This study is aimed at bring forthing an effectual undertaking program to British Airport Authority ( BAA ) utilizing Heathrow terminal 5 as a instance survey. The methodological analysis used in this undertaking is the job work outing attack where a major job is identified, the possible solution to the job is analysed and the best solution for the execution of the undertaking is recommended.
In bring forthing this program, a major job of airdrome congestion was identified and an option assessment was carried utilizing the SWOT tool to find whether the proposed undertaking program was deserving making, the undertaking ‘s range, definitions and deliverables were clearly stated. Some premise, considerations and restraints had to be made to help the undertaking squad consulted for this undertaking in understanding and presenting the program efficaciously. The undertaking ‘s critical factors, mensurable marks dependences and resource demands were outlined in this study. Besides a elaborate cost estimation was done for the allocated budget. Microsoft undertaking bundle was used to fix and bring forth a Gantt chart including a work dislocation construction for each undertaking placing the major mileposts. A communicating and hazard program is besides included in this study to guarantee a smooth execution of the undertaking program.
Finally this study recommends clip continuance for the undertaking and a sustainability model.
This is a elaborate study based on the undertaking program presentation made by group 5 undertaking advisers to British Airport Authority ( BAA ) on the 14th of December 2009. The job work outing attack was used in this undertaking program utilizing BAA terminal 5 as a instance survey.
This study identifies and addresses the job of rider and air hose congestion in Heathrow ‘s bing terminus. In order to to the full understand this study, the undertaking background and rational would be discussed in the undermentioned subdivision.
Heathrow located in the London borough of Hillingdon was ab initio a private airdrome with one grass track used to assemble and test aircrafts. During World War II, the land occupied by this private airdrome was acquired by the authorities to construct a Royal Air Force ( RAF ) Heston Aerodrome which was an ground forces excess collapsible shelter little grass landing field. In 1946 it was handed over to Air ministry as London ‘s new civil airdrome. Due to the closing of the old terminus on the North side by 1961, air hoses either operated from the Europa terminus or the pelagic terminus which handled long – draw bearers ( now terminal 2 and 3 severally ) . Terminal 1 was opened in 1969 by which clip about 5 million riders were go throughing through the airdrome going from Heathrow to and from all parts of the universe ( British Airport Authority 2009 ) . The demand for air travel and increased congestion in the cardinal country further created the demand for the development of terminal 4 in 1986.
As at 2006, Heathrow owned and operated by British Airports Authority ( BAA ) can tout of about 1.4 billion commuters over 14 million flights ( British Airport Authority 2009 ) . It is UK ‘s lone international web hub airdrome. As traffic of commuters increased Heathrow Airport is faced with an of all time increasing demand for rider installations and capacity restraint which has lead to frequent flight holds. This demand has farther lead to the building of terminal 5. Terminal 5 is said to be a rider terminus and associated installations that would complement Heathrow ‘s bing terminuss
The planning and edifice of a new terminus ( Exciteh 2009 ) , presents a typical challenge compared to the building of any other construction. Constructing this new terminus would spread out Heathrow ‘s capacity to suit the quickly increasing figure of riders, better the safety and security of air conveyance, introduce high quality installations, and increase the position of the British airdrome worldwide. The new Heathrow terminus 5 would be a gateway between the UK and the universe.
Group 5, is a undertaking direction consultancy squad based in Aberdeen. This squad has been retained as undertaking advisers by BAA to bring forth a undertaking program for the successful bringing of her terminal 5 undertaking at its really best. This study shows explicitly all the stairss and stages required to bring forth the concluding deliverable ( the undertaking program ) .
1.2 Project Rationale
Heathrow is synonymous with international travel and is one of the UK ‘s most important financial assets. As a two track and four terminus airdromes in 2005, it is one of the universe ‘s prima airdromes in footings of rider and air hose capacity. If Heathrow continues to run within its bing bounds, it is forecasted that the airdrome will manage 87 million riders a twelvemonth by 2015 and thenceforth 90-95 million riders a twelvemonth ( Heathrow airport interim maestro program 2005 ) . With such an addition in the annual rider travel a new terminus is inevitable.
Over the old ages, these bing terminuss could accept more traffic because of the execution of hazard decrease steps. However, the continual congestion in Heathrow ‘s terminuss may make a status such that it can non be said with assurance that these terminuss will go on to be safe. However, since the air hose industry is a peoples industry without riders the industry will non boom. So the aim to construct a construction that would stand the trial of clip and function its 1000000s of prospective clients thereby cut downing congestion can non be over emphatic.
2.0 Undertaking BUSINESS CASE
The development of a concern instance to all purposes and intents is to derive support, committedness and finally blessing from the top direction. The Business Case depicts the grounds for set abouting for the undertaking, based on the estimated costs of the undertaking, the hazards and the expected concern benefits and nest eggs ( APM 2006 ) . The concern instance highlights the justification for the undertaking.
Reports by BAA ( 2009 ) shows that Heathrow runway operates at 95 % capacity compared to 75 % of its major European rivals. This congestion has lead to increased hold, lower resiliency and fewer finishs served. Statistics taken from the UK Parliamentary office of Science and Technology ( 2000 ) and Airport council International ( 2008 ) shown in the tabular array below portrays a lifting tendency in Heathrow ‘s rider capacity from 1978 – 2008.
No. of Passengers ( million )
No. of Passenger ( million )
No. of riders ( million )
No. of riders
Figure 2.1 Average rider capacity
( Adopted from UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology ( 2000 ) and Airport Council International ( 2008 )
To further explicate the tabular array above is a graphical representation of the rider capacity plotted against old ages.
Figure 2.2 Graph demoing increasing rider tendency
( Adopted from UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology ( 2000 ) and Airport Council international ( 2008 ) )
The statistics used for this graph shows all battles into Heathrow airdrome for terminus ‘s 1 to 4.
From twelvemonth 1998 to 2000 there was rather a steady rise in the figure of riders go throughing through Heathrow.
From twelvemonth 2001 to 2009 Heathrow experienced a diminution in air hose and rider capacity. This could be attributed to the planetary economic state of affairs in many parts of the universe and the menace to air power from international terrorist act. On the other manus with the UK economic system bit by bit coming out of this recession there is an expected rise in the figure of air power travel.
2.1 Available options for turn toing the chance
An option assessment to find the best agencies to accomplish the undertaking objectives was done. In transporting out an option assessment, a demand and a cost benefit is foremost carried out, so aims are set and options are created and reviewed ( Department of Treasure UK 2009 ) . An option assessment is a determination devising technique that identifies the undertaking aims and explores other options for achieving these aims. It determines whether the proposal is deserving making and clearly communicates decisions and recommendation. After a critical analysis a preferable option was taken and used in set uping this undertaking program. The attack for this undertaking program besides incorporates the traditional undertaking direction construct which breaks the undertaking into the assorted life rhythm stages. The three major options identified for this undertaking is as shown below ;
2.2 OPTION 1 Do Nothing
This option is the base option it involves non shiping on the undertaking. If chosen it may ensue in unwanted and increasing hazards to air riders due to airport congestion.
2.3 OPTION 2 Expansion of the bing terminuss
Measures could be taken to spread out current terminuss including tracks to suit the addition. However transporting out an enlargement work on the bing terminuss, would be rather disputing on air hoses and riders. This would necessitate a temporal closing of some of the terminuss which may take to possible loss of clients as they would seek alternate paths. In add-on, this attack may go forth current constructions with minimal factor of safety and make little to better the lacks and congestion in current airdrome.
2.4 OPTION 3 Construct a new terminus
In this option building a new terminus of the awaited capacity would intend that the new terminus would be constructed to spread out the operations of older terminuss and can potentially replace them. A SWOT analysis for this option was carried out.
2.5 SWOT Analysis
SWOT analysis is a technique used to measure the strengths, failings, chances and menaces involved in the undertaking. This method involves stipulating the undertaking aims and placing the internal and external factors ( Nigel and William 2002 ) that could halt or better the success of those aims. The environmental factors internal to the house are classified as strength and failing while the external factors are classified as chances and menaces. These footings are farther explained below:
Strengths could either be a positive tangible or intangible property and they are normally within the administration ‘s control.
These are the countries that project needs to better on. They can be considered as the undertaking ‘s mistake or disadvantage that might forestall them from achieving their ends.
Opportunities propel an administration. These factors represent the ground for the undertaking or concern to be and develop. Opportunities are good and may aids to contradict menace.
Menaces are factors beyond the administration ‘s control which could ensue in undertaking failure. The SWOT Matrix for this undertaking is as shown in Appendix 1. Furthermore a cost estimation is besides carried out to find the preferable option
2.6 Cost Estimate
3.0 PROJECT DEFINITION
James P. Lewis defined undertaking as “ a erstwhile occupation that has defined get downing and stoping day of the months, a clearly specified nonsubjective, or range to be performed, a pre-defined budget, and normally a impermanent organisation that is dismantled one time the undertaking is complete. ” For this undertaking the aims and range are explained below.
3.1 Goals and Aims
Undertaking aims as defined by Westland ( 2007 ) are “ statements depicting in more inside informations what it is that the undertaking will accomplish ” . It is the coveted result of the undertaking. Ill-defined aims could ensue in struggle when information is non adequately understood. The aims of this undertaking program include the followers:
To supplement Heathrow ‘s other bing terminuss to suit her increasing client base and increase the airdrome current capacity by 30 % BAA ( 2009 )
To reenforce Heathrow ‘s place as Europe ‘s chief intercontinental hub
To supply first-class client service and going experience to her extremely honored clients
3.2 Statement of the Project Scope
The undertaking range can be defined as “ the particular and overall definition of what the undertaking ‘s end consequence should carry through ” ( Briggs 2009 ) . It specifies what work is included and excluded in a undertaking possibly specifying in consequence the boundaries of the undertaking ( Carmichael 2004 ) .
The range of this undertaking is as follows:
An effectual undertaking program for the successful bringing of BAA ‘s Heathrow Terminal 5 undertaking
Recommendation of a sustainable development program for the new terminus
3.2.2 Scope Exclusions
Exclusions are done in order to avoid misinterpretations they spell out what the undertaking wo n’t make. The following are the exclusions considered in developing this undertaking program
The undertaking program would non include the conceptual design of the undertaking
The effects of rising prices on budgeted cost would non be included
The undertaking program does non include obtaining the necessary licenses and mandate paperss
The undertaking program does non include the land regulations to be adopted during the execution of the undertaking program
3.3 Undertaking Deliverables
A deliverable is any alone and verifiable merchandise, consequence or capableness to execute a service that is identified in the undertaking direction planning certification, and must be produced and provided to finish the undertaking ( PMBOK 2004 ) . It can besides be described as the end product of the undertaking during the undertaking and at the terminal. Harmonizing to PMBOK ( 2008 ) there are four generic life rhythm phases for a undertaking. However since this is a mega undertaking, five distinguishable stages have been identified for efficient planning. For this undertaking, the cardinal deliverables are grouped into the assorted project life rhythm phases as shown in the diagram below:
Fig 3.1 Project Life rhythm diagram demoing the deliverables
The life rhythm for this undertaking is made up of the construct, planning, executing and control, completion/handover and station undertaking reappraisal. These stages are farther explained below.
This is the birth stage of any undertaking in which the range of the undertaking is defined along with the methodological analysis for presenting undertaking desired end products.
This is the stage where all the programs required to present the undertaking aims and range is done. This stage is characterized by interrupting down the undertaking into smaller more manageable work bundles.
Execution/ Monitoring stage
This is the execution stage of the undertaking where work towards direct accomplishment of the undertaking ‘s aims and the production of the undertaking ‘s deliverables take topographic point ( APMBOK 2006 ) .This stage besides involves monitoring and control. This involves entering, analyzing and describing undertaking public presentation and comparing it to the planned public presentation in order to place and describe divergences every bit good as develop marks and programs.
This is the undertaking issue stage and the formal orderly terminal point of a undertaking, either because it has been completed or because it has been terminated early ( PMBOK 2004 ) .
Post undertaking Review
In this stage the lessons learned are reviewed. Below is a elaborate account of the assorted deliverables at each undertaking stage, their marks, dependences and resource demands.
Description of Deliverables
Brief Description, marks, dependence and resource demand
This is a papers that describes the undertaking justification
Target: Blessing of top direction
Dependence: Undertaking aim
Resource Requirement: Undertaking client or patron
Undertaking Initiation papers ( PID )
Undertaking induction papers is a statement of the range, aims and participants in a undertaking. It defines the authorization of the undertaking director and functions and duties of undertaking stakeholders.
Resource demand: undertaking director
It is a tool used to delegate undertakings associating to each undertaking activity in the Work dislocation construction. It indicates clearly the function and duty of each undertaking participant
Target: functions and duty of undertaking participants
Dependence: work dislocation construction
Resource demand: Undertaking trough
Work dislocation construction ( WBS )
It is a hierarchal decomposition of the
undertaking into smaller elements or deliverables
called work bundles thereby leting for
effectual direction and control of undertaking
range and aims ( PMBoK 2008 ) .
Target: work bundles in relation to project
Dependences: Project range and
Resource demand: Undertaking director
and input from undertaking squad
This is a Microsoft undertaking tool that illustrates
the undertaking agenda.
It is a utile tool in planning, predicting and
make up one’s minding how resources are used to accomplish clip and cost ends.
Target: Undertaking agenda and undertaking
Dependence: Work breakdown construction
Resource demand: Undertaking director
This is a program used in measuring hazard
Classs their chance of happening and
the impact on the undertaking it besides highlights
controls identified to extenuate the hazards.
Dependence: Hazard appraisal
Resource demand ; undertaking squad
Execution/ control stage
Certificate of practical completion ( CPC )
it is a certification handed over to the undertaking director after the undertaking has been completed and has been certified to run into clients and stakeholders demand.
Target: client satisfaction
Dependence: Undertaking completion
Resource demand: undertaking proprietor
it is a certification of all lessons learned in
class of put to deathing the undertaking and is kept
for future mentions in order to forestall
booby traps in the executing of similar undertakings in
Target ; should clearly foreground lessons
learned from the undertaking.
Dependences: undertaking completion and client
Resource demand: Undertaking director
3.4 Critical Success Factors
The primary aims of any undertaking being completed within the specified cost, clip and good public presentation are non the lone determiners of a successful undertaking. These primary aims can place immediate part to gain ( kerzner 2006 ) but will non place if the undertaking has been decently managed. These success factors can be seen as value heightening practises ( VEP ) . The followers are some needed factors that will find the success of BAA ‘s Heathrow terminus 5 undertaking ( HT5 ) :
Clearly established undertaking ends and processs
Strong support and shared vision from BAA ‘s top direction
Satisfaction of the assorted groups of stakeholders with lower limit or reciprocally agreed upon range alterations.
The catching scheme employed would enable providers concentrate on bringing
Excellent teamwork and good communicating among cardinal participants to aline and convey aims
The usage of criterion undertaking direction methodological analysiss, tools and techniques. For illustration monitoring and alteration direction patterns should be employed to place and decide jobs early
Handiness of technological expertness and equipment
3.5 Critical Project Barriers
Unlike hazards, critical undertaking barriers are overpowering issues that can be critical to a undertaking ‘s program. Should any of these events occur the undertaking program would go invalid. In this undertaking, the following are possible critical barriers:
Removal of undertaking support
Happening of force majeure e.g. natural catastrophes or Acts of the Apostless of war
4.0 Undertaking CONSTRAINTS CONSIDERATIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS
Harmonizing to APM Body of cognition ( 2006 ) , restraints are issues that could do a hold or limitations that would impact the undertaking ; considerations are the cardinal elements required to hold a binding contract ; and premises are statements that will be taken for granted as fact and upon which the undertaking concern instance will be justified.
In an airdrome environment, height restrictions are placed to avoid intervention with the airdrome radio detection and ranging systems and this could impact the undertaking squad during building.
Logisticss challenge due to condensed site country.
Ecological restraints and the landscape of the country to back up such a undertaking
Permit, licensing or consent blessings could take a long clip to be obtained sing the sensitive nature of this undertaking
Health and safety of the undertaking squad and locals during and after building due to pollution
Legal demands of the building ordinance and environmental act
There could be possible alterations to the construction in future so proviso would be made available for that in the undertaking design.
Satisfaction of the undertaking ‘s big and diverse group of interest holders.
BAA the undertaking patron and client will accept the undertaking program offered by this adviser squad
All undertaking participants will stay by the guideline identified within this program
All necessary blessings have been obtained
The clip frame for the undertaking is 10 old ages
Management will guarantee that the undertaking squad is available as at when required to finish undertaking undertakings.
All undertaking participants will stay by the guideline identified within this program
The needed resources are available, and the estimated budget would be equal for the undertaking
Inflation would be changeless throughout the period of the undertaking
5.0 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT Plan
A undertaking development program defines the stages that connect the beginning of a undertaking to its terminal ( PMBOK 2004 ) . Because undertakings have a beginning and an terminal, there is a logical sequence of activities or undertakings to carry through undertaking ‘s aims. This sequence of activities leads to the Work Breakdown Structure
5.1 Work Breakdown Structure
Work dislocation construction is defined as “ a manner in which a undertaking may be divided by degree into distinct groups for scheduling, cost planning and control intents ” ( APMBOK 2006 ) . It acts as a control and monitoring tool in any undertaking and besides shows full lucidity and apprehension of the undertaking range. The work dislocation construction for this undertaking is shown in appendix 2.
5.2 Gantt Chart
The Gantt chart is used in scheduling the work dislocation construction. It is a utile tool in planning, foretelling and make up one’s minding how resources are used to accomplish clip and cost ends. It is a type of saloon chart used to stand for when activities are being carried out or when resources are required. It uses clip lines and other symbols to exemplify multiple time-based activities of a undertaking on a horizontal clip graduated table ( Carmichael 2004 ) . The Gantt chart for this undertaking is as shown in appendix 3
6.0 Project Organisation and Management
Project organisational construction clarifies the make-up of the undertaking board and squads. It identifies the functions and duty of the assorted stakeholders involved in the undertaking.
Lock ( 2007 ) defined stakeholders as “ the people and organisations who affect, or will be affected by the undertaking. ” Stakeholders can be grouped into primary and secondary stakeholders. The principal/primary stakeholders stand to do net income or loss from the undertaking while the secondary stakeholders are non net income devising stakeholders. The following are the stakeholders for the HT5 undertaking.
Her Statelinesss Government
British Airport Authority ( BAA )
British Airways ( BA )
Employees of Heathrow airdrome
6.1 Undertaking Structure
The diagram shown in Appendix 4 depicts the undertaking administration construction.
6.2 Functions and Duties
Functions and duties demands to be clearly defined among the undertaking squad to avoid struggle. The duty charts clarifies the responsibilities of each individuals involved in the undertaking.The functions and duties tabular array for this undertaking is as shown in Appendix 5.
6.3 Project Approach/Methodology
The methodological analysis for pull offing the execution of this undertaking program for BAA Heathrow terminal 5 is the problem-oriented attack. With this attack, a major job is identified, the cause and the possible solution to the job and eventually a best solution for execution recommended. For this undertaking, the job identified was the congestion of riders and air hose capacity constrain which lead to the determination to build a new terminus in Heathrow.
6.4 Undertaking Controls
Lewis ( 2001 ) described undertaking control to be the procedure of “ comparing where you are and where you are supposed to be so that disciplinary action can be taken when there is a divergence from mark ” The undertaking director will supervise and command the undertaking on a day-to-day footing guaranting that issues are decently resolved. The maneuvering commission shall run into at the completion of each milepost as indicated on the Gantt chart, to guarantee that no old issues are carried over and that quality has non been compromised in any signifier.
6.5 Project Communication
In any successful undertaking, there must be a uninterrupted demand for communicating to publish directives, work out jobs, make determinations, decide struggles and maintain everyone supplied with the needed information ( Burke 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Westland ( 2007 ) the communicating program “ identifies the type of information to be distributed to stakeholders ( what ) , the methods of administering the information ( How ) , the frequence of the distribution ( when ) and the duties of each individual in the undertaking squad for administering the information ( who ) . ” For this undertaking, the communicating program as shown in appendix 6 is divided into the external and internal communicating for the undermentioned stakeholders:
7.0 Undertaking Risk Management
Undertaking hazard is defined as “ the cumulative consequence of the opportunities of unsure happenings which will adversely impact undertaking aims. It is the grade of exposure to negative events and their likely effects. Undertaking hazard is characterized by three factors: hazard event, hazard chance and the sum at interest ” ( PMBOK 2004 )
Undertaking hazard direction is “ a structured procedure that allows single hazard events and overall undertaking hazard to be understood and managed proactively, optimizing undertaking success by understating menaces and maximizing chances ” ( APMBOK 2006 ) . In order words hazard direction is an attack of identifying, measuring and commanding hazard that occurred during the undertaking life rhythm
7.1 Undertaking Risk Assessment
Issues of hazard ( uncertainnesss ) can non be over emphatic. It must be decently identified, analysed and mitigated. The political, proficient, fiscal, environmental and sociological facets are the cardinal factors that were considered during the hazard appraisal.
For this undertaking, the chances of hazards happening were classified as:
1 – Almost impossible to happen
2 – Little inclination of happening
3 – Likelihood of happening
4 – Expected possibility of happening
5 – Extreme possibility of happening
And the hazards impacts were classified as: A
1 – Small or no impact and work will go on
2 – Little impact but work will go on
3 – Limited Impact but could decelerate down activity and widen completion day of the month
4 – Significant impact and could ensue in the undertaking deadlock
5 – Massive impact and could ensue in expiration of undertaking
The hazard dislocation construction and hazard designation mapping for this undertaking is as shown in Appendix 7 and 8 severally.
7.2 Risk Mitigation and Control
The procedure of take downing the chance of a hazard happening or cut downing its consequence or impact should it happen in a undertaking is project hazard extenuation and control.
To be able to extenuate and command hazard, we classified the ensuing hazard indices into three classs utilizing the coloring material cryptography as shown below:
Red: High Risk ( 18 – 25 )
Yellow: Medium Risk ( 11 – 16 )
Green: Low Risk ( 1 – 10 )
For this undertaking, the hazard appraisal matrix is as shown in Appendix 9
8.0 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
BAA ‘s sustainability development policy sets a context for bettering its environmental public presentation. This recommendation will look at the followers: noise, air, H2O and the edifice.
Aviation is one of the fastest turning beginnings of the UK ‘s C emanations.
It presently represents 6.4 % of the UK ‘s CO2 emanations or 13 % of the entire clime alteration.
For an of import and monolithic undertaking like the Terminal 5, the followers should be considered ;
Air quality should be weighted on the overall balance of costs and benefits
An luxuriant air quality computing machine modeling should be done around major locality where the Terminal will be located and around the local countries. Pollutants to pattern should include but non limited to NO2, PM10, Ozone and CO2
The benefit of another track will certainly be of great benefit to the UK Government as facts below provinces ;
Benefit to the UK economic system of assorted manner at Heathrow is ?2.5 billion a twelvemonth.
Benefit to the UK economic system of a 3rd track at Heathrow is ?7 billion a twelvemonth.
Cost of CO2 and Non CO2 impacts from the whole of UK air power is ?1.4 billion in 2000 and will be ?4billion in 2030.
Beginning: OEF ; The economic part of the air power industry in the UK.
Water quality about where the Terminal 5 will be located should be monitored before, during and after building.
Daily, hebdomadal and monthly sampling should be carried out at any river nearby and any other H2O having organic structures.
Biological monitoring of any river should besides be carried out to show that there wo n’t be any long term impact on the biodiversity of the rivers.
A system should be put in topographic point to divide drinkable and non-potable H2O supplies.
Rainwater reaping strategies should be put in topographic point for lavatory flushing and to carry through other non-potable H2O demands.
The above can merely be achieved by understanding the different H2O quality and measure demands during and after building of Terminal 5.
If the program for Terminal 5 is approved, it is expected that the figure of people utilizing autos, taxis, coachs, e.t.c. in and out of Heathrow would more than double one time T5 become operational.
In other to control the consequence of noise pollution on the Locals around the location of T5 the followers should be in topographic point ;
A carefully designed landscape gardening to incorporate the noise at the airdrome and besides understating the impact to the environing communities.
Resettlement of some of the Locals and adequately counterbalancing them
Provision of sound cogent evidence stuffs to the locals that can non be relocated
Entree of merely noise friendly aircrafts in the T5
In decision, the following are extremely recommended ;
Recycled merchandises such as crushed waste spectacless and concrete should be used wherever possible, while a good per centum of all wastes generated during building should be recycled.
The usage of environmental sensitive stuffs should be reduced during the building stage.
Periodic meeting of all stakeholders with the locals should be held earlier, during and after building of T5 to guarantee the success of the undertaking.