Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases and Drugs Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases and Drugs Axia University Instructor: Allen Meyer Date: July 31, 2010 Axia University Instructor: Allen Meyer Date: July 31, 2010 Avery Paco Avery Paco Schizophrenia, emotional disorders, Anxiety and Tourette’s syndrome are all classified as psychiatric disorders. There is a thin line between neuropsychological disorders and psychiatric disorders. Though the two types of disorders are a result of a dysfunctional brain, the brains malfunctions which create psychiatric disorders are blurry.
Furthermore, psychiatric disorders are linked to environmental forces and are thought to be, “all in the persons head. ” As researchers become educated on psychiatric disorders they are able to create treatments to alleviate the patient from the disease. The NIH & National Library of Medicine (2008) Web site defines Schizophrenia in five different categories: catatonic, disorganized, paranoid, residual, and undifferentiated. Each category has its own set of symptoms, but Schizophrenia as a whole creates a delusional picture of reality which disrupts the person’s behavior, logic and emotions.
MSN Movies (2009) Web site discusses the movie A Beautiful Mind which is about Noel Peace prize winner John Forbes Nash Jr. who suffered from a Paranoid Schizophrenia. Nash was a well renowned Mathematician. Throughout his life Nash struggled with his disease convincing himself he could conquer the illness. The disease raged within him, he had a hard time distinguishing what was real and unreal. Nash was certain the CIA needed his assistance so he went above and beyond to decipher codes for the CIA, neglecting his reality for this altered reality created in his mind.
Since John Nash’s era advances have been made to treat Schizophrenia. In the 1950’s and early 1960’s chlorpromazine was used on patients prior to surgery to alleviate swelling, the surgeon noticed the medicine acted as a relaxer to the patients and recommended chlorpromazine to relax hard to control psychotic patients. Though the Chlorpromazine did not calm the patients, the medicine showed potential on alleviating some symptoms in Schizophrenic patients. Throughout the research process Chlorpromazine brought side effects which are symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Researchers concluded that people suffering from Parkinson’s disease die from a minute level of dopamine. Schizophrenics display a high-level of dopamine. Therefore Parkinson’s and Schizophrenia seem to be on the opposite end of the spectrum. A breakthrough emerged in the dopamine theory with Carlsson and Lindqvist. The duo studied the Chlorpromazine in relation to Schizophrenia and revised the dopamine theory of Schizophrenia. Chlorpromazine was found to block dopamine receptors instead of the original theory of reducing dopamine levels.
Therefore, the duo concluded through research that Schizophrenia was not due to high-levels of dopamine, but with over activity at the dopamine receptors. (Pinel,2007) Neuroleptics and Antipsychotic drugs are known to alleviate symptoms associated with Schizophrenia. According to Pinel (2007), clozapine is a type of Neuroleptic that does not contain side effects associated with Parkinson’s disease. On the contrary the medication is known to cause blood disorders. Neuroleptic medication is used to block the dopamine receptors though it takes time for Schizophrenic symptoms to assuage.
Though Neuroleptics help Schizophrenics only certain patients benefit. Schizophrenic patients suffering from hallucinations and incoherence react to the medication. However; Schizophrenics suffering from cognitive defects are not affected. The NIH ; National Library of Medicine (2008) Web site mentioned atypical antipsychotics have proven to treat symptoms for Schizophrenia with few side effects and is the best option for those suffering with Schizophrenia. Emotional disorders are another form of a psychiatric disorder. Emotional disorders include: bipolar disorder, depression, and mania.
Depression is classified as a state of unbearable sadness. At some point in a person’s life one will encounter a period of depression due to a tragedy such as loss of a loved one, poor health, or a series of bad luck. However, most people will break through the gray cloud and find the sun shining bright. Those with depression have a hard time seeing anything than can be related to joy. Depression ruins relationships at work and in the home; the disease also takes over the person making it difficult to engage in a normal day-to-day routine. Mania is the opposite of depression and is linked to high energy and impulse.
A person suffering from mania appears to be full of red-bull and caffeine; they are filled with such enthusiasm and talk a mile a minute. Though it sounds like an exceptional thing to be constantly in a good spirits there is a negative side to the disorder. Impulsiveness is a part of mania and many suffers act on impulse not thinking before they do anything. The end result is unfinished projects, bills that cannot be paid, and relationships that are ruined. A person whom suffers from mania episodes and depression episodes is diagnosed with bipolar disorder. There are two theories created to explain the causes of emotional disorders.
According to Pinal (2007), “The monoamine theory of depression holds that depression is associated with under activity at serotonergic and noradrenergic synapses. It is based on the fact that monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are all agonists of serotonin, norepinephrine, or both. ” The second theory is Diathesis-Stress model. The second theory focuses on genetic predispositions of a person as well as environmental factors that influence the disorder.
This means that people who have stress early on will overreact to stressful situations later in life in turn causing depression. (Pinel, 2007) There are four types of medicine used to treat emotional disorders. Iproniazid is a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAO) initially used to treat tuberculosis but failed. On the contrary the patients did not have as many depressive thoughts about the illness. Iproniazid has several effects when combined with tyramine rich foods. Imipamine is a tricyclic anitdepressent which has proven to be more effective than MAO inhibitors. The next medication is Lithium which was shown to alleviate Mania symptoms.
The discovery was made when a researcher tested guinea pigs and the results proved to calm them. Lithium is used as a mood stabilizer in bi-polar patients since it blocks the patient from transitioning between extreme highs and lows. The fourth medicine used more commonly in recent years is selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The most common medicine is Prozac, Zoloft and Paxil. The SSRIs are recorded to have few side effects and are able to treat multiple disorders. (Pinel,2007) According to Pinel, (2007), “Anxiety is chronic fear that persists in the absence of any direct threat. Anxiety is accompanied by rapid heartbeat, heavy or difficulty breathing and high blood pressure. There are five types of anxiety disorders including: general anxiety, phobias, obsessive compulsiveness, panic, and post-traumatic stress. Theories involving anxiety disorders presume the amygdala has a role in anxiety disorders. The brains involvement in Anxiety is cloudy at best since each patient tested shows different results. (Pinel,2007) Benzodiazepines and Serotonin Agonists are the most effective medications used to combat anxiety.
Valium and Librium are benzodiazepines are most commonly used though they tend to make the patient sleepy. The medicine is also known to be highly addictive and is recommended only for short-term usage. Buspirone is a Serotonin Agonist which relaxes the body and causes sleepiness. (Pinel,2007) Tourettes syndrome is known for involuntary movement such as tics. The CEDARS-SINAI (2008) Web site, notes that the tics can vary between body movements as well as vocal tics. The tics can be a little as involuntary eye blinking or more noticeable is yelling obscene words.
Little is known as the cause for Tourettes however there is speculation that the limbic cortex, association cortex and thalamus are connected to the disorder. (Pinel, 2007) Since the cause is still a mystery there is no cure for Tourettes though counseling, relaxation therapy and hypnosis help treat the disorder. (CEDARS-SINAI. 2008). All in all, psychiatric disorders vary in many ways. Schizophrenia affects the brain and Causes hallucinations; emotional disorders affect a person’s mood in extreme ways; anxiety causes fear and health issues, and Tourettes causes tics ranging from subtle to severe.
Over-time advances have been made in effectively treating each disorder though many failures had to occur first. * References CEDARS-SINAI. (2008). Tourette’s syndrome. Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://www. csmc. edu/5540. html NIH & National Library of Medicine. (2008). Medical Encyclopedia: Schizophrenia. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000928. htm MSN Movies. (2009). A Beautiful Mind: Synopsis. Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://movies. msn. com/movies/movie-synopsis/a-beautiful-mind/ Pinel, J. P. J. (2007). Basics of biopsychology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.