The following undertaking program is supply a brief thought about the undertaking hazard and procurance. In this undertaking the first thing is placing the undertaking environment and what are the hazards involved and why it is hazardous, why the hazard planning procedures are of import and how to place the hazards associated with the undertaking. The hazard analysis processes is carried out, and go on rating procedure of the undertaking. Why the hazard intervention program is necessary and how to carry on monitoring and reappraisal of the undertaking.
The following is procurance of the undertaking this will include undertaking planning, how to carry on procurance schemes associate with the undertaking. Why procurement solicitation and beginning choice of import for undertaking. Why procurement monitoring and controlling is necessary and what are the grounds.
Project reappraisal and completion phase gives, how efficaciously the undertaking was closed and what are the undertakings that are transporting out in undertaking shutting phase. Why periodic reappraisal is necessary in shuting phase of the undertaking and how the stakeholder valued the station completion reappraisal of the undertaking.
This appraisal is to analysis the hazards that are traveling to be consequence and how to pull off the procurance direction system of the “ Mandhoo ” resort undertaking. This is a undertaking that includes many different types of hazard and assorted troubles of pull offing the procurance system which are required for this undertaking.
This undertaking stakeholder has higher degree of concern to procure their investing by extenuating the hazards and supplying an effectual ways of procurance system with minimum cost.
The undertaking take topographic point in the topographic point where consist of a delicate and hard series of ecosystem. The Island is standing entirely surrounded by the sea and land country is besides really little.
The most common hazards are included in this environment are menaces that happening on sea degree rise, strong moving ridges and strong air currents blow to the Island. To procuring all the edifices and supply safe breakwater for vass which are used in this resort hotel.
Procurement direction is really of import twenty-four hours today works of this undertaking and placing what are the hazard of transit of good and stuffs, how to hive away, secure, and supplying the goods and stuffs to the work sites on clip.
2- Risk Planning and Identification
2.1- What is Risk?
The Association for Project Management ( APM, 2000 ) describes procurement as ”the procedure of geting new services or merchandises. It covers the fiscal assessment of the options available, development of the procurance or acquisition of providers, pricing, buying, and disposal of contracts. It may besides widen to storage, logistics, review, hastening, transit, and handling of stuffs and supplies.
2.2- Risks of the Project Environment How “ Risky ” it is?
There several types of hazards associated with this undertaking, the chief thing is the topographic point where the undertaking undertakes. Maldives is a 1 of the most vulnerable state that holding a different environmental issues,
Large Numberss of islands are spread over the state and these islands are little and really low lying harmonizing to sea degree, about three pess when sea rose. The major hazard related to climate alteration such as accelerated coast and cut downing the handiness of pure H2O in the land and altering to salt H2O and beach eroding.
The seasonal storms lead to happening of immense moving ridges and damage the reefs that safe guard the Island, and take the sand and the coconut thenar from the beach side of the Island. These negative impact leads to deluging the island.
Harmonizing to above mentioned grounds protecting and safe guard the investing and besides safe guard the people around the environment is really of import.
2.3- Risk Planning associated with the Undertaking
Risk planning of the undertaking is really of import, harmonizing to program can pay more attending on overall undertaking and another most of import factor is forming undertaking plants and maintain peculiar criterion adopted for the undertaking.
The undertaking hazard planning is necessary for every undertaking and planning phase is within the rating phase of the undertaking. This will assist to place and take the suited action to extenuate the hazards when the beginning to stop of the undertaking. Planing stairss of this undertaking are divided in two stairss those are preliminary and concluding planning.
Preliminary planning provides undertaking scheme to the undertaking squad to how to manage and pull offing the hazard. This will include appraisals of plants, within the given budget and clip period and the concluding planning implement required work agenda for the undertaking squad.
Risks planning of the undertaking are combination of Input, Tools and Techniques, and Output. Input of this undertaking considers Project Charter, Risk Management Polices, Roles and Responsibilities, Stakeholders Risk Tolerance and Risk Management Plan Template.
Tools and Techniques consider Planning Meetings and Analysis which required for the undertaking.
Output will supply Risk Plan will picture how to place hazard, analysis and response planning and monitoring. The undermentioned stairss are considered in be aftering phase of this undertaking.
Budgeting: To pull off and finish the undertaking works within the given budget.
Timing: To pull off within the given clip period.
Thresholds: Benchmarking upper limit or lower limit costs.
Reporting and tracking: Controling the undertaking works.
Below Figure-1 has shown how the hazard planning of the undertaking work.
Get downing point of Risk Planning
Figure-1: Hazard Planning Flow Chart
Harmonizing to the hazard planning adopt for this undertaking, the rating phases will place and open when the hazard is reached, after designation hazard will travel to the declaration phase and do the necessary things to decide, when the hazard reached to confirmation phase and it will verified, so the procedure will closed.
If the hazard is non decide so the confirmation phase will reopen once more and hazard will direct once more to declaration phase and following rating phase. Likewise the procedure will reiterate until designation of hazard.
2.4- Risk Identification associated with the Undertaking
Undertaking hazard Identification is besides work within the rating phase of the undertaking. After hazard be aftering the following thing is risk designation.
In the hazard designation of this undertaking, all identified hazards will be stored in a hazard registry and this list will be determine which hazard is most danger to the undertaking and will give more precedence to go to the high hazards foremost similarly deciding one after another.
In hazard designation of the undertaking considered Input, Tools and Techniques and Output. Input includes Risk Management Plan, Project Planning Output, Risk Planning Categories and Historical Information.
Tools and Techniques see Documentation Reviews, Information Gathering Techniques, Checklist, Assumption Analysis and Diagramming Techniques.
Diagraming Techniques includes following techniques
Cause and consequence, and fishbone Ishikawa diagrams
Procedure flow charts
Output will supply Risk, Triggers and Inputs to other procedure and Risk Register will supply:
List of recognized hazards
List of possible responses
Causes of hazard
Updated hazard classs
The above Figure-2: shows the how the hazard designation procedure plants.
Plan for possible response
Entry point of Hazard
Figure-2: Hazard Identification Flow Chart
Harmonizing to the Risk Identification Flow Chart, after come ining the hazard into hazard registry all the hazards are evaluated and identified the hazards classs and program for response. If the response are matched so the procedure will closed else the procedure will travel to rating phase.
3 – Hazard analysis, rating and intervention
3.1- Risk analysis associated with the undertaking
Hazard analysis of the undertaking identifies the procedure of reexamining the impact and likeliness of the hazards. Harmonizing to hazard analysis of this undertaking Qualitative Risk Analysis is major function it will mensurate the hazard every bit good as assets value and so ranking the hazards into descriptive classs such as high ( really of import ) , medium ( of import ) and low ( non of import ) and besides it will scale from 1 to 05 etc.
In this undertaking hazard analysis method is prioritising the hazards in order for farther action like Quantitative Risk Analysis, with the aid of Quantitative Risk Analysis the undertaking squad can efficaciously better the undertaking public presentation. It includes informations of the past undertakings and lesson learned from these undertakings.
The following of import measure of quantitative hazard is ever concentrating on high hazards foremost and identifies the hazards utilizing likeliness of happening ; accordingly place the aims if the hazards occur,
Qualitative Hazard analysis is used in most of the undertaking this includes Inputs, Tools and techniques and Output. Input includes the available database of the organisational to acquire the past undertakings information, Project Scope, Risk Management Plan and Risk Register.
Tools and Techniques includes Probability of hazard and impact appraisal, Probability and impact matrix, Risk data quality appraisal, Risk classification and Risk urgency appraisal.
Output includes Updated Risk Register by ranking the hazards on the precedence order, categorising the hazards, ready for hazard response, gather the extra information to hazard response, observe the low precedence hazards and larning from qualitative hazard analysis.
3.2- Risk rating associated with the undertaking
Undertaking hazard rating procedure is manage within the undertaking squad, every bit shortly as identified the hazard that will be registered in the hazard registry in order by high to low and send hazards list to project squad treatment, each member should supply ain sentiment about the each hazard individually after that choose major menaces which are related to peculiar hazard.
The following measure is all those hazards are discussed in particular hazard analysis squad of the undertaking and finalising the actions that are traveling to take, sing the peculiar hazard. The anterior attending goes to the hazard which causes more harm and higher disbursals. The chief importance of measuring the hazards is to place the classs of hazards such as: Operational Hazard, Schedule Risk, Budget Risk, Business Risk, Technical Environment Risk, Information Security Risk and Programmatic Risks. Designation of all these hazards is extremely of import for every undertaking.
Below Figure-3 has shown how the Risk Evaluation of the undertaking works.
Attending High Risk First
Figure-3: Hazard Evaluation Flow Chart
Harmonizing to this hazard Evaluation flow chart, when a hazard is come ining to put on the line register the designation procedure will be started. In this procedure all the hazards are categorized in different degrees to go to high hazard foremost so others. If the hazard is extenuating decently the procedure will be closed else hazard extenuating procedure will travel hazard rating phase until it makes rectification.
3.3- Risk intervention associated with the undertaking
Hazard intervention program is a portion of hazard and besides it is a portion of hazard direction program. This program will demo how the hazard will be managed either that is high, medium or low. Harmonizing to this undertaking the first create hazard direction program that will steer the squad members and stakeholders, how they react on the hazard.
The following thing provide in hazard intervention program, it is ever repeatedly suggested to put on the line appraisal programs that identify how to avoid, extenuate, transportation and accept the hazard, all these actions that will assist to cover with the hazards. The four methods that are traveling to utilize in hazard intervention are:
Avoiding Hazard: to avoid the hazard the first thing is placing the past undertaking experiences and undertaking certification to analyse what hazards may happen in the undertaking induction.
Extenuating Hazard: to let the hazard before it starts or pull offing the hazard in an acceptable degree. First identifies the possible menaces to take appropriate action to extenuate the hazard and other thing puting a eventuality program that deals with hazard when happening.
Transfering Hazard: identified the hazard that can be transferred to 3rd party, it does non intend hazard goes off. These types of hazards are handled by an expertness squad from organisation or outside beginning.
Accepting Hazard: harmonizing to hazard response planning, if the hazard considered low or little or the hazards are recognized that can be adjustable within the undertaking to place the cost or agenda may non missed.
Tools and artifact which are traveling to utilize in hazard intervention are:
Register of Risks
Profile of Risks
Matrix for Cause Control
Hazard Statements and Treatment Plan
Updated Register of Risks
Updated Profile of Risks
3.4- Risk monitoring and reappraisal associated with the undertaking
Risk monitoring of the undertaking is keep path of how the hazard is come ining and what are the responses that can execute against the hazard, and maintaining eventuality program how the new hazards can be managed. Hazards can hold positive every bit good as negative impact. Positive hazards have possible benefits that are more of import than traditional attack and negative hazards that are negatively influence to cost and agenda of the undertaking. Harmonizing to this undertaking the chief ends of monitoring are:
Verifying hazard responses are implemented harmonizing to planned
Checking whether hazard response are effectual or required new response
Checking the cogency of the undertaking statements
Checking yesteryear experienced hazard has changed or required new tendencies for the undertaking patterned advance
Verifying the processs and policies adopt for the undertaking worked as planned
Monitoring the undertaking for new hazards
Monitoring the hazards triggers
Hazard triggers are the event that causes the menace of the hazards to go world for illustration, if the undertaking utilizing one generator for all electrical plants required for the undertaking and in center of the work if any things happen to any portion of the generator, the whole work will be blocked, if the job can non be solved instantly, so the hazard will go world.
Harmonizing to this undertaking each identified hazard there will be a response program. This will assist to halt the hazard before it becomes world. These are the Input and end product procedures that are traveling to used supervising the hazards.
Risk direction program
Hazard response program
Communicationss of the undertaking
Designation of new hazards
Changes of undertaking Scopess
Approximate work programs
Corrective and Preventive actions
Updates of hazard response program
4 – Procurement planning and schemes
4.1- What are procurances?
The term “ Risk ” define An enterprise in which human, stuff and fiscal resources are organized in a fresh manner, to set about a alone range of work of given specification, within constrain of cost and clip, so as to accomplish unitary, good alteration, through the bringing of quantified and qualitative aims. Turner ( 1992 )
4.2-Procument planning associated with the undertaking
Procurement planning is the 1 of the most of import function of any undertaking. In this procedure will supply the merchandise and resources which are required for the undertaking and delivered the merchandises on clip. Execution of procurance planning helps the direction to guarantee that they can purchase appropriate merchandises in right award from right providers.
In this undertaking procurance handling is highly hard, the undertaking is traveling to carry on in an inhabited and single standing Island, all the things required for the undertaking can provide by sea transit.
Harmonizing to that the company is traveling to confront many troubles, because of that they decided to acquire external provider to supply all major merchandises which are required for the undertaking. For illustration heavy machineries like Crane and Highmark, Construction stuffs, Toilet adjustments imported from foreign providers. Custom clearance is traveling to manage company employees and for goods and stuff burden and unloading company is traveling to choose capable local companies. Below given are the benefits of procurance planning.
Always stuffs are available for production
Giving more attending to stuff and resources monetary values
Minimize the procurance clip and cost
Decreasing the degree of hazard
Equally execute the production program
An effectual apprehension between concern spouses and providers
Procurement planning is divided into two classs those are high value or strategic procurance planning and one-year procurance planning. For this undertaking the company decided to follow one-year procurance planning. This planning encourages the company direction to manage the available resources every bit good as bringings harmonizing programs and schemes and besides minimise the cost and increase the production. The most of import factor is supplying order of buying and from which providers. Company direction consider following phases of one-year procurance planning.
Supporting service of presenting the merchandises
Measuring company disbursals on goods and services
Bettering the undertaking procurance procedure
Bettering the undertaking public presentation of ends and events
Identify the Required Goods and Materials
Gather the Supplier Information
Choose the Most Appropriate Suppliers
Divided the Categories of Goods and Materials
Supply the Proposal to Suppliers
Inform the providers who are selected and non
Identified the Best Proposals
Signed the Agreement
The below Figure-4: shows how the planning systems work.
Figure-4: Procurement Planing Flow chart
Harmonizing to this procurance planning precedence goes readying to set uping warehouses installations to hive away goods stuffs which required for the undertaking. Harmonizing to the planning company is traveling to construct impermanent warehouses that can hive away stuffs and goods for first three month periods.
The most of import thing is internal audit, harmonizing to the audit direction system undertaking procurance program for needed good and stuffs are telling harmonizing to undertaking stages.
The following phase of the strategic program is considered, when 50 % of the goods and stuffs get used. Harmonizing to undertaking program company will reorder for goods and stuffs by look intoing the stock balance records and damaged point records.
4.3- Procurement schemes associated with the undertaking
What is Contract?
A contract is an understanding between two or more individuals it include persons, organisations and authorities bureaus. The chief intent of contract is delegating duties of peculiar plants and exchange for value and it is by and large form of written, either formal or informal footings, and sometimes wholly verbal. The footings of the contract includes who, what, where, when, and how in the understanding with their promises.
Procurement schemes are one of the of import portion of a undertaking, it helps runing the undertaking demands successfully internally every bit good as externally. This refers a planned attack of cost effectivity of buying company required. These includes clip period for procurance, required support or budget, undertaking hazard and chances.
Procurement schemes of this undertaking, the undertaking squad members sit together for clear up all the plants within the undertaking. This includes undertaking aims, what are the available and existing resources and supplies, budget and clip programming of the undertaking works and measure what are the assorted ways to drive down costs, based on these factors prepare what are the demand that company accepted in “ Quotation Request for Qualification ( RFQ ) and Proposal Request for Proposal ( RFP ) ” from the bidders.
Main aims of procurance scheme are:
The major regulations included in the procurance scheme are handiness of goods and stuffs from the beginning to stop of undertaking and keep the quality of the goods and stuffs providing for the undertaking.
Educate and train to promote internal buyers to reexamine their ingestion of goods and services, cut down the use and follow environmentally friendly alternate merchandises
Communicate and keep procurance policy to all staff, providers and stakeholders
Promote best pattern for maintain procurance
4.4- Legal issues and Schemes associated with the undertaking
A “ Legal issues and Strategy ” is a major concern on every undertaking and it is a most of import portion of the undertaking. There are some grounds to see, the first thing is there are figure of peoples are affecting in the undertaking. This includes Companies, Associations, Groups and Individuals all these people plays really of import function to finish the undertaking.
Largely legal issues are originating in somewhere center of the undertaking, to avoid these jobs the undertaking begins with many different understandings and understanding. There are set of authorities regulations and ordinances, which are applied on company schemes and it does dwell of many legal issues. Harmonizing to this undertaking, below these are the Government Ministries involved in this undertaking.
The undertaking begins with legal understandings between the Company and related Ministries, those are Ministry of Environment and Planning to protect the environmental related issues, same manner Ministry of Construction for maintain the building criterion, Ministry of Human Resource and Labor, protecting employer every bit good as employees, Ministry of Economics for using the trade policies.
These understandings are really of import to project Employees, Suppliers and Contractors. This will assist to both the parties to esteem each other. Based on those understandings company will do the contract with all those people who are affecting in the undertaking.
The most common Legal issues associates with “ Schemes ” are the clip, when sing to clip, if the providers can non provide the goods and stuffs on clip, contractors can non finish the plants on clip, with the acceptable criterion. Following thing is wellness and safety of the workers.
On the other manus legal issues originate if the company can non pay the payments on clip to providers, contractors and employees. These are the major legal issues concern in this undertaking to success.
5- Procurement solicitation and beginning choice
5.1- Solicitation and beginning choice associated with the undertaking
“ Solicitation ” is the procedure of obtaining information ( commands and proposals ) from the prospective Sellerss on how project needs can be met ( Garrett & A ; Rendon, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to this undertaking the undertaking solicitation stage procedure includes:
Conduct pre- command or proposal meeting.
Advertising the procurance chance or Sending the notice to interested providers.
Giving particular attending to qualified bidder ‘s list.
“ Beginning Choice ” is the procedure of having commands or proposals and using the proposal rating standards to choose a provider ( Garrett & A ; Rendon, 2005 ) . This procedure includes the contract dialogues between the both parties to travel for an understanding on all facets of the contract. This will include cost, scheduling, public presentation, footings and conditions etc. the undermentioned activities are included in beginning choice procedure of the undertaking.
Identify the Evaluation standards to managing, cost, and proficient proposals.
Negociating procedure with providers.
Implement the contract award scheme.
Beginning choice stage include utilizing a formal beginning choice with trained and experient cross functional proposal rating squads of the company and besides utilizing a disciplined attack to evaluation standards stated in the solicitation stage.
In extra best patterns is besides include to obtaining independent cost estimations ways to help in rating of provider proposals, and carry oning a monetary value distinction analysis on each provider proposal.
6- Procurement monitoring and control
6.1- Procurement monitoring and control associated with the undertaking
Procurement monitoring and controlling is a procedure of measuring, tracking, goods and stuffs. It helps to supervise and commanding the audit of the company.
The most of import factor of procurement monitoring and controlling and keep the stock records updated. This will supply what are the necessary goods and stuffs required for the undertaking, after cognizing these things it is easy to supervise and command the procurance.
Harmonizing to this undertaking procurance monitoring system will supervise:
Goods and stuffs ordered from providers.
Goods and stuffs received from providers.
Goods and stuffs used in undertaking stages.
Goods and stuffs damaged.
The chief grounds of procurance monitoring are easy payments to supplier and go on the undertaking phases steadfastly without any obstructions.
7 – Undertaking reappraisal and completion
7.1 – How efficaciously undertaking was closed
The last stage of a undertaking ‘s is the close-out.A Closing the undertaking should be a reasonably everyday procedure. At the terminal of the undertaking the company will look into the full unpaid undertaking works and do certain concluding bills are received and paid to the providers, contractors and all employees. The chief ground is seting all outstanding are do the undertaking successful.
Effective undertakings are ever prepared fiscal study on each phase and these studies are traveling excessively used in planning of the following stage and the company will look into undermentioned phases.
All the payments have been made
Available budget can pull off the payments
Check payments made are right
Check there are any unfinished duties that can be cancelled.
Another ground of prepare the concluding fiscal studies is some information may be needed by the company finance section and besides joint-venture spouses. Harmonizing to stairss followed in execution phase, efficaciously the undertaking was closed. A
These are the cardinal elements to project shutting:
Accept the undertaking ‘s by proprietors
Complete the Post Completion Evaluation Report
Conduct a session of lessons
Complete the undertaking records
Identify outstanding and accomplishment
Observe the undertaking completion
These cardinal elements activities are extremely of import on big undertakings with records and resources. The first measure of the close-out procedure is the proprietor ‘s credence of the undertaking works.A This is a critical and of import measure, as the proprietors decides when the undertaking is completed.A
7.2 – Periodic reappraisal associated with the undertaking
Periodic reappraisal is easy manner of balance versus figure of right action. The chief ground is look into all the old plants are performed harmonizing to the undertaking program. The periodic reappraisals of this undertaking behavior in every six months.
The chief aim of periodic reappraisal is to guarantee the direction and the undertaking proprietor under remains validated and under control during the operational life and another of import thing is old reappraisals besides be assessed to see if they have been implemented are effectual.
The reappraisal should be planned and day of the months are agreed in progress with all involved with the procedure. The planned will sketch the range of the audit and the country to be reviewed. A periodic reappraisal follows the undermentioned lineation clip tabular array.
Opening meeting, all forces involved with the audit and discourse the timetable.
Overview of the undertaking to explicate the reappraisal squad with the undertaking.
Reappraisal of the undertaking harmonizing to the program
Review ‘s the closed meeting to discourse the audit and program for close meeting.
Closing meeting where brief are discusses with the undertaking proprietor and their representatives.
These are the describing reappraisal follow- up at the terminal of reappraisal:
The study should be record what was reviewed in deepness, what are the briefly reappraisal countries and where the work non done.
The consequence should be classify in order, a typical scaling strategy may be:
Critical: Works that required rapid solution.
Major: A serious concern on correct it.
Minor: Issue to rectify it.
7.3 – How the stakeholders valued post completion reappraisal of the undertaking
What is a station completion reappraisal?
A Post Completion Review, is performed after a undertaking is completion. The chief intent of this reappraisal is to happen out whether the undertaking was completed successfully and place the lessons learned and besides looks the undertaking works was successfully performed peculiar timeframe. The overall end products are documented in the station completion reappraisal study.
The best clip of carry oning this reappraisal is six months after completion of undertaking. A station completion reappraisal is a most critical portion in the undertaking life rhythm. During the reappraisal the success of the undertaking will be is measured. This will includes all of the content perform in a station completion reappraisal. The station completion reappraisal of the undertaking is the last undertaking in the undertaking life rhythm, it will allows an independent squads to formalize the success of the undertaking and give confidence to the stakeholders that it has met the aims.
By executing a station undertaking reappraisal helps to place successes of the undertaking, deliverables of the undertaking, accomplishments of the undertaking and lessons learned from undertaking. The below templet helps to execute a station completion reappraisal:
To mensurate the benefits and aims
To make up one’s mind the undertaking was within range
To measure the concluding deliverables produced
To reexamine the undertaking against agenda
To compare the outgo against budget
Get down the concluding result of the undertaking
The station completion reappraisal of the undertaking besides helps:
To place the cardinal accomplishments and mileposts of undertaking
Document all the lessons learned for future undertakings
Communicate with stakeholders to acquire success
Sing to this undertaking study, that will place the importance of hazard and procurement direction are how of import for a undertaking, particularly before puting the touristry industry of Maldives.
This undertaking study highlighted the importance of hazard planning and what are the different phases of hazard planning and how these phases help in a undertaking, those phases are hazard analyzing, hazard evaluating, hazard treating and hazard monitoring, through the reappraisals and what are the tools that can be used in all these phases and how efficaciously manage the undertaking.
The study discussed importance of procurance planning, procurance scheme and procurement legal issues and scheme associated with the undertaking and besides solicitation and beginning choice associate with the undertaking and how solicitation and beginning choice works in a undertaking.
The following thing discussed in this study is procurement monitoring and controlling and eventually how efficaciously the undertaking can shut with utilizing periodic reappraisal and station completion reappraisal.
Harmonizing to decision of this undertaking study, there are many recommendations on the overall undertaking. This portion of the undertaking concern on undertaking hazard and procurance system associated with the undertaking. This is a hard portion of any undertaking. The first thing that recommended in the undertaking is strong relationship between undertaking director and stakeholders, undertaking director and colleagues and co- worker and stakeholders.
To avoid the undertaking risk a friendly environment is really of import, project squads are ever work as a squad, this is an effectual manner of placing the hazard in the initial phase, if the hazard is identified in the beginning that will be easy to take appropriate action and opportunities distributing will be low.
To pull off the effectual procurance system undertaking director should hold strong relationship between providers contractors and all who affecting in extremely of import, this will assist to command the undertaking budget and project criterion.
If the undertaking director concern on above issues and take disciplinary action the undertaking will be a successful undertaking.
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hypertext transfer protocol: //library.books24x7.com.ezproxy.usq.edu.au/book/id_23407/viewer.asp? bookid=23407HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //library.books24x7.com.ezproxy.usq.edu.au/book/id_23407/viewer.asp? bookid=23407 & A ; chunkid=0152846403 ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //library.books24x7.com.ezproxy.usq.edu.au/book/id_23407/viewer.asp? bookid=23407 & A ; chunkid=0152846403 ” chunkid=0152846403
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