ABSTRACT Topic: Quality of work life in a Manufacturing Industry Quality of Life is the extent of relationships between individuals and organizational factors that exists in the working environment. Quality of work life is the extent to which workers can satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organization. It is focusing strongly on providing a work environment conducive to satisfy individual needs.
It is assumed that if employees have more positive attitudes about the organization and their productivity increases, everything else being equal, the organization should be more effective. The present study will be conducted to examine the work related factors and demographic factors having relationship with the perception of quality of work life and to explore the relationship between quality of work and quality of life in a Manufacturing Industry located at Mysore. The work related factors are combined in six categories: Working environment * Welfare measures * Safety measures * Supervision * Workers Participation in decision making process * Intercommunication INTRODUCTION: Quality of life at work – should management care? Quality of life is a term we are hearing a great deal about at present. It has become an issue of concern in today’s world and in its broadest context is even on the Government’s agenda, one of the indicators being whether the number of sparrows in the environment is increasing or decreasing!
The idea of quality of life is even being extended to the workplace, but what does it mean and should senior managers – focused on the drive to reduce costs – actually care? And are there any good reasons to have a strategy to improve it? As our research – and that of others in the field – has clearly demonstrated, there are commercially sound reasons to put quality of life at work on the agenda – especially in the context of outsourcing.
The drive to reduce costs – and quality of life at work The effects of the drive among organisations to reduce costs – not just once but continually – are also clearly evident from our research and that of others. Downsizing, outsourcing, de-layering, closures, culture change and redundancy are continuing to have a massive impact on UK business organizations, and it is clear that they will continue to have a major impact on quality of life at work over the coming years.
There is a strong consensus among those researching the subject that organizational change is reducing employees’ sense of job security, motivation, loyalty – key criteria from the employees’ perspective in judging quality of life at work and their personal commitment to the organization Employer of first choice – working environment as a key differentiator There are sound commercial reasons to be concerned about quality of life at work, not least because it impacts on the company’s reputation as an employer.
At the same time as organizations drive to reduce costs, many have an openly articulated strategy to be a world-class employer – an ’employer of first choice’ in their sector. The drive to reduce costs is also often associated with a reduction both in the range and quality of support services in the workplace such as staff restaurant, health club, sports and social clubs, etc. Withdrawal or reduced commitment can have a major impact on staff morale, productivity and loyalty – and an impact on the company’s ability to attract the best and brightest.
With unemployment in the UK now below the headline-grabbing million mark, the lowest in Europe, there is increasing competition to attract the best recruits and retain existing staff; so more enlightened organizations are looking to their working environment as a key contributor to enhancing corporate reputation as a differentiator from their competitors. The employee as consumer Many organisations have high on the agenda the twin thrusts of reducing the costs associated with support services and, in parallel, increasing both the range of services and the quality of service delivery – two seemingly conflicting objectives.
In order to do this, many organisations are passing an increasing proportion ofthe cost of services, such as staff restaurant, retail shop, health clubs, etc onto the employee. Our research shows that there is a willingness among the employees of many leading organisations to be treated as a ‘consumer in the workplace’. There are many reasons for this, not least of which is the blurring of the line between work and home.
In a report published by the Industrial Society (2), the author expresses the opinion that ‘work is becoming more like home,’ in the sense that many facilities and services associated with life outside work are being provided by an increasing number of organisations in the workplace. A research confirms that in larger organizations (employing over 500 people) many employees are prepared to pay higher prices for services traditionally associated with the workplace, such as staff restaurant – and also for new, innovative services which improve quality of life at work.
These are services which blur the line between work and home – services not yet generally associated with the workplace – as wide ranging as car vale ting and maintenance in the staff car park, grocery shopping via a workplace internet cafe for delivery to the boot of the freshly valeted car, hairdressing /beauty treatment / manicure and personal training in the company fitness suite.
Key to providing these services is the outsourcing of the softer people services to a partner organization that understands the changing employee in the workplace – a partner organization which can be trusted to help deliver services that enhance the reputation of the client company through the proactive provision of support services at a level of quality and service delivery demanded by discerning employees.
After all, employees don’t stop being consumers once they are at their place of work. Literature Review: How Do Employees Perceive QWL? A number of researchers and theorists have been interested in the meaning of the QWL concept and have tried to identify the kinds of factors that determine such an experience at work (Dejamotte ; Talcezawa, 1984; Kalra ; Ghosh, 1984; Kahn, 1981; Seashore, 1976; Mirvis and Lawler, 1984; Lawler, 1982; Kerce and Booth-Kewley, 1993).
For example, Seashore (1975) stated that: A significant by-product of the approach to the quality of working life discussed has been the identification of those aspects of jobs and work environments that impact most strongly upon the job satisfaction, job performance, and life-long well being of those who are so employed. Table presents a summary of a number of previous studies indicating the various factors deemed to be of significance for employees. QWL Factors from previous research| Study| Factors Identified| | Work Environment| Employee Welfare|
Cooper (1980)| democracy| security equity individuation| Delamotte ; Takezawa (1984)| challenging work content traditional goals influence on decisions| fair treatment; work as part of life cycle| Davis (1983)| | equitable pay| Kahn (1981)| task content; supervision Resources; promotion; work conditions; organizational context| autonomy ; control; relations with co-workers; wages| Kaira ; Chosh (1984)| safe ; healthy working conditions; physical environment; absence undue work stress| employee welfare; job security| Kirkman (1981)| job mobility uantity ; quality of leisure time created by job| pay| Lippitt ; Rumley (1977)| organizational environment physical environment features of job itself| healthy social relations| Macarov (1951)| chance to advance| seniority| Meta (1982)| | job security| Mirvis ; Lawler (1980)| work environment| employee welfare| Walton (1974)| safe healthy work conditions opportunity to use abilities future growth opportunity constitutionalism work relevance to society| adequate ; compensation social integration| Quality of Life at Work – the Evidence
In mid-1999 we set ourselves the task of finding out: * the incidence of support services in the workplace, split by manufacturing and service companies; * what impact the provision of support services had on productivity, efficiency and loyalty, from the employee’s perspective; * how support services affected the employees’ view of quality of life at work; * how employees felt about being treated as a consumer in the workplace. This involved two large-scale, nationally representative surveys interviewing employees in their place of work.
In total, over 7000 people were interviewed between December 1999 and September 2000. Incidence of support services – manufacturing lags behind The manufacturing sector is the poor cousin when it comes to the provision of services. Where a company employs over 500 people and has a staff restaurant, the following is the incidence of an indicative range of services generally associated with the workplace: * staff restaurant / canteen| 100%| * office cleaning| 100%| * vending machines| 89%| * staff help-desk (IT, staff policies, etc)| 69%| stress counseling| 41%| * retail shop| 29%,| * gym| 24%| * creche / childcare facility| 11%| When these are split between manufacturing and service sectors, with the exception of cleaning and vending, there are very large differences between the incidences of these support services between the sectors, as the following table shows. | | Table 18. 1: Incidence of support services by company type| | % Incidence| Manufacturing Company Sites %| Service Company Sites %| Cleaning| 100| 100| 100| Vending| 89| 42| 58| Helpdesk| 69| 34| 66|
Stress Counselling| 41| 24| 76| Retail Shop| 29| 37| 63| Gym / Fitness Area| 24| 19| 81| Creche / Childcare| 11| 9| 91| | OBJECTIVES OF STUDY * To find out effects of quality of work life initiatives on employees. * To find out way to improve quality of work life. * To gain an insight into current working life policies and practices, as well as work-life balance issues. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: For achieving the objectives of study, survey was conducted. For survey, personal interviews of various managerial level employees were undertaken.
Personal interviews were selected as the mode of survey to make the study more meaningful ; so that maximum information could be collected. For conducting the personal interviews of the workers, a questionnaire was made. The questionnaire was structured with close ended questions. The Management was interviewed on various aspects likely to have impact on the quality of work life ; on the turnover of the employees viz. no. facilities provided to the employees, procedure for the promotions, increments in pay, bonus schemes incentive sector etc. iven to the employees. Sample Size: I have covered 30 workers. Types of Data: I have used primary as well as secondary data. Some data is been taken from internet, and some is gathered through questionnaire COMPANY PROFILE: KAYNES Technology established in the year 1988 in Mysore, delivers Total Manufacturing Solutions with integrated business verticals to cover the entire bandwidth of Electronic Manufacturing Services starting from Design Services thru Prototyping, Sourcing, Turnkey manufacturing and Support Services.
Company’s second manufacturing plant is operating at Parwanoo in Himachal Pradesh and third facility setup for Electro Mechanical products is operating at Selaqui in Dehradun. The company has been providing End- to- End Solutions to the organized sector in the field of IT Peripherals, Industrial Controls, Telecom, Energy, Medical Electronics, Defense Electronics to leading Companies such as Analog Devices Inc. , USA, Ansaldo Signal group of companies in USA/Europe, TVS Electronics Ltd. , WIPRO, Larsen ; Toubro Ltd. to name a few in the domestic market. KAYNES is an ISO 9001/14001/18001 and TS 16949/2002 certified company with capabilities in printed circuit board assembly and full box build combined with skill sets in testing ; development parts, for a quick turnaround and faster Time to Market and Order Fulfillment direct to users. It is having 100% Export Oriented Unit for Green Channel duty free import ; exports. Kaynes has an exclusive line for RoHS manufacturing and it is not just the “Lead free” manufacturing of PCB.
We have built up expertise beyond, to supply mechanical parts, finishes, transformers, cable sets, card cages, bare boards, heat sink parts, consumables, “Green Dot” packaging and even labeling of products which are RoHS compliant. Our Quality Policy responds to international standards and at the same time maintains the related laws ; regulations thereby satisfying the expectation of all the stake holders along the complete value chain in- line with our Vision.
Leveraging on the certifications and supported by state-of- the-art manufacturing facilities, we believe in manufacturing and quality philosophy of process orientation and improvements through Best Manufacturing Practices, 5S, SQC ; SPC, KAIZEN, TOC, 7 TOOLS and new tools of QC and Six Sigma practices. Our strengths in infrastructure, systems, skill sets and TQM practices enable us to be focused on High Mix, Low ; Medium Volume products along with value added services.
Flexible Models in manufacturing services allows our customers to focus on their core strengths with their Intellectual Property intact. Vision To be Globally competitive in the business we are in and achieve excellence through build up of strength in facility, system and skill sets resulting in satisfaction of our customers, suppliers and employees. Mission We at KAYNES shall create a niche in the Global Market and do value addition to our services year by year and provide service to our customers with integrity and continual improvement in the manufacturing technology.
Our Value System | * To maintain basic discipline and integrity, at all levels and at all times. * To respect individual skills and expertise independent of positions. * To value customers’ and suppliers’ feedback positively to leverage for all improvements. | QUALITY: Our quality policy statement responds to International Standards of ISO 9001:2000, ISO 14001:2004; OHSAS 18001, ISO / TS 16949 – 2002 and at the same time maintain the related laws ; regulations and satisfy the expectation of all the stake holders in-line with our mission.
Leveraging on the (Certifications) and supported by state-of-the-Art manufacturing facilities, we believe in manufacturing and quality philosophy of process orientation ; improvements through Best Manufacturing Procedures, 5S, SQC ; SPC, KAIZEN, TOC, 7 TOOLS and new tools of QC, Six Sigma practices. Processes are guided completely by IPC standards like configuring PCB assembly to IPC 610D; materials used in are in line with the J standard 001, 004, 005 and the like; cable assemblies to IPC WHMA 620, IQC of bare boards to IPC 600E and ESS testing to MIL 810E standards.
We have IPC trained professional developing processes for new products. Our quality management strategies include ESO audits, system audits, small group activities for work place improvement, customer feedback and CAPA audits and feedback from process experts. We believe in excellence through training our manpower on HR skills, International (Process) standards, manufacturing technology, quality, environmental safety management, training of RoHS and lead free process. All the quality management activities supported by world class facility and value- added services provide ultimate benefits to the customers like: * Reduced time-to-market Focus on core strength * IPs intact and safe * Better asset management * To be cost competitive * Offer the cutting edge of technology * RoHS compliance * Assured products (helped) with external warranty * Certification and Credits * ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, ISO / TS 16949 – 2002 certified * C-DOT approved for SMD manufacturing * Self-certified by two leading Indian companies * Audited and approved by experts from the USA QUESTIONNAIRE 1. How long have you been working for company? a) Less than one year b) One – Two years c) Two – Five years d) Five years or more 2.
The wage policies adopted by the company are, a) Excellent b) Good c) Satisfactory d) Unsatisfactory 3. The Organization gives you freedom to use your skills in your area of job. a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 4. The management gives you recognition for good results achieved a) Strongly Agree b)Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e)Strongly Disagree 5. How do you rate the medical reimbursement scheme provided by company? a) Excellent b) Good c) Satisfactory d) Unsatisfactory 6. How do you rate the transport facilities provided by the company? a) Excellent ) Good c) Satisfactory d) Unsatisfactory 7. How do you rate safety measures adopted by the company? a) Excellent b) Good c) Satisfactory d) Unsatisfactory 8. How do you rate the “suggestion scheme” implemented by the company? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 9. The Promotional policy in the company is, a) Excellent b)Good c)Satisfactory d) Unsatisfactory 10. The work timings of the organization are, a) Excellent b)Good c)Satisfactory d)Unsatisfactory 11. The motivation given at the work place by the supervisors/Senior Authority is, a) Excellent b)Good )Satisfactory d) Unsatisfactory 12. The relation with my immediate superior is, a) Excellent b) Good c) Satisfactory d) Unsatisfactory 13. The relation with my sub-ordinates is, a) Excellent b)Good c)Satisfactory d) Unsatisfactory 14. The job utilizes most of my skills and abilities, a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly Disagree 15. I am ready to take additional responsibilities with my job, a) Agree b) Disagree 16. The work environment is, a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d) poor 17. The job is Satisfactory, a) Agree b) Strongly Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly Disagree 18.
The company communicates the every new change that takes place. a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly Disagree 19. The feedback given to us about the work done by the supervisors is, a) Motivating b) De motivating c) Humiliating 20. The training provided in the company is, a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d) poor 21. The procedure followed for Job Rotation is, a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d) poor 22. The training programs should be conducted more extensively, a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly Disagree 23. The Welfare activities provided are, a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d)poor