Hong Kong is a little metropolis with a really congest urban environment. Construction works inherently require working following to heavy traffic route, impermanent constructions, utilizing heavy building works or working at considerable highs. As a consequence, the building environment is filled with tonss of possible jeopardies. Furthermore, no two undertakings are precisely the same and workers are hence faced with ever-changing occupation natures and working environment. That is the ground which makes building as holding a high accident rate with a high human death ratio.
Reasonable authorities statute law will decidedly assist to control down the growing of such statistics. The Factories and Industrial Undertaking Ordinance ( FIUO ) and the Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance ( OSHO ) are the current statute law in Hong Kong with really ambitious aims of both raising the criterions of site safety and wellness for all individuals at work, and protection of the populace, whose safety and wellness are put at hazard by the activities of individuals at work. Under these two Regulations, each party including the authorities, the Client, the professional advisor – the Designer and the Engineer Representative, the chief Contractor, the sub-contractor and the employees has their ain duties for safety in a building undertaking.
The Client and the Government ( Reasonable Resources and Time, Plans on Safety )
The client, such as the Government novices and finances the undertaking. The general responsibility on clients is to guarantee the wellness, safety and public assistance at work of their employees. Before the execution of the undertaking, the client should let equal clip for the planning and the design of the plants. Very frequently, if the plan is unreasonably tight, many safety facets of the plants are ever overlooked and this should be avoided. The client should recognize that disbursals on site safety steps are indispensable and let a generous budget to safety facets.
In one of my building undertaking: Reconstruction and Improvement of Tuen Mun Road Sam Shing Hui Section ( TMRSSH ) , the client, Highways Department, has adopted the “ Pay for Safety Scheme ” as a committedness to pay for the safety-related points. This strategy is already a conventional tool in a Public Works Project in Hong Kong. With the counsel of the Construction Site Safety Manual and the Construction Site Safety Handbook, it has helped to accomplish the ends as to concentrate a high precedence to safety and his professional advisers, the Designer and the Contractor on the importance of safety.
And as a Government, harmonizing to the safety public presentation of the public works undertaking, it has reached a uninterrupted betterment on the Numberss of accidents in these old ages since following this strategy. By sing this successful strategy, I suggest to advance this strategy to the private developer, such as the execution of this strategy inside the Safety Regulation and Ordinance
The Professional Adviser – Engineer ( Reasonable Design and Preventation )
a. Interior designer
The interior decorator, such as Advisers carries out elaborate planning and design of the undertaking. His duty towards the client is to plan the plants that satisfy the functional demands, safety demands and fiscal committedness of the client. He is responsible for the adequate and safety of his design. He must therefore take safety into history along with costs, agendas and quality in his design. If safety is non planned into the occupation, it will non be at that place. The design applied scientist should non be afraid of negociating with the client for alterations in the original agenda and costs if these alterations are required on safety footing.
In fixing contract paperss, the design applied scientist can enforce limitations on the sequence of plants and pull the Contractor ‘s attending towards potentially unsafe operations. The specifications can include clauses necessitating the usage of safety equipment and the acceptance of safety working methods.
Furthermore, the tenderers can be asked to subject along with their method statement or impermanent work design for rating. The working method is peculiarly of import in guaranting safety in incline stabilisation undertakings.
In my experience, as a professional design applied scientist, he shall ever liable to guaranting the building site safety when following his design on to the plants. In some of my old undertakings, specified preliminary building methods and impermanent plants design for a really complex building work such as span building, shall besides be provided in the stamp drawings. These sorts of attacks can be promoted as one of the attack for safety during the design phase. As to advance the site safety, actively engagement of the design applied scientist shall be a good pattern to decide the design job as to accommodate the safety demand on site.
B. Engineer Representative ( ER ) – ( Inspection of Implementation )
The ER is the client ‘s professional representative during the building of the undertaking. His chief responsibility is to guarantee that the plants are executed in conformity with the Contract. Although hello is non straight responsible for the safety of the operations on the building site, he is however responsible to the client for guaranting that the plants are being carried out in a safe mode. Furthermore, there is ever a responsibility of attention that the Engineer owes to all site forces and the general populace in this respect.
Sing the supervising of building, the ER should from clip to clip stress to his staff of the importance in look intoing the contractor ‘s conformity of safety demands. Under fortunes, he can exert his power to suspend the advancement of a portion or the whole of the plants. The Contractor can merely restart advancement after he has taken necessary action to rectify the safety conditions.
As an Assistant Resident Engineer of TMRSSH undertaking and as a Professional Engineer, I believe that action shall ever be taken from myself and affect others in the consideration of Site Safety. Due to site status, the ER shall besides see the safety impact to the populace. In TMRSSH undertaking, the ER has adopted the Speed Reduction of Tuen Mun Road as a consideration to the route safety due to the impact of the Works. Promotion to public such as manners on Tuen Mun Road, the Notice to the District Council Members and Residents in Tuen Mun has been adopted. This type of publicity can truly warn the route drivers about the impacts during the building.
The Main Contractor ( Implementation & A ; Control of labours )
Upon come ining into the Contract, the chief contractor undertakes to finish the plants in conformity with the demands f the contract. Harmonizing to the OSHC, the chief contractor has the duties to guarantee that his activities do non jeopardize anybody and to supply information to the public about any possible jeopardies to wellness and safety. The chief contractor shall take full duties for the safety of all site operations and individuals entitled to be on site in conformity to the General Condition of Contract ( GCC ) . Furthermore, the contractor should guarantee that the work that they are making will non harm people who are non under their employment. He is besides responsible for all 3rd party amendss caused by his operations. The chief contractor shall supply workss, safety equipments, safety officer and oversee the sub-contractor to transport out the plants.
The impermanent work interior decorator employed by the Contractor shall guarantee that the impermanent work is safe when used in conformity with information supplied by him. It is normally the contractor to plan and oversee the hard-on of impermanent plants.
There is a common pattern in Hong Kong that the chief contractor shall supply at least one safety officer who must be full-time on site and is responsible for the safety of all site activities. The workface to safety officer ratio shall be kept to a sensible degree and refer to demand of the FIUO, so that sufficient figure of safety officers are available to guarantee the safety on site. The safety officers shall maintain all work topographic points and entree healthy and safe. Safety classs should be arranged to teach and develop the work force in the safety facets of working on site.
In my on the job experiences with different Contractors, the direct publicity of site safety from the Contractor to the workers is really of import. Base on the Contractor ‘s safety program, equal preparation to the workers and the pre-works briefings are really utile tools to minimise the accident rates on site.
In the building, the sub-contractor has to implement the safety ordinances, command his labor and obey the chief contractor ‘s direction. He should pay peculiar attending to the safety facets of impermanent plants design at his ain discretion. He should besides emphasize to his staff on the importance of working harmonizing to the sanctioned design.
Based on the OSHO, a responsibility on anybody responsible for topographic points of work to guarantee that the premises themselves, every bit good as works and machinery in them, do non jeopardize people utilizing them. Therefore, the sub-contractor shall ever keep his works in good conditions and employ good trained forces to run them. In add-on, illuming and guarding must be provided in the site for impermanent plants.
In general, workers are ever the victims every bit good as subscribers of accidents on building sites. Majority of accidents can really be attributed to workers non detecting the safety regulations. The responsibilities on employees are to take sensible attention to guarantee that they do non jeopardize themselves or anyone else who may be affected by their work activities ; and to collaborate with employers and others in run intoing statutory demands. Therefore, to protect themselves from danger on site, the work force shall purely obey any safety ordinances and follow the right manner of utilizing the works and equipment as specified in the user manuals. He besides has to obey the instructions given by safety officers and confer with them whenever is necessary.
Promotion on building site safety and accident bar are uninterrupted and hard procedure which demands commitment signifier all those involved in the building industry. If all parties concerned are cognizant of their ain portion of duties and dispatch their responsibilities decently and hand in glove, the safety on building sites can be maintained. Effective publicity methods to the site workers and public shall ever take action from the direction staff of the Contractor, the Engineer, the Client and the Government.