Process And Project Systems Construction Essay

Influential Govt studies presented by Latham ( Latham 1994 ) and Egan ( Egan 1998 ) which stressed the demand of alteration in building industry, bettering current patterns and processes covering the lifecycle of the undertaking. Despite assorted enterprises the industry still lags behind and demands of terminal users remain far from being achieved. The building industry being a procedure based industry ( Halpin 1993 ) ; Kagioglou et Al. ( 1998 ) point out that these issues are related to procedure, and non merchandise ( Goulding and Alshawi 2002 ) . On the said guidelines attempts are being carried out by standardising the working processes, specifying duties non in merely building stage but from origin to post completion.

The study aims to happen out advantages and disadvantages of traveling towards ‘Generic Design and Construction Process Protocol ‘ in the context of CTG undertaking. For the purpose rating the current procedures and sub procedures in CTG are mapped utilizing foremost by RIBA program of work revised 2007 version integrating individual phase design build contract ; subsequently the same procedures are mapped by utilizing Process Protocol. An attempt has been made to use 8 rules of Process Protocol to CTG undertaking.

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1.1 Introduction

Construction is a procedure based industry ( Halpin 1993 ) .

1.2 Scope of the GTC Undertaking:

The brief shows that the Department for Business Innovation and Skills ( client ) needs a hi-tech office composite ( CTG ) to house universe category ace computing machines for atomic design staff. Selected site for the undertaking is in Liverpool, Uk. As per the statistics: Entire Building Cost: ? 50,000,000, Project Size: 20,000 sqm, Built Up Area: 10,000,000 sqft The activities that are involved to carried out the terminal consequence are ; Pre-design/Planning Activities, Design Activities, Construction Activities and Operation / Maintenance Activities.

1.3 Project Objectives of CTG:

Achieving following aims is important for the success of CTG undertaking, 1 ) Design-to achieve balance in safety, security efficiency, lifecycle costs and working conditions. 2 ) Accessibility-To achieve conformity with all province demands. 3 ) Aesthetics-to generate exhilaration and enthusiasm in new staff recruits.4 ) Cost effectiveness-to achieve cost certainty. 5 ) Energy- efficiency as electricity used yearly is: 7,000 KWh. 6 ) Security-to make certain that the universe category installation to build and prove super computing machines is under an highly secured environment. 7 ) Sustainability-To achieve environmental ends utilizing reclaimable stuffs and get the better ofing concerns in footings of H2O and power. 8 ) Quality to accomplish quality in footings of design, map and service provided. 9 ) Time-to achieve completion of the undertaking within two old ages, the clip given by the client. Throughout the procedure mapping it has been taken attention that these aims are being achieved. Though through usage of Process Protocol it was really easy to see in the procedure map that these aims are being satisfied but through procedure function of CTG through RIBA it was non.

1.4 Undertaking and Processes in Construction and in CTG:


The undertaking can be defined as a impermanent enterprise undertaken to make a

alone merchandise ( PMBOK ) .


The procedure has been defined in figure of ways and with positions, Hammer defines procedure as a “ related group of undertakings that together make a consequence of value to a client ” ( Lecture Notes,2010 ) . However ( Koskela 2000 ) argues production procedures, need to be analysed non merely as transmutations but besides as flows and as value coevals ( Koskela 2000 ) .

2. Chapter -2 RIBA Plan of work for Maping a Procedure in CTG ( from contructors point of position ) : ( RIBA 2007 ; program of work phases )

2.1 The ground for taking RIBA Plan of work for Function:

RIBA program of work identifies the stairss through which any building undertaking must go through ( Hughes 2001 ) , besides it describes a logical sequence of action and describes responsibilities of assorted parties at harmonizing to assorted phases of the undertaking ( Wilkinson and Gupta 2005 ) . RIBA program of work is widely used model by the building industry in UK and the updated 2007 program incorporates assorted procurance patterns ( design physique in CTG instance ) and hazard direction ( Phillips,2008 ) .

2.2 Introduction to RIBA program of work:

In an effort to standardize the undertaking procedure RIBA foremost introduced program of work in 1963. The program helps in forming complete procedure in a sequence with required convergence where necessary. It starts right from appraisal phase through building boulder clay terminal usage, this procedure is divided into cardinal work phases, depending upon the procurance method sequence of work phases may alter and may overlap. RIBA 2007 program of work phases are as follows:


a. Phase A – Appraisal

B. Phase B – Design Brief


c. Stage C – Concept

d. Stage D – Design Development

e. Stage E – Technical Design


f. Stage F – Production Information

Sub Stage F1 – Geting necessary blessings, fixing inside informations of production for tendering.

Sub Stage F2 –

g. Stage G – Tender Documentation

h. Stage H – Tender Action

Sub Stage H1 – Designation of possible contractors, advisers and providers.

Sub Stage H2 – Measuring stamps and presenting contracts to the selected.


I. Stage J – Mobilization

J. Stage K – Construction to practical completion


k. Stage L – Post practical completion

Sub Stage L1 – guaranting merchandise delivered harmonizing to specification, and transporting out concluding reviews.

Sub Stage L2 – Review overall undertaking public presentation, and the feedback provided by the terminal user.

RIBA program of work of individual phase stamp for Design and Build contract.

Figure: RIBA Plan of Work for Design and Build contract, Single Stage Tender, ( )

2.3 Maping the Procedure in CTG, utilizing RIBA program of work ( from the Constructors point of position )

Phase A – Appraisal / Inception for CTG:

Department for engineering and accomplishments ( proprietor ) appointed a cross functional squads to place the client ‘s demands and aims, and possible restraints. Understanding the client ‘s nature of concern puting the demands ; safety, security, efficiency, lifecycle cost, working conditions, aesthetics, and future enlargement demands ( technological & A ; physical ) Activities or Undertakings: Identify procurance type ( Single phase Design & A ; Build contract )

Phase B – Feasibility of CTG:

Cross functional squad and client ‘s representatives prepare a undertaking lineation as per the client ‘s demand to run into the undertaking objectives. Transporting out feasibleness surveies of the undertaking from proficient, functional and fiscal point of position. Activities or Tasks ; As per undertaking demands analyze regulations ordinance, site conditions, vicinity studies, market research, planning, bing, engage specializer consultant/s ( computing machine expert )

Stage C – Concept / Outline Proposal of CTG: Parties involved: Design squad, QS, applied scientists, specializer. Purpose of phase: Clarify clients thoughts, proposing or reding him better options, giving client thought about the hereafter developments in the undertaking. Activities or Undertakings:

Phase D – Design and Planning for the CTG: Parties involved: Design squad and specializer contractor for cheque buildability of design, QS, IT adviser. Purpose of phase: Activities or Undertakings:

Phase G – Tender Documentation and Bill of Measures: Parties involved: Design squad, QS, and client representative. Purpose of phase:

Phase E – Detail Design for CTG: Parties involved: Specialist design house, QS, specializer contractor and client representative. Purpose of phase:

Phase H – Tender Action for CTG: Parties involved: a cross functional squad, applied scientists, QS, design squad, contractors, client representatives. Purpose of phase: Identify contractors to transport out the undertaking. Activities or Undertakings: Keeping Pretender briefing for prospective contractors on the undertaking for seting forward outlook of client and uncluttering uncertainties of them. H1: Evaluation and designation of contractors to transport out CTG undertaking. H2: contractors giving feedback / suggestions on stamp or undertaking to the client.

Phase F – Production Information: Parties involved: Architect, QS, specializer contractor, and applied scientists. Purpose of phase: Getting ready for onsite production and last gateway to do major alterations in design. Activities or Undertakings: finalising the design and related specifications, obtaining the needed permissions, item costing and programming.

Stage J – Mobilization for CTG: Parties involved: Main contractor, sub contractors. Purpose of phase: assemblage needed resources to get down the work on site. Activities or Undertakings: Site readying ( glade, fence, set uping water/electricity, site office, residential installation for workers, wellness and safety unit ) . Fixing site conditions to get down the building.

Phase K – Construction to Practical Completion of CTG: Parties involved: Main contractor, bomber contractors, designer, QS, applied scientists, client representatives. Purpose of phase: Execute on site operations as per planned. Activities or Undertakings: transporting out building plants till practical completion of CTG edifice.

Phase L – Post Practical Completion: Parties involved: Client representatives, contractor, sub contractor, QS, designer, applied scientists. Purpose of phase: Handing over of CTG installation finishing all duties. Activities or Undertakings: uncluttering the site of any left behind stuffs, rectifying any defects, rechecking the installations provided, and settling the histories with client and bomber contractor/suppliers,

Stage M – Feedback from CTG: Parties involved: Client representatives, employees working in CTG, bomber contractors, supply concatenation. Purpose of phase: analyse the throughout undertaking public presentation and learn from it ( doing of larning organisation ) Activities or Undertakings: fixing studies measuring delivered public presentations against planned. Checking whether undertaking meets its aims and client demands.

3. Chapter – 3 The Procedure Protocol

3.1 Introduction to Process Protocol:

In an effort

Procedure Protocol is process-driven theoretical account of the design and building procedure, which is chiefly based on ‘best pattern ‘ fabricating new merchandise development ( NPD ) ( Kagioglou, Cooper et Al. 1999 ) .

Process Protocol consists of following 10 stages covering life rhythm of the undertaking:

a. Pre Project Stage: This phase relates to understanding the client and concern demands. It besides emphasises on issues such as demand for… This phase consist of following stages: 1 ) Phase 0- Showing the demand 2 ) Phase 1- Conception of need 3 ) Phase 2- Outline feasibleness 4 ) Phase 3- Substantive feasibleness survey and outline fiscal authorization.

b. Pre Construction Phase: This phase consist of following stages 1 ) Phase 4- Outline conceptual design 2 ) Phase 5- Full conceptual design 3 ) Phase 6- Production design, procurance and full fiscal authorization

c. Construction Phase: This phase preponderantly focuses on two stages 1 ) Phase 7- Production information 2 ) Phase 8- Construction

d. Post Construction Phase: Phase 9- Operation and care

3.2. Maping the Procedure in CTG utilizing Process Protocol:

The computing machine aided package Microsoft Visio is used to pull Process Protocol maps, which is used to map the procedures in CTG. The map includes activities carried out by cross functional squad appointed by CTG which has carried out preliminary undertaking work ( phase0-5 ) and farther ( phase 6-9 ) activities undertaken by G & A ; C Ltd ( appendix ) . Hence stages ( 6-9 ) have been considered for mapping the bomber processes. ( appendix )

3.3 Application of Eight Key Principles of Process Protocol in CTG:

Whole Project View: CTG to house high tech computing machines for atomic design staff, therefore issues such as balance safety, security, working conditions along with lifecycle cost, sustainability, and need for flexibleness to turn to promotion in engineering demand to be considered throughout the four phases of undertaking to carry through desired results of the CTG

Progressive Design Fastness: The stage reappraisal involves treatments, meetings, brainstorming Sessionss to reexamine about complete work, this phase could lend significantly in increasingly repairing or happening design solutions besides help in foretelling the building works and approaching issues.

A Consistent Procedure: Procedure protocol provides a standard attack to public presentation measuring, rating, and control will ease the procedure of continual betterment in design and building which may profit the future undertakings of CTG undertaken by G & A ; C Ltd.

Stakeholder Involvement / Teamwork: As the value is determined by the client, engagement of CTG representatives, employees who would be utilizing the CTG should be involved in the design procedure along with other stakeholders such as municipal council, be aftering authorization, defense mechanism commission, environmental dept, local community, fire and safety dept, international community need to be involved to hold timely communicating, Foster squad working, and edifice trust. Such engagement would cut down design change, rework failure to make so could take to considerable budget escalation.

Co-ordination: Addressing the atomization issue raised by Latham ( 1994 ) , effectual coordination between G & A ; C Ltd, sub contractor, providers, other specializer is of import for bettering overall productiveness in CTG. Activity zones in PP aid in accomplishing it through procedure director represents the duty of each and every activity so it is easy to co-ordinate people for each peculiar activity.

Feedback: procedure protocol helps in acquiring feedbacks in two ways: 1 ) Phase reappraisal: It records and update the undertaking experiences throughout the procedure and inform next/later phases whether to increase or diminish resources following stage of CTG 2 ) Legacy archive: it records, paperss the experiences throughout the procedure which assistance in continual betterment in future undertakings of CTG and G & A ; C Ltd.

Process flexibleness & A ; Customizable procedure: It enables to convey in flexibleness harmonizing to the aims of CTG, issues such as security, sustainability could be added while some irrelevant procedures could be deleted.

3.4 Activity Zones in CTG: activity zones are multifunctional stand foring structured set of undertakings and procedures which support and usher plants towards common nonsubjective. At the same clip earlier designation and engagement of concerned parties throughout the lifecycle procedure of CTG contributes significantly to success ( Kagioglou, Cooper et Al. 1998 )

Development Management: is responsible for making and keeping concern focal point among CTG representatives, contractors, financers, other stakeholders, and G & A ; C Ltd. ( Cooper, Aouad et Al. 2005 )

Project Management: is an agent of the development direction activity zone and is responsible for effectual execution of CTG undertaking. This activity zone involves project direction professionals of G & A ; C Ltd, and client representatives.

Resource Management: Includes planning, co-ordination, procurance and monitoring of all fiscal, human and material resources in CTG. It involves ( Development Management establishes the overall budget )

Design Management: is responsible for design procedure and concern instance of CTG and its undertaking brief into an appropriate merchandise definition. Involving G & A ; C Ltd, providers of materials/components, bomber contractors, cross functional design squad, representatives from production, installation, development, undertaking direction and wellness and safety, statutory and legal direction activity zones.

Production Management: The activities all that are related to the executing of the edifice on the site, this activity zone efficaciously communicates with the other zones during this executing period ( Cooper, Aouad et Al. 2005 ) .

Facility direction: Issues refering the installations eg. waiters, computing machine systems during the undertaking are dealt in this activity zone.

Health and safety, Statutory and Legal Management: is responsible for the designation, consideration, and direction of all regulative, statutory and environmental facets of CTG undertaking.

Process Management: develops and operationalises procedure protocol. It is responsible for planning and monitoring each stage in CTG.

Change Management: is responsible for efficaciously pass oning alterations to all relevant activity zones for development and bequest archive in CTG.

3.4.1 Introduction of Sustainability Management in Activity Zones:

The built environment contribute significantly to the clime alteration and wellness of environment through the stuffs used, determinations about site, electricity and H2O use, and landscape milieus ( Younger, Morrow-Almeida et Al. 2008 ) they go on farther to propose the reinforced environment constituents may extenuate clime alteration, promote version, and better public wellness. SMAZ was developed foremost in the signifier of a tabular array ( Khalfan et. al. , 2003 ) and so farther refined into an activity zone within the Process Protocol, implementing it in the same format ( Shelbourn, Bouchlaghem et al. 2006 ) . Sustainability being one of the chief aims in CTG debut of SMAZ could assist in accomplishing it.

3.5 Deliverables in CTG

4. Chapter – 4 ( Potential advantages and disadvantages of traveling towards Process Protocol )

4.1.1 Critical Appraisal of Current methods of working RIBA program of work and Process Protocol

The RIBA program of work is looked as design and direction model sing designer in the lead function ( Osmani, Glass et Al. 2008 ) . It perceives building procedure from design team/s point of position hence it restricts from being generic plenty for application of complex and big building plants such as CTG. Defects of the program in footings of activity zones, stage reappraisals, legal archive etc. were noticed while mapping the procedure for CTG. While Process Protocol presents a generic execution guidelines. ( Kagioglou, Cooper et Al. 1998 ) it can be applied in a flexible mode across building undertakings, squads and client demands with benefits being clearly measured ( Tzortzopoulos, Sexton et al. 2005 ) .

RIBA program of work represents a logical sequence of events and his additive manner of direction could non suit the concurrent working pattern in building undertakings ( Learning bundle 3 ) .

4.3 Advantages of traveling towards Process Protocol:

a. Stakeholders Involvement: In a big and complex undertaking such as CTG affecting figure of professionals from different subjects ( designer, applied scientists, contractors, QS ) makes it indispensable to cognize whom they are and would be working with in the ulterior phases of the undertaking, this builds squad work, trust, brings in transparence accordingly cut downing opportunities of deadlocks and judicial proceedings. Besides widening it to the employees of CTG which would be finally can lend significantly to the success of undertaking.

B. Whole Process position and Progressive Design Fixity via Stage gate Approach:

Process Protocol and RIBA suggest to look at the undertaking from pre undertaking, pre -construction, building and station completion stages diverting from traditional methods where pre undertaking and station completion phases received negligible attending. Design fastness via phase gate attack enables uninterrupted planning and reappraisal processs throughout the undertaking ( Cooper, Aouad et Al. 2005 )

c. Phase Reviews: Reviewing the end product after each stage before acquiring on with the subsequent stage helps in garnering feedback which is utile for doing future determinations or to do appropriate resources available. They provide a good acquisition experience. RIBA program of work deficiencies this feature of procedure protocol.

d. Legacy Archive: This is another characteristic of Process protocol missing in RIBA. Throughout the undertaking immense sum of information is generated, legacy archive aid in storing and doing it available when required. As ( Aouad, Hinks et Al. 1998 ) province “ the bequest archive ensures that best pattern is captured and re-used ” which would profit during the undertaking and station undertaking to G & A ; C Ltd.

Disadvantages of traveling towards Process Protocol:

There are really few disadvantages of mapping the procedure through procedure protocol which are: 1 ) The usage of PP proves excessively complex and unneeded for little building undertaking ( individual house ) where mapping of such deepness is non required, non many parties are involved. 2 ) The consciousness of such package at this phase in market is really low, non many companies in pattern usage or cognize how to utilize it, which put restrictions if its usage. 3 ) Like RIBA revised program PP lacks particular proviso for assorted undertaking methods, tendering procedure. 4 ) Excessively much detailing involved in each stage where non so of import activity may acquire undue weight age which can be deceptive.

5. Chapter – 5 ( Key production activities in CTG, placing value adding and non value adding activities )

5.1 Introduction:

In recent old ages production is viewed from transmutation position and flow position these two major facets, which many argue should be synthesized into a new theoretical position on building ( Koskela 1999 ) . The production in CTG can be analyzed as waste and value

Cardinal Production Activities in CTG:

a. Effective Planning:

Making optimal usage of the available resources. 2 ) Required specializer and material / merchandises ( pre fabricated constituents ) are made available at right clip. 3 ) maintaining adequate buffer periods between activities. 4 ) Pull offing convergences utilizing the rules of concurrent technology. 5 ) Use of environmentally friendly stuffs, techniques are used which would profit the environment and edifice in long tally. 6 ) Review physical, fiscal advancement, monitoring and commanding it. 7 ) Breakdown the work bundles for pull offing the undertaking.

B. Cost Controling during building:

Forecast the budget for put to deathing the CTG undertaking. 2 ) Estimate costs for cardinal every bit good as little work bundles. 3 ) Regular audits to look into outgo committed and needed to finish the plants.

c. Coordinating and Communicating

1 )

5.2 Value adding activities in CTG

Value is generated through a procedure of dialogue between client terminals and agencies ( Ballard and Howell 1998 ) . One of the ways in which value can be added is by increasing the map and at the same clip maintaining cost same ( Egbu, 2009 ) .

G & A ; C have undertaken the value direction from winning the contract through the lifecycle of the undertaking.

Capturing demands in clearly specifying aims. 2 ) Checking path record utilizing competitory stamps in choosing sub contractors and providers. 3 ) Clear allotment of duties and hazards to avoid any confusion and judicial proceeding in the hereafter. 4 ) Planing efficaciously and expeditiously so at no point work is halted due to any ground. 5 ) Keeping eventuality program for plants and cost eg. 6 ) Using JIT for really expensive high tech computing machines and waiters to avoid dual handling and harm. 7 ) green architecture constructs to cut down energy ingestion in edifice ( appendix ) 8 ) Use of photovoltaic cells, Bloom ‘s Energy Server ( appendix ) to cut down dependance on external supply of electricity. 9 ) Methods such as rainwater reaping to be used, treated H2O ( from H2O intervention workss ) to be used to chill down waiters, gardening. 9 ) Excavated dirt to be used to make landscape which will supply zero waste. 10 ) suspended ceilings to be used to suit heavy electrical wiring. 11 ) CTG hold 40 hr workshop for its employees on value direction.

5.3 Uneconomical activities in CTG

Waste is anything that creates no value for the owner/end-user ( CTG ) , it is something

interior decorators, builders and clients want to extinguish because it creates no value for the

client and yet it is a cost to them ( Mossman, 2009 ) . Despite the best attempts and extreme safeguards taken by G & A ; C there are likely to be some wastes or factors taking to it.

1 ) Waste of clip due to miscommunication. 2 ) Non working yearss such as national vacations ( eg. 3rd May ) , brotherhood work stoppages 3 ) Prematurely events such as rain, storm could halt the work. 4 ) Incorrect offsite fabrication order which mismatches onsite constituent. 5 ) Excess of stuff lying on site consumes infinite, resources, opportunities of damage/theft 6 ) incorrect drawings for production could be immense financially, rework and so fabrication could do clip holds.

5.4 Efficiency of Identified Production Activity

5.5 Tools and Principles Used for Value Adding and cut downing Uneconomical Activities

Material Requirement Planning:

In a complex undertaking as CTG, affecting figure work packages requires immense measure and assorted types of stuffs and merchandises at necessary phases of building. It avoids inordinate ( unneeded ) stack of stock list ; by commanding the flow of stock list it optimizes the use of labor and machines used in the undertaking ( Waller 2003 ) .

Last Planner

Thin production:

Principles of thin production such as merely in clip which focuses on extinguishing waste and bring forthing or doing available merely when needed. Eliminating waste would assist in driving up the overall quality of CTG and securing merely on clip would assist in cut downing extra stock list save infinite in metropolis milieus of Liverpool. =7AIBx

6. Chapter – 6 ( Conclusion and Recommendation )

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Question and Assumption Sheet:



Type of a Contract

Phase of the Undertaking

Design and Build ( Single Stage )

Pre Construction phase including item Design

Appendix: Procedure Mapping in CTG utilizing RIBA Plan of Work

Appendix: Procedure Mapping in CTG utilizing Process Protocol

Bloom ‘s Energy Server ( appendix ) . it ‘s a new innovation that generate electricity Built with patented solid oxide fuel cell engineering, Bloom ‘s Energy Server is a new category of distributed power generator, bring forthing clean, dependable, low-cost electricity at the site


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