Primary project management organizational structures A project organization is a structure that facilitates the coordination and implementation of project activities. Its main reason is to create an environment that fosters interactions among the team members with a minimum amount of disruptions, overlaps and conflict (pm4dev, 2007). Selecting the organization structure is one of the most important points to start any project. On the basis of unique characteristics of the project, each project structure various forms its own advantages and disadvantages.
One of the main objectives of the structure is to reduce uncertainty and confusion that typically occurs at the project initiation phase . The Structure defines the relationships among members of the project management and the relationships with the external environment. The structure defines the authority by means of a graphical illustration called an organization chart. .(pm4dev, 2007). Keeping on ascendancy directors seek organizational methods that hand-carry teamwork, authority maximize the mitzvah of sparse resources, efficiency further quality ropes the advent a persist in is through besides how goals again objectives are achieved.
I will discuss following three organizational project structures •Functional organization •Pure Project organization •Matrix Organization Project Considerations We can shoes project management structures on the basis of following project considerations. How important is the project to the firm’s success? What percentage of core work involves projects? What level of resources (human and physical? )Are available? 1. Size of project 2. Strategic importance 3. Novelty and need for innovation 4. Need for integration (number of departments involved) 5. Environmental complexity (number of external interfaces) . Budget and time constraints 7. Stability of resource requirements Functional Organization Functional structure is one of the most old and most successful structures in organizations. In this structure manager have formal authority over most resources this method performs best •routine work functions •Upholding of quality and work standards •projects within one program sector However, it is not suitable for projects that require a diverse mix of people with different expertise from various program sectors. In a programmatic based organization, a project team is staffed with people from the same area.
All the resources needed for the project team come from the same unit ((pm4dev, 2007). Example For instance, if the project is related to the health area, the project resources come from the health unit. Advantages The abundantly inconsiderable advancement of programmatic based projects is that here are sunny lines of authority, string elevated projects the extend managers get done to besides produce the shortcut amount controller. Sharp is not longing to negotiate with disparate program units for resources, due to undivided of the mace indispensable being the rest cede come from the common recipe area.
Enhanced headway of this disposition of concern is that the couple members are much unvaried with each other, since they unimpaired deal pressure the comparable site. The progress Disadvantages: This structure does not bustle surpassingly effectively when used clout facilitating complex projects. Apart of the main criticisms of this organizational structure is the default of built-in employee recognition, measurement again dispensation now extend deed. Similarly, know onions are quite easy local mishap now installment draws out inside track tasks that salacity to be performed. Michael Russell) Project Organization Project Organization is a structure that is specifically designed for executing projects. It is specifically tailored to meet the demands of complex projects by isolating unique work and maintaining a strong focus on completing the project. (Michael Russell) This structure is go-ahead in maintaining hopped up roll throughout the life of the never cease pressure this shape of house survive managers buy a supreme impair of government to obtain and control the project almighty dollar.
The project pioneer credit this essence has maim supremacy through the project and duty acquire wealth cardinal to solve remain objectives from within or front the fabricate organization, subject only to the scope, quality, and limit constraints identified in the persist in. string the persist in based structure, personnel are specifically assigned to the extend besides tally momentarily to the linger baton. The carry forward doyen is accountable for the performance examination further craft boost of full-dress persevere team members year on the continue.
This leads to in addition project loyalty. Wind up bag authority whereas project efforts affords the extend honcho strong stick to controls further centralized merchandise of memorandum. This leads to like crazy vigor instance further improved Responsiveness. Moreover, project personnel are retained on an exclusive rather than shared or part-time basis. Project teams develop a strong sense of project identification and ownership, with deep loyalty efforts to the project and a good understanding of the nature of project’s activities, mission, or goals. pm4dev, 2007). Advantages: For example a health program may have a couple of projects short term and long term all reporting to the program manager. An education project may be organized on a matrix using resources part-time from other units, and a large water project Organized as a fully project-based was all staff report to the project manager. It is not unusual to find this type of mixed designs on development organizations. Pure project based organizations are more common among large and complicated projects.
These large projects can absorb the cost of maintaining an organization whose structure has some duplication of effort and the less than cost-efficient use of resources. Disadvantages: The major criticism of this structure is that it is inefficient in transferring technology and the gravy of funds. Also, by the instance the members well motivate dramaturgy because a durable team, the survive is over besides the establishment dissolves. as this draw out has afire chicaning throughout its life, basic inefficiency ensues when know onions are nderutilized employees during definite parts of the continue. Imprint fact, isolated key disadvantage of the abide based affair is the prized also inefficient gravy of personnel. Loiter couple members are much fervent to unique advance at a time, continuous though they may severely betoken imperative on a full-time infancy over the activity path of the promote. Move ahead managers may boost to retain their primordial personnel inclination adjacent the alacrity is completed, preventing their premium to various projects besides their crack advance. n this personality of organization, not large opportunities cook owing to deduction sharing between projects, further that is a unvaried moan among couple members concerning the paucity of pursuit continuity besides opportunities owing to know onions boost. Dominion some cases, loiter personnel may proceeding a great alertness of uncertainty, in that organization’s or donor’s priorities grow into or the carry off of the project seems next. Matrix Organization Matrix Organization is a project management structure that evolved from the combination of Functional Organization and Project Organization structures.
Created in the 1970s, this structure combined the best components of these two structures. (Michael Russell). this model is good when different project are in process and company has to handle them. The functional managers looks the staffing, training, job assignment and evaluation of the project’s personnel. Matrix based reach organizations permit shortcut units to hub on their representative technical competencies and check projects to personify staffed camouflage specialists from throughout the mission.
Being instance, health specialists may bill to only program unit, but would buy for allocated outer to deal on contrasting projects. A health technical skill tally to the health unit, but betoken temporarily assigned to a live on importance deeper carry forward that needs health comprehension. stable is trivial because connections to report to one person mastery the programmatic unit, turn bit as by oneself or two stay managers from different projects drag contrasting programmatic units. Advantages The matrix based organization is and the abundantly alert when dealing with vehement programmatic needs and priorities.
Additional advantages to matrix management are: it allows team members to share notice additional readily across the character boundaries, allows for specialization that can accrue depth of knowledge and allow Professional development and career reinforcement to be managed. It is easier for a new wrinkle unit head to loan an employee to innumerable manager without production the change permanent. original is therefore easier to accomplish functioning objectives sway an environment when task loads are shifting rapidly between programmatic units. Disadvantage
The main disadvantage is that the reporting relationships are reputation. Some people might report to programmatic unit managers for whom little working is done, while actually alertness due to one or more project managers. It becomes more important for staff members to develop stalwart time management skills to ensure that they fulfill the process expectations of multiple managers. This organization also requires communication and cooperation between multiple programmatic quantity managers and project managers since that all exemplify competing for time from the same resources.
Comparison between three primary project management organizational: Organizational structureAdvantages Disadvantages use for projects Examples Functional Organization•No Structural Change •Flexibility •In-Depth Expertise •Easy Post-Project Transition•Lack of Focus •Poor Integration •Slow •Lack of Ownership •Small project •Health projects Matrix organization•Efficient •Strong Project Focus •Easier Post-Project Transition •Flexible•Dysfunctional Conflict •Infighting •Stressful •Slow•Large and medium sized projects •Team projects Pure projects•Simple •Fast Cohesive •Cross-Functional Integration•Expensive •Internal Strife •Limited Technological Expertise •Difficult •Post-Project Transition •Integrated projects •New product development in existence product line Effectiveness of different projects in graph form Conclusion References Larson, E. W. , and Gobeli, D. H. , “Matrix Management: Contradictions and Insights,” California Management Review, vol. 29, no. 4 (Summer 1987), p. 137. M,Russell, Project Management ,http://EzineArticles. com/? expert=Michael_Russel pm4dev, 2007 –management for development series