rates of chemical reactions- lo3 questions Essay

Ratess of Chemical Reactions- LO3 Questions

1.1Two Grand-Pa tablets would hold the same consequence as one Grand-Pa pulverization this is because Grand-Pa Headache Tablets each contain, Aspirin: 226,8mg, Paracetamol: 162,0mg and Caffeine: 32,4mg where as Grand-Pa Headache Powders each contain Aspirin: 453,6mg, Paracetamol: 324,0 milligram and Caffeine: 64,8 milligram therefore to obtain the same dose of ingredients, twice the dose, therefore one would hold to take two tablets to be one pulverization.

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1.2Drinking them with warm H2O will let for a faster reaction rate therefore leting the consequence of the hurting slayer to work faster. Besides, if the pulverization is dissolved into a little sum of H2O so the solution will be more concentrated and will hence be able to acquire to work in a more effectual mode quicker, which will let for the pulverization to work quicker in alleviation of hurting.

1.3The granules in the pulverization have a larger combined surface country than that of a tablet, which consequences in a reaction with the H2O to be done quicker with the pulverization for, end point of the larger open surface country of the granules, more reactions occur/are allowed to happen at a quicker rate between the reacting atoms. The tablet, being comprised of compounded granules together, the hits between the reacting atoms is limited for the surface country of one whole tablet is less than the combined surface country of granules. Therefore less reactions are allowed/do occur, therefore the pulverizations provide faster alleviation than the tablets for they react faster with the H2O and therefore will work faster in providing hurting alleviation.

1.4Entire: 453.6mg+324.0mg+64.8mg=842.4mg

Aspirin: ( 453.6mg/842.4mg ) * 100/1=53.85 %

Paracetemol: ( 324.0mg/842.4mg ) *100/1=38.46 %

Caffeine: ( 64.8mg/842.4mg ) *100/1=7.69 %


Symptoms of Overdose

Aspirin:These include giddiness, tinnitus, sudating, sickness, purging, mental confusion, hyperventilation, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, ketonemia and depression of the cardinal nervous system. In kids serious marks of overdosage may develop quickly. May include: combustion hurting in the throat/stomach, confusion, mental/mood alterations, fainting, failing, pealing in the ears, febrility, rapid external respiration, alteration in the sum of piss, ictuss and loss of consciousness.

Paracetamol:Liver harm which may be fatal may merely look after a few yearss. Symptoms of overdosage include sickness and emesis. Acute poisoning causes kidney failure. Pallor, sickness, purging, anorexia and abdominal hurting. Liver harm may go evident 12 to 48 hours after consumption. Abnormalities of glucose metamorphosis and metabolic acidosis may happen.In terrible toxic condition:hepatic failure may come on to encephalopathy, bleeding, intellectual endema ( encephalon puffiness ) , and decease. Cardiac arrhythmias and pancreatitis have been reported.

Caffeine:Large doses may do restlessness, exhilaration, musculus shudder, tinnitus, scintillating scotoma, tachycardia, extrasystoles, restlessness, jitteriness, exhilaration, insomnia, flushed face, umlaut ( frequent micturition ) , GI perturbation, musculus vellications, joging flow of idea and address, tachycardia or cardiac arythmia ( fluctuating bosom forms ) , periods of inexhaustibility ( uninterrupted consciousness ) and psychomotor agitation ( problem sitting still and being composure ) .

1.6I would rede them non to, because they are already coffee nuts they are likely taking in a batch of caffeine already therefore to take the Grand-Pa pulverizations would increase their hazard of an overdose. It besides has the ability to heighten the effects of paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acids so non merely will the caffeine have an consequence on the individual ‘s organic structure in an overdose state of affairs, but the other contents of the Grand-Pa pulverizations, viz. the acetylsalicylic acid and the paracetamol will besides hold an consequence on the organic structure, and the combination of all three of them in an overdose state of affairs will ensue in certain kidney failure and decease resultantly.

2.1The surface country of wood flour is great, because it is composed of grains which are really little this would do for a big, sudden explosive consequence should the coffin nail ignition come into contact with the wood flour. The concentration of the reactants ( the wood flour ) is great holding the granules that are really little and in hemorrhoids together. Should the ignition/flame from the coffin nail come into contact with the hemorrhoids of the wood flour an explosive consequence, end point of the concentration of the wood flour. The application of the heat to the hemorrhoids of wood flour will ensue in the reaction, for the addition in heat will ensue in a reaction and will work in providing the sudden reaction of the wood flour parts. The smoke of a coffin nail is besides banned because coffin nail ash can function as a accelerator and when coming into contact and blending with wood flour it can go a extremely volatile blend. The proprietors of these Millss do non wish to lose their supply and suffer amendss to their installations therefore ; they prohibit people from smoking or conveying fire or ignited stuff into the factory.

A dust detonation is the explosive burning of a dust suspended in air in an enclosed location, which consequences in harmful effects of overpressure, thermic radiation, and resulting missiles. Many stuffs which are normally known to burn can bring forth a dust detonation, such as coal, sawdust, and Mg. However, many otherwise everyday stuffs can besides take to a unsafe dust cloud such as grain, flour, sugar, powdered milk and pollen. Mining of coal leads to char dust and flour Millss similarly have big sums of flour dust as a consequence of milling. A similar job occurs in proverb Millss and other topographic points dedicated to carpentry. The dust must besides dwell of really little atoms, where the surface country is really big, and so will back up burning. Dust is defined as pulverizations with atoms less than approximately 500 micrometres in diameter, but finer dust will show a much greater jeopardy than harsh atoms by virtuousness of the larger surface country.

There are five necessary conditions for a dust detonation:

  1. A combustible dust ;( Flour or Wood Flour )
  2. The dust is suspended in the air at a proper concentration ;( Possible )
  3. There is an oxidizer ( typically atmospheric O ) ;( Possible )
  4. The dust is confined ;( Yes )
  5. There is an ignition beginning.( Provided by coffin nail )

Therefore there is a high hazard of a dust detonation already and the coffin nail would merely finish the necessary conditions by supplying an ignition beginning.

2.2.1Use of Oxidant Concentration Reduction

Use of Deflagration venting through a dust keeping and flame-arresting device

2.2.2Use of Deflagration venting

Use of Deflagration force per unit area containment

Use of Deflagration suppression

Use of masks to guarantee the decrease of the inspiration of the wood flour.


1.As an absorbent

Absorbent qualities are utilized in cleansing agents to take unwanted H2O, oils, or lubricating oils from such articles as delicate machinery parts, jewelry, and pelts, or to transport cleaning, toxicant, or other chemical agents to an object. In the industry of dynamite, the utmost sensitiveness of the explosive agent can be reduced to safe degrees by solidifying the liquid nitro-glycerine by absorbing it in a solid medium such a3 wood flour.

2.As cosmetic stuff

Wood flour is used decoratively in the production of “oatmeal” and “velvet” wallpapers, where ornament by design and texture is provided by wood flour, coloured as desired, onto a prepared paper breaker one.

3.1Iron( a porous Fe accelerator prepared by cut downing magnetic iron-ore, Fe3O4 )

Osmium is a much better accelerator for the reaction but is really expensive.

3.2A accelerator such as an Fe accelerator is used to rush up the reaction by take downing the activation energy so that the N2 bonds and H2 bonds can be more readily broken. The accelerator has no affect whatsoever on the place of the equilibrium. Adding a accelerator does n’t bring forth any greater per centum of ammonium hydroxide in the equilibrium mixture. Its lone map is to rush up the reaction. In the absence of a accelerator the reaction is so slow that virtually no reaction happens in any reasonable clip. The accelerator ensures that the reaction is fast plenty for a dynamic equilibrium to be set up within the really short clip that the gases are really in the reactor. Catalysts lower the activation energy in a reaction by keeping atoms onto their surface and indicating them into the right way for a merchandise to organize, which in this instance is Ammonia. This accelerator, Iron ( Fe3O4 ) , is used for it is ideal for leting the N ( N2 ( g ) ) and H ( 3H2 ( g ) ) reactants to respond and organize the merchandises which entails Ammonia ( 2NH3 ( cubic decimeter ) ) quickly.

3.3Ammonia ; NH3 ( cubic decimeter )

3.4 Fertilizer: Approximately 83 % ( as of 2003 ) of ammonium hydroxide is used as fertilisers either as its salts or as solutions. Devouring more than 1 % of all semisynthetic power, the production of ammonium hydroxide is a important constituent of the universe energy budget.

Cleansing agent: Household ammonium hydroxide is a general intent cleansing agent that can be used on many surfaces. Because ammonia consequences in a comparatively streak-free radiance, one of its most common utilizations is to clean glass, porcelain and chromium steel steel. It is besides often used for cleansing ovens and soaking points to loosen baked-on or caked-on dirt.

As a fuel: Ammonia was used during World War II to power coachs in Belgium, and in engine and solar energy applications prior to 1900. Liquid ammonium hydroxide was used as the fuel of the projectile aeroplane, the X-15. Although non every bit powerful as other fuels, it left no carbon black in the reclaimable projectile engine and its denseness about matches that for the oxidant, liquid O, which simplified the aircraft ‘s design.


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