Europe has strong ties with the North African states which were strengthened through the historical events, peculiarly with the Maghreb. After the Barcelona Process and the creative activity of the planetary Mediterranean partnership, the EU North-African dealingss were opened to an functionary and productive cooperation. However, one could non sabotage the dealingss between the EU and some major states in North Africa prior to the 1995 particularly Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. These three states have historical dealingss with the EU particularly with former colonisers France and Spain. The EU-North African relationship can be traced back to the sixtiess and 1970s by the sign language of economic understandings which were the footing of the new partnership. ; for case, the 1975 conference of security and cooperation between Europe and the Mediterranean states that took topographic point in Helsinki. The being of the European norms and values in the political relations and determination devising of the Maghreb states helped both sides to develop a longstanding relationship. Additionally, the Moroccan foreign policies were more directed toward Europe than any other part because of the colonial invasion. This paper will analyse the EU North Africa dealingss and the principles behind the cooperation, but before that I will give a theoretical account of the nature of the relationship.
Specifying the Relationship
In the literature of the EU North African dealingss, the construct of dependance is applicable because of the nature of the North-South dealingss between the two parties. The asymmetrical nature of the partnership made the North African states more depending on the EU than the other manner around. “ Dependency is a state of affairs in which the economic system of certain states is conditioned by the development and enlargement of another economic system to which the former is subjected ” [ 1 ] . In other words, the dependance of one side is much greater than that of the other side [ 2 ] which consequences in a domination and development of the centre ( North ) to the fringe ( South ) . As a consequence of this cooperation, North Africa is traveling to roll up a much greater costs if the relationship breaks up because the Maghreb exports 67 % and imports 65 % of their entire trade from the EU while the latter exports 2.4 % and imports 2.3 % from their entire mean [ 3 ] . Despite these differences and the insecurity of the Maghreb economic system, the EU has besides major involvements in the part which push some bookmans and research workers to reason that it ‘s a mutuality based relationship. In the undermentioned subdivision, The economic system including agricultural merchandises and energy resources in add-on to such pertainig issues such as commanding migration and terrorist act are the EU principles to be discussed in inside informations in the undermentioned subdivision.
EU rationales behind the cooperation
European Union rationales vis a vis North African cooperation have different dimensions. The Barcelona Process is one of the major stages that strengthened the EU-North African association although it was a confined to. To understand the grounds behind the European involvement in North Africa, one should travel back to the Euro-Mediterranean conference that took topographic point in Barcelona in 1995 taking at bettering the European Union partnership with the Mediterranean states both the Mashriq and Maghreb. However, due to the US force per unit area on the EU intercession in the Arab-Israeli struggle as a consequence the EU focal point its dealingss on North Africa. The first aim which is the major rational behind EU involvement in North Africa is contending political Islam and terrorist act in the part. Harmonizing to the EU authorities this partnership will make peace and security in the part and hence prevent the rise of extremist Islam in North Africa. The regard of the human rights declaration and the acceptance of democratic values in the part was the surface behind the cooperation. However, the concealed involvement was the fright from the spillover of the Islamist motion and terrorist activities into Europe through migration. The EU concern was to command the part to forestall terrorist act from taking topographic point in the European dirt. The first chief failure to accomplish this end was the 1995 and 1996 terrorist onslaught in Paris that was the consequence of the Gallic support to the Algerian government which was against the FIS ( Islamist Opposition Movement ) , this event is one of the failure of the partnership to protect the European Security [ 4 ] The European were interested in the creative activity of a Free Trade Zone and to develop an economic web with North Africa in order to better the economic sector and production of the Mediterranean states with an emphasize on Maghreb. However, this involvement was good for both parts because it enabled the EU to entree easy the natural resources and agricultural merchandises in North Africa and it helped this latter to export its manufactured goods to the international market. However, if we look at the transit cost North Africa is non profiting every bit much as the EU because of the type of trade goods exported ; for case, the merchandises exported to the EU are much more dearly-won than the 1s imported in footings of transit ( phosphates vs engineering ) . Trade liberalisation in the part was another factor behind the European partnership. This end has been reached in 2000 more specifically in ” the Agadir Declaration ofMay 8, 2001, in which the authoritiess ofEgypt, Morocco, and Tunisia made a committedness to regional trade liberalisation. “ [ 5 ]
The literatures on this subject argue that the EU foreign policy vis a vis North Africa was taking at advancing human rights, democracy, development in the part. The EU is considered the largest giver in the universe sing supplying assistance particularly to North Africa and one of the largest importers of North African agricultural merchandise ( 67 % of the entire export of the Maghreb Region ) . Based on these elements, the EU is utilizing a soft power scheme to advance their policies and involvements in the part which are more about security and economic than the publicity of human rights and democracy in the part.
The purpose of the European Union in holding partnership or association with the Mediterranean states peculiarly the North-African states is to act upon the policies of these states for the EU ‘s benefits. Harmonizing to Youngs commanding North Africa and advancing EU ‘s political orientations and political relations was a manner to demo its power over these part and more loosely the Mediterranean states [ 6 ] . The strong influence of the US in the Middle East and the failure of the EU intercession in this part particularly in the Arab-Israeli struggle pushed the European Union to advance its political orientations and full influence on North Africa. Illegal migration from the South is going a important phenomenon in the European Community. Sub-saharan Africans are utilizing North African states as a span to Europe which starts making serious jobs sing employment and security particularly in Spain and France. Harmonizing to the realist school this cooperation is chiefly to beef up EU laterality alternatively of constructing a part which can be explained by the reluctance of the EU to coerce Euro-Mediterranean partnership aims in footings of democracy and human rights [ 7 ] . However, the undermentioned subdivision analyzes North African principles and chief involvements behind the cooperation with the European Union.
North -African Rationales
Economic involvement is the major rational behind Maghreb dealingss with the European Union. European roots existed in North Africa since the colonisation clip peculiarly in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Since that clip the Maghreb part has been beef uping its dealingss with the European Union through understandings and trade cooperation. Tunisia and Morocco were considered emerging states in footings of exports because of the addition of their entire exports to Europe [ 8 ] . In add-on to the benefits that the Maghreb is making from trade with European Union ( 67 % of Maghreb exports ) it ‘s besides making a fragile and insecure economic construction for the part. This can be explained by the economic orientation of the Maghreb towards Europe. The economic involvement of the Maghreb started to be realized in 1969 when the EC signed a trade understanding with Morocco and Tunisia. The major facet qualifying the EU- Maghreb dealingss was independent dialogues which did non set the Maghreb states in a symmetrical place. Bettering links with Europe was another rational behind the Euro-Maghreb dealingss that resulted in the creative activity of the UMA to hold more weight and negociate jointly with the EU. European fiscal support was major end for North Africa ; nevertheless, between 1995 and 1999 the Mediterranean part received merely five milliards dollars which represent 90 million dollars for each state and most of this fiscal aid went to Egypt and Turkey because for Algeria this fund represent merely some few yearss of oil production [ 9 ] . The literature vis a vis the principles behind the cooperation were more about economic for North Africa. Tunisia and Morocco had the strongest ties with EU as consequence Morocco was the 2nd state subscribing the Euro-Med understanding with the EU after Tunisia. Attracting foreign investing and European assistance to the part was another factor behind the economic involvements of the Maghreb. After the decolonisation procedure the part was developing, as a consequence Maghreb states started a procedure of societal, political, and chiefly economic reforms as a consequence some states in North Africa peculiarly Morocco, strengthened its ties with the EU for some political and societal grounds. North African states were negociating independently with the EU to pull political support for their ain internal issues. Under the context of democratisation and human rights, Morocco is the 2nd big receiving system of EU fiscal support in North Africa because of the societal and political reforms that the state has experienced during the last few old ages. Social development becomes another involvement of Maroc dealingss with Europe as a consequence the EU contributes by 47 % from the Moroccan entire foreign assistance budget. The North African involvement of the cooperation spread out to societal and political involvements. The EU is non satisfied with some North African states political reforms such as Tunisia and Algeria but still merchandise and foreign assistance toward these states are non impacted which could clearly explicate the security ground behind the European cooperation with the Maghreb. The partnership started by an economic involvement of Europe in the Maghreb However, after the expansion of the EU, security and political instability become the major cause behind European involvement. After the expansion of the EU, The involvement of North African states in trading with EU was negatively wedged because of the rise of fight from the Eastern European axis particularly in agricultural merchandises.
To some extent Algeria had some limited cooperation with the EU due to the political instability in the state. Algeria was one of the North African states that refused to accept the European clause of democracy and human rights of the Barcelona Process. Algeria was non interested in international cooperation every bit much as work outing its ain internal jobs. On the other manus, Algeria had chiefly an economic involvement behind the EU-Maghreb cooperation because it did non accept any European political advice although they were threatened by the EU to diminish the foreign assistance and even win in seting force per unit area on the EU to take conditionality on assistance. Algeria had a great possible six a six energy which made France really flexible sing their dealingss. The EU-Algerian cooperation started to worsen due to the reluctance of Algeria to follow the economic and political reforms. The EU peculiarly France started to go less independent on Algerian energy resources after replacing this latter Russian gas and Norse oil. After 2000, Algeria had reduced to some extent the political instability and Islamic menace in the state. To sum up, the North African states had economic involvements behind the cooperation with the EU. However, this involvement has been developed to the extent that it became besides societal, political and secure. The rise of terrorist act in the part non merely threatened the Europe Union but besides the political governments and the publicity democracy in North Africa, as a consequence European fiscal assistance sing peace and security became extremely indispensable and appreciated by North African states. In footings of societal development, developing states rely on foreign assistance because development for them is more foreign than internal issue. However, and since all North African states are non plenty developed, foreign assistance become the major grounds behind the partnership at least for Morocco and Tunisia. From a North African position trade and foreign assistance are the chief principles behind the partnership and for the EU it is more about security due to the fright from the spillover of terrorist act to European states. In conformity with the EU accent on security, the International universe criticized the EU for being supportive to the dictatorship in the Maghreb part in order to command the political Islam.
From a European position the EU North Africa dealingss are hard to spot because different restraints such as Islam and terrorist act prevent it from booming. In general, the EU is really flexible sing its dealingss with the North African states because they do non utilize difficult power or push authoritiess for political and economical reforms ( the instance of Algeria ) , they merely put these principals at the surface of their dealingss to accomplish their chief aims. Frankly, the EU has made some advancement in accomplishing their ends because now cloak-and-dagger in-migration is more controlled by the North African states and there is a dramatic addition in the flow of the European investors to the part. After analysing both parts interested in the EU North-Africa cooperation, one could chew over that we have a European laterality over the part exemplified by the flow of foreign assistance and direct foreign investings in North Africa peculiarly to Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria. From a realist position it is an mutuality relationship. However, from a capitalist and economic point of position it is an asymmetric relationship. Regionalization of the Maghreb is one of the grounds behind this dependence, because each state in North Africa is covering with the EU independently. However, I do believe that it is a win-win state of affairs because the EU is indirectly run intoing its involvements through direct investings which will open more occupation chances in the part and hence cut down the flow of migration to Europe. The foreign assistance investing brings benefit to the EU excessively because of the inexpensive labour market. Harmonizing to Youngs democratisation and human rights principals become adopted in North Africa until the EU started funding undertakings sing those issues ; nevertheless, still we are far from being democratic provinces.
Books and articles
Ahmed Aghout, Nature, Characteristics and Determinants, Ashgate, 2000
Beverley Crawford, the impact of the EU expansion on the Euro-Med Partnership, denim Monnet/Robert Schuman Paper Series, Vol.5 No.23 EU committee 2005
Chabi, Amine. Devloping Maroc -Eu copperation: the Advanced position. Al Akhawayn University Students Research Papers Series, No. 23, 2004.
Khaliq, Urfan. Ethical Dimentions of the Foreign Policy of the European Union. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Mario Telo European Union and New Regionalism, Ashgate, 2002
Moussis, Nicholas. Guide to European Policies. Eiropean Study Service, 2007.
Rapport General sur l`activite de l`Union Europeenne 2007. Commission Europeenne, 2008.
Riffi, Bouhout El Mellouki. La politique Francaise de Cooperation avec les Etats du Maghreb 1955-1987. Published/Toubkal, 1989.
Youngs, the European Union and the publicity of democracy, Oxford University Press, 2001
Agn & A ; eacute ; s Chevallier, Francoise Lemoine, Laurence Nayman, L’Union europ & A ; eacute ; enne et SA P & A ; eacute ; riph & A ; eacute ; rie: effects de l’integration commercial, Revue & A ; eacute ; conomique vol.50, N & A ; deg ; 6, novembre 1999 retreived from www.jstor.com
Ahmed Aghrout and Keith Sutton, Regional Economic Union in the Maghreb Vol 28, No.1, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 1990.
Barcelona Declaration and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. Europa sum-ups of EU statute law 2005 retreived from hypertext transfer protocol: //europa.eu/legislation_summaries/external_relations/relations_with_third_countries/mediterranean_partner_countries/r15001_en.htm
Fathallah Oualalou, La Communaut & A ; eacute ; Economique Europ & A ; eacute ; enne et le Maroc, Vol.17, No.2 Institute of African Affairs at GIGA, Hamburg/Germany, 1982.
Smail Goumeziene, Euro Maghreb entre deux Eaux, Alegria Watch Paris, 2002