaves), but roots do not.
Recall that several vascular bundles (containing phloem and xylem) are located around the circumference of a vascular plant stem. In contrast, a root contains one vascular bundle running down its center. What might account for this different arrangement of vascular bundles in stems and roots?
Fertilization would continue, as self-incompatible plants rely on pollen from other individuals.
If you were to remove the anthers from a self-incompatible plant, how would this affect the fertilization of its female gametes?
Phloem sap from the mycorrhizae sample will have more phosphorus.
Imagine you are comparing the nutrient content of phloem sap from two plants: one with
mycorrhizae and one without mycorrhizae. How would you expect the nutrient content of these two phloem samples to differ?
The plant grows so rapidly that the cellular integrity of the plant is destroyed (i.e., cell walls break down), damaging transport systems within the plant.
The compound 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a synthetic auxin that is used as an herbicide. It is applied by spraying it on the plant. After spraying with synthetic auxin, the plant undergoes a short period of what appears to be rapid growth and then wilts and dies. Which of the following statements could explain how a synthetic auxin kills weeds?
the presence of the preferred prey/food source in the environment
Which one of the following is a signal that induces multicellularity of choanoflagellates?
Bulk transport systems move substances faster than simple diffusion. (False – Plants and animals use bulk transport systems to move gases and nutrients, but fungi and algae do not; bulk transport systems require specialized organs like a heart to pump nutrients and dissolved gases deep into tissues that are not in contact with the external environment).
Which of the following statements concerning complex multicellular organisms is true?
the presence of bulk transport systems
Which one of the following enabled plants to spread across the land?
It stores sugar for the plant.
In your vegetable garden you are growing yams. Yams are modified root tissue from the plant. What is the function of the yam for the plant?
the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
The theory of endosymbiosis explains:
The turgor pressure will be greater at the leaf end.
Imagine you are studying the turgor pressure at two different ends of a sieve tube. One end of the sieve tube is located within a mature leaf, and the other end is located within the roots. When comparing the turgor pressure within the sieve tube at these two locations, what would you expect to find?
Their movement by diffusion into and out of cells is limited to just a few layers of cells.
Which of the following statements about the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in complex multicellular organisms is true?
bundle-sheath cells; mesophyll cells
In C4 plants, the Calvin cycle is carried out in ____________; CO2 is captured and processed during the C4 cycle in ____________.
they are less susceptible to freezing-induced cavitation
Gymnosperms, such as spruces, often dominate high-latitude boreal forests because________.
CO2 capture occurs at night
CAM photosynthesis improves the CO2/H2O exchange ratio because ________.
complex patterns of gene regulation
Which one of the following enabled eukaryotes to evolve complex life cycles and programs of multicellular development?
Which of the following is the term for a ball of undifferentiated cells that results from repeated mitosis of a fertilized ovum?
transduction and conjugation.
Bacterial genetic diversity can arise from:
Labeled carbon would be seen in the carbohydrates of CO2-exposed organisms.
A researcher wants to determine if a unicellular organism he discovered is an autotroph or a heterotroph. He radioactively labels the carbon in CO2 and C6H12O6, and exposes one culture of his organism to the labeled CO2 and another culture to the labeled C6H12O6. What would happen if his organism is an autotroph?
Which of the following plants would likely be the first to colonize a newly formed volcanic island (an environment with very little soil and limited room for roots to grow)?
They have small genomes because over time, much of their nucleic acid has migrated to the host cell nucleus.
Why do mitochondria and chloroplasts have small genomes?

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