(1) Define Sir Walter Raleigh and the Lost Colony of Roanoke and the purpose of English colonization. Towards the end of the 16th century, the English began to think more seriously about North America as a place to colonize: as a market for English goods and a source of raw materials and commodities such as furs. The English started to realize that colonizing the new world would bring England many advantages and would help Brittan better compete with Spain, England’s economic rival at the time. The New World would also provide a place to send the English poor and put them to better use where they could contribute to the nation’s wealth.
England’s first attempt to settle North America came a year prior to its victory over the Spanish armada in 1587, when Sir Walter Raleigh sponsored a settlement on Roanoke Island, which is now known as North Carolina. By 1590 the colonists disappeared after three years elapsed without supplies from England during the Anglo-Spanish War, and so it became known as The Lost Colony. (2) Define John Cabot’s and England’s claim to North America and England’s purpose for exploration. John Cabot was an Italian explorer who ended up in England around the 1490’s.
Cabot believed you can reach Asia by taking a western route that was more northerly than Columbus’s. He started his expedition in 1497 and landed in the new world or what he believed was East Asia. He returned to England and gained much fame. He was considered a hero allover England. He then went on a second expedition in 1498 to try and find a direct route to china but was unsuccessful and sadly did not return. After seeing the riches Cortes brought back from South America England wanted a piece of it and so they set out to explore the New World.
England looked to compete with Spain, its economic rival of the time. Also England wanted to find an easier route to Asia which it can use to import items form china directly instead of having to trade with Arab and Venetian merchants. (3) Define Richard Hakluyt’s Discourse on Western Planting and how it encouraged colonization in North America. Before any attempt to colonize America there were many people who believed that taking a chance to colonize the New World would bring many benefits to England. These people included Sir Walter Raleigh and his cousin Richard Hakluyt.
To support Sir Walter Raleigh’s idea of colonizing Roanoke, Hakluyt wrote a report, which is known as The Discourse on the Western Planting. It was written to convince Elizabeth I to grant Raleigh a charter to explore America so England could benefit from the riches that awaited them. The report contained interviews with captains and sailors that returned from their voyages from the New World. Hakluyt would edit some of these quotations in order to exaggerate how fantastic the New World was and emphasize how the land was great for farming and had many resources.
This was all done to convince Elizabeth I that the New World was worth colonizing. (4) Define Jamestown as the first colony in 1607, Captain John Smith and the House of Burgesses. After the failed attempt of settling the Roanoke region the English did not try to create another settlement until 1607, when they settled Jamestown. Jamestown was funded by a joint stock company, a group of investors who bout the right to establish New World plantations from the king. The company was called the Virginia Company. Jamestown almost failed just as the Lost Colony had.
The settlers, who were mostly men, were poorly suited to the many changes of the new world. John Smith, served president of the Jamestown colony from 1608 to 1609, he required the colonists to work and traded with the Indians for food. One can say that the colony survived because of Captain John Smith’s leadership. Captain John Smith imposed very harsh military like law. His motto was ‘he who will not work shall not eat. ” Things got so bad for the colonists that during the Starving time of 1609 to 1610 some resorted to cannibalism, while others abandoned the settlement and joined Native American tribes.
Smith later left and mapped out New England The colony would have perished without the help of the Powhatan confederacy, who taught the colonists what crops to plant, how to plant them, and when to plant them. Jamestown’s prospects brightened when John Rolfe introduced the cash crop tobacco. Tobacco was a large success in England and its success largely determined the fate of the Virginia area. In 1619 Virginia established the House of Burgesses. Any property holding, white male was allowed to vote. Although in the House of Burgesses people could vote on decisions all decisions to be made had to be approved by the Virginia Company. 5) Define Henry Hudson and the Dutch claim to New Amsterdam in 1609. In 1607 Henry Hudson was employed to discover a Northeastern Passage to China. His plan was to travel thorough the Arctic waters north of Russia in order to reach China. Hudson’s first voyage was unsuccessful. It was believed that because the sun was present for three months in the north latitudes, the ice would thaw and Hudson’s ships could travel north of Russia to China. This turned out to be incorrect and cause Hudson major problems and so he was forced to turn back. The Muscovy Company set Hudson out to make a second attempt to discover a Northeastern Passage to China.
But again Hudson had to turn back because of the icy conditions of the artic. The Company refused Hudson’s request for another voyage, claiming it futile since they did not trust his abilities as a navigator anymore. With nothing left for him in England Hudson went to the Dutch looking for someone to sponsor his next expedition. In 1608 the Dutch East India Company sponsored him and gave him another chance to discover a passage to china. At first Hudson headed north east but after seeing the same conditions that had faced him before he quickly turned back and headed for North America to find a northwestern passage.
Hudson first reached the Chesapeake Bay and soon realized that the waterway he was traveling on would not lead to the Pacific. Hudson then moved into New York Harbor and went all the way up to present day Albany. He traveled through what is known today as the Hudson River. While exploring New York he traded with Natives for their furs and beads. Though he was soon captured by English officials word of his discovery reached the Dutch. The Dutch were excited by the fur market that they hoped to open up in the New World. Hudson’s voyage established the
Dutch’s claim to the region and start of fur trade. The land Hudson discovered was named New Netherland. (6) Define and explain William Bradford, the Puritans, the Separatists, the Mayflower Compact, Plymouth Colony, and the simple life of the Puritans. During the sixteenth century, English Calvinists led a protestant movement called Puritanism. Their goal was to purify the Anglican church of Roman Catholic practices. English monarchs of the early seventeenth century persecuted the puritans, and so they looked for a new place to practice their faith.
One puritan group called the Separatists, who wanted to completely separate from the church because of corruption, left England around this time and headed for Holland. In his classic History of Plymouth Plantation, William Bradford, the Pilgrim leader, explains why the Pilgrims decided to leave the Netherlands in 1619 and establish a new community in the New World. In 1620 they set sail for Virginia but their ship went of course and they landed in present day Massachusetts. They settled there and decided to call the settlement Plymouth.
While on board their ship, the may flower the settlers signed and agreement that established a “body politic” and a basic legal system for the colony. This agreement was called the Mayflower Compact. This agreement is important because it was important not only because it created a political system but that it insisted that the government’s power derives from the people who are being governed and not from god as monarchist believed back in Europe. Squanto, a local Indian who had been kidnapped and taken to England nearly a decade before, served as an interpreter with the local tribes.
Squanto taught the Pilgrims to fertilize the soil with dried fish remains to produce a stellar corn crop. The puritans lived simple lives. Although they strongly condemned sexual relations outside of marriage–levying fines or even whipping those who fornicated, committed adultery or sodomy, or bore children outside of wedlock–they attached a high value to the marital tie. Perhaps most strikingly, the Puritans in Massachusetts held annual elections and extended the right to vote and hold office to all “freemen. “
Although this term was originally restricted to church members, it meant that a much larger proportion of the adult male population could vote. 7) Define and explain John Winthrop, the Puritans, Massachusetts Bay Colony, discuss Winthrop’s A Model of Christian Charity sermon, discuss how the Puritans used religion to control the people and how only Puritans could participate in government. In 1629, another colony called Massachusetts Bay was established by Congregationalists, puritans who wanted to reform the Anglican Church from with in. this began the great Puritan migration which lasted from 1629 to 1642.
Led by Governor John Winthrop, the Massachusetts Bay colony developed along puritan ideals. While onboard the ship Winthrop delivered a famous sermon called A Model of Christian Charity. In it proclaims that the Puritan had made a covenant with God to establish a truly Christian community, in which the wealthy were to show charity and avoid exploiting their neighbors while the poor were to work diligently. If they abided by this covenant, God would make them an example with the world a “city upon a hill. ” But if they broke the covenant, the entire community would feel God’s wrath.
The puritans believed they had a covenant with god and the concept of covenants was central to their entire philosophy, in both political and religious terms. Government was to be a covenant among the people; work was to serve a common ideal or goal and of course the true church was to be served. This is why the puritans did not tolerate religious freedom in their colonies. The settlers of the Massachusetts Bay area were very strict Calvinists and Calvinist principles ordered their daily lives. The puritans were famed for their work ethic. Some say that the protestant work ethic is what led to the development of a market economy. 8) Define and explain The New England Town Meeting and how it contributed to democratic government. The center of every town in New England was the meetinghouse. The entire community was built around the meetinghouse. Not only was the meetinghouse used for worship but it was also a place were town meetings were conducted. These meetings were held so the community could decide on what do with their budget and vote on many matters. The town meeting is considered to be the simplest form of a direct democracy. Town meetings allowed ordinary citizens the chance to have their voice heard.
It can be said that these town meetings was a stepping stone towards more complex and organized democracy. (9) Define Reverend John Hooker of Connecticut and the Fundamental Orders and how it contributed to democratic government. Thomas Hooker had been one of the original puritans who had come to America to escape persecution in England. Thomas settled in Massachusetts along with the other puritans. At the time only those who were part of the church could participate in government. Thus Puritans and only Puritans had all the power in their colonies. Hooker felt otherwise and so he gained a charter for the colony of Connecticut in 1635.
Hooker based Connecticut to resemble the Massachusetts Bay colony except for a few modifications. The main adjustment was that a constitution was formed that was called the Fundamental Orders, which gave all white, land owning men the right to vote. The Fundamental Orders can be considered important because it is the first written constitution in British North America. The American constitution later adopted this idea. Although this may not seem as great accomplishment to us today, at the time this was huge step forward towards the democracy we have today. 10) Explain the difference between a Royal colony and a Proprietary colony. A Proprietary colony is a colony that was owned by one person, who usually received the land as a gift from the king. Several colonies were proprietorships such as Connecticut and Maryland. A royal colony is a colony that had their ownership taken over by the king, who could then exert greater control of their governments. By the time of the revolution only a handful of colonies were not royal colonies. (11) Identify Roger Williams, the origins of Rhode Island and his essay: The Bloudy Tenents of Persecution.
Explain how he contributed to freedom of religion, thought, speech, and conscience. After fleeing from England like most puritans from religious persecution Roger Williams arrived in the Massachusetts Bay colony. There he was very well respected because of his intelligence and his position as a clergy member. After a while however, Roger Williams started to criticize the principles of the Massachusetts Bay colony. First he preached religious toleration. He criticized the Massachusetts Bay colony for not having religious toleration even though they cam to America to seek religious toleration.
He also preached the idea of the separation of church and state. He felt that if the two connected politics would start to alter the real teachings of the church. In 1635, the General Court of Massachusetts banished Williams from the colony. When Williams sailed to England to acquire a charter for a new colony he wrote an essay called The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution. It outlined all his beliefs about religious freedom and the separation of church and state. The text powerfully went in opposition of religious persecution and stressed the need for people to have the right to follow their own conscience.
Williams Essay included principles such as freedom of religion and speech as well as separation of church and state. These ideas would later be adopted by our Constitution. (12) Identify Anne Hutchinson of Massachusetts and how she contributed to religious freedom. Anne Hutchinson was a prominent proponent of antinomianism, the belief that faith and god’s grace, as opposed to observance of moral law and performance of good deeds, suffice to earn one a place among the “elect. ” Her teachings challenged puritan beliefs and the authority of the puritan clergy.
She went against the ministers of the colony and accused them of losing touch with God. Hutchinson also believed that people could directly communicate with God without the need of ministers or the Bible. That fact that she was intelligent, well educated, and a powerful woman in a patriarchal society also turned many against her. She was tried for heresy and banished. Anne Hutchinson fight for reform was her way of fighting for freedom of speech. At the time woman were seen as servants to men so when a woman spoke out against men it was a huge step towards freedom of speech for all. 13) Explain the founding of Maryland as a Catholic colony; discuss Lord Baltimore and Sir George Calvert. Maryland was Proprietary colony granted to Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore. Calvert declared Maryland a haven of religious tolerance for all religions and it became the first major catholic society in the New World. After a while Protestants eventually outnumbered Catholics in Maryland so Marylanders passed the Act of Toleration in 1649 that protect most Christians. (14) Define James Ogelthorpe and the founding of Georgia as a debtor’s colony.
James Oglethorpe spent five months in jail for participating in a brawl. When he left prison he became a member in parliament. With his new position he fought for the rights of colonists and was against slavery. After spending time in prison he came to realize that the debtors that have been imprisoned can be put to good use in the New World. He felt that in prison these debtors lived harsh lives and so if given a chance they could help England in the New World by becoming farmers or laborers. Oglethorpe decided to create a settlement in the New World between Carolina and Florida where debtors could have a better life.
In 1732, Oglethorpe acquired a charter that gave him the right to establish a settlement in Georgia. The first years of colonization were a disaster. The people of England showed little desire to move to the area, so there was not enough emigration to establish a prosperous area. Georgia acted as a military buffer between Spanish Florida and English Carolina. Oglethorpe felt if slavery was used in Georgia then the slaves may escape and join the enemy. Since slavery did not exist in Georgia farming tasks became much harder since farming cash crops such as tobacco needed much labor.
By 1750 settlers were permitted to import slaves and drink rum. Even though this angered Oglethorpe it was still allowed so more settlers would come to Georgia. (15) Explain Bacon’s Rebellion of 1677. Bacon’s rebellion took place on Virginia’s western frontier during the 1670s. Although Sir William Berkeley, the royal governor of Virginia, was popular at first his rule eventually created tension between the tidewater region settlers and the backcountry settlers. As farmable land in the east filled up, settlers pushed westward in hope of having the chance to own land and get rich.
Their push westward brought them closer to natives and there was a threat of being attacked by tribes at all times. The back country settlers soon came to believe that the colonial government was not doing a great job in offering them protection against Native Americans. In fact the back country settlers felt they were being used as a human shield between the natives and the tidewater region. Rallying behind Nathaniel Bacon, a recent immigrant who immigrated to the New World in hope of getting into the fur business, these settlers first attacked neighboring natives and then turned their attention to Jamestown, burning it down.
Bacon’s rebellion is often cited as an early example of a populist rebellion. In fact it Bacon’s rebellion is seen as a rebellion that started the road towards the American Revolution. Bacon’s rebellion is also significant for other reasons. During the rebellion indentured servants allied themselves to blacks. This alliance across class lines instead of race scared many southerners and is what may have led to the making of the black codes. (16) Explain the origins of slavery in America, the Middle Passage, the guns, molasses, slave trade. Also discuss indenture servitude.
The settlers of Barbodas who were descendants of Englishmen settled South Carolina. They were the first Englishmen in the New World who had seen widespread slavery at work. Their arrival truly marked the beginning of the slavery era in the colonies. Before their arrival labor was satisfied by indentured servants. In return for free passage indentured servants typically promised seven years of labor after which they received freedom. They also received a small piece of land. This not only allowed them to survive of their newly acquired land but now they had the ability vote since they owned land.
As more farming cash crops became more widespread more labor was needed other than indentured servants. English colonists used Native Americans as workers to maintain crops such as tobacco for export. They saw how profitable using Native Americans were for their colony, but natives easily escaped slavery since they new the land very well also many of the natives died from disease that was spread by colonists. Slowly colonists turned to using African instead. The English saw this as a favor for the African people, who were seen as people with barbarous natures and uncivilized religious beliefs.
The colonists felt that by converting these Africans to Christianity they were benefiting the blacks. The first Africans that were brought to America landed in Virginia in 1619. The shipping route that carried slaves to America was called the Middle Passage because it was the middle leg of the triangular trade route among the colonies, Africa and Europe. The conditions onboard the slave ships were brutal and inhumane and many died on the way to the New World. These captured people would then be transported to the New World in exchange for products such as molasses, textiles, iron and guns.
Slavery flourished in the south but never really took root in the north. Because of the nature of the land and the short growing season the Chesapeake and the Carolinas farmed labor intensive crops such as tobacco, rice and indigo. Thus plantation owners bought slaves to handle the arduous work. Those slaves that wound up in the north were mostly used as domestic servants. there was not a huge need for slaves in the north as there was in the south. (17) Define William Penn, the Quakers and the foundation of Pennsylvania and Penn’s “Holy Experiment. ”
In 1680, Penn asked Charles II of England to repay an $80,000 debt owed to Penn’s father with wilderness land in America. Charles like most Anglicans felt that the Quakers were dangerous radicals and so he felt the new colony would be a great what to get rid of the Quakers in England. The next year Penn was granted a charter. Penn viewed his new colony as a “Holy Experiment,” which would provide colonists religious liberty and cheap land. He made a treaty of friendship with Indians shortly after he arrived in Pennsylvania in 1682, paying them for most of the land that King Charles ad given him. Compared to many other colonies, Pennsylvania, from the outset, was a remarkable success. It experienced no major Indian wars. Strong West Indian demand for grain generated prosperity and made Philadelphia a major port. (18) Explain how the Chesapeake colonies and New England colonies had a different and distinct economic and sociological development. The lives of English settlers in New England and the Chesapeake differed significantly. Usually entire families immigrated to New England while in the Chesapeake immigrants were usually single men.
The climate of New England was more hospitable and so New Englanders tended to live longer and have larger families than the Chesapeake settlers. A Stronger sense of community and the absence of tobacco as a cash crop, which took a lot of land to farm, led new Englanders to live in larger towns that were closer to each other. Settlers who loved in the Chesapeake lived spread out small farming towns. The New England region also tended to be more religious. New England society was centered on trade. The population only farmed what they needed and not for trade most were pledged to strict Puritanism.
Since there was not a large labor force needed in New England’s market economy slavery did not take root there as it did in more southern colonies. In the Chesapeake slavery and tobacco played a large role. The Chesapeake residents farmed grain as well and thus diversified their market. (19) Define the mercantile system that governed the colonies and discuss the Navigation Acts of 1651 and 1660, the Staple Act of 1663, the Revenue Act of 1673, and the Navigation Act of 1696. Until the middle of the seventeenth century, England ignored their colonists in America.
Private companies created these settlements in the New World for profit and religious getaways, but rarely did the English leaders provide the colony with financial or military assistance. After Charles II came into power in 1660, England began to get involved with their colonies in the new world. Many men came to a realization that their colonies in America should be under tighter control from the mother country, which would lead to bigger profits and more organization. Around the time of the reign of Charles II English policymakers developed a system about international commerce called mercantilism.
Mercantilism stressed that in order for a country to have a flourishing economy, the nation must export more than it imports. In order to achieve this, England passed many laws that benefited them. These laws created a trading system where the colonies of America would provide raw materials to Britain and Britain would produce goods using these materials. These goods would be sold around England as well as back to the colonies. This was how England would export their goods, by using their colonies resources and exporting it back to the colony.
So when importing the goods from their colonies in America, England did not have to pay a fee because they felt that technically these resources were their own. In 1651, England took mercantilist values to a new level. Parliament passed a Navigation Act which enforced that English trade should be carried about in English vessels. The act basically banned all foreign ships from transporting goods into England. The Navigation Act of 1651 specifically targeted the Dutch who were England’s rivals at that time. The Dutch controlled a large area of Europe’s international trade.
The act allowed England to dissociate from the Dutch in trade. In 1660 another Navigation Act was passed. This act also had similar details to the previous one. The act disallowed foreign ships trading with American colonies, unless the ship was built in either England or America and carried a crew that w as at least 75 percent English. It also said that certain goods of great value that were not produced in England such as tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dyewoods, and ginger could only be transported from the colonies to an English or another colonial port.
The act of 1660 was created with mercantilist values in mind. The act encouraged ship development in England and prohibited European rivals from obtaining valuable goods anywhere except in England. In 1663 another act was passed which was referred to as the Staple Act. The act with a few exceptions, but generally stated that nothing could be imported into America unless it had first been transported through the mother country. This caused the products to be taxed even more for the transportation through the mother country causing the mother country to gain even bigger profits.
In 1673 another act was passed which was referred to as the Revenue Act. The act was approved in order to clear up some loopholes that colonists were abused. Many colonists were finding ways to go around the previous Navigation Acts. For example, some New England merchants would load their ships with sugar or tobacco and sail to another colonial port which was legal. After they reached the colonial port, they would head straight for other areas in Europe such as Holland or France. Along the way they paid no customs.
The Revenue Act implemented a duty on the products that were on these ships that were going to be traded. These duties were collected at various ports The New Englanders were allowed to sail wherever they wanted within the empire, but they could not escape paying customs. Parliament passed the last major Navigation Act in 1696. The act tightened up the rules for trading and put pressure on colonial governors to keep England’s competitors out of the American ports. The act also created courts in the colonies that were meant to settle disputes that occurred at sea.
All these acts that were passed were disputed heavily by the colonists. The colonists were the ones that lost the most because of these acts. The collection of customs for their products greatly reduced the profits for the colonial planters. Also it was seen as unfair that the colonists had to buy back goods that were at first exported from their colony. The acts worked out very well for the English however. They were making great profits from all the duties they were collecting and exporting goods to their colonies. Also the acts enforced power over the colonies.
After the last Navigation act was passed, smuggling of goods between the colonies and other European countries was gone. (20) Explain the influence and the impact of the Enlightenment and the Glorious Revolution on the colonies. Discuss John Locke’s influence on the colonies. The Enlightenment was a time when man began to use reason to discover the world, and removed the superstitions of the medieval world. The Enlightenment changed the way politics, government and religion were looked at during the 18th century. In fact it can be said that Enlightenment ideas that were brought over from Europe help to spur the American Revolution.
It can also be said that America’s government and its important documents such as the Declaration of Independence are based on ideas from the enlightenment period. The American Revolution occurred is said to have occurred because of the manner the English government treated its New World colonies. After the French and Indian war the English treasury was drained and so taxes were levied unto the 13 colonies. The people felt that they should not be taxed without their consent. The famous quote “No taxation without representation” can be said to be influenced by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire who preached freedom of speech and thought.
Also the whole idea of revolution comes from the Enlightenment idea of social contract and that the people have the ability to abolish an existing government and reconstruct one. The Enlightenment also influenced the formation of the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence had many ideas that all arose during the Enlightenment. Some of these ideas include; People had the right to alter or abolish unjust governments, popular sovereignty, all government power comes from the people, right to rebel. One of the most important ideas was the idea of natural rights.
Across the ocean in Europe, philosopher John Locke preached the idea that each citizen had the rights of life, liberty and right to own property. During the writing of the Declaration of Independence natural rights were mentioned as the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Although a slight change was made, it is very clear that the writers of the Declaration were greatly influenced by john Locke’s ideas. During the Great Awakening people like Jonathan Edwards preached Christianity through emotions and spirituality.
The Enlightenment period stressed rationalism over emotionalism and spirituality and so people coming from Europe tried to spread that ideology. The Great Awakening is seen as a response of devout people to the Enlightenment. The Glorious Revolution also influenced the colonies in a sweeping way. As people from America watched how King James the second was dethroned they felt that. In New York and Maryland many rebellions occurred with the goal to overthrow the powers because they went against what the people believed in.
The Glorious Revolution caused the powers of the Parliament in England to weaken because people started to fight their power. Also after seeing how the power of the monarch was limited after the Glorious revolution Americans were given ideas of creating their own government with a limited power given to government. They saw how Monarchs could no longer suspend laws, levy taxes, or do anything else that seemed to be for their benefit and not the people, this greatly spurred revolution in America. (21) Explain the rebellions in Massachusetts and New York after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Although there were restrictions on trade, England never really attempted to meddle in the political and social affairs of the New World. In fact other than trade the colonists were given much autonomy. In 1684, after a fiery debate between the colonists and England, the charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company was voided and the colonists had to accept that they were part of an empire. Between 1685 and 1690, James II appointed Sir Edmund Andros to run Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Plymouth, New York, New Jersey, and New Hampshire.
These areas which before were separate areas that were run by different people were now all connected and run by one man. This led to much discontent and so the people despised Andros He eliminated elective assemblies and enforced the Navigation Acts. Andros also considered town meetings illegal and collected taxes that the people felt were unfair. By 1689, the news of the Glorious Revolution in England reached the New World. Under the new rule of William and Mary a Bill of Rights was accepted which allowed basic rights to all Englishmen. This spurred the people to in Massachusetts to overthrow Andros.
Without firing a single shot, Andros was jailed. The want to overthrow the tyrant rule of Andros inspired the people of Massachusetts to unite together and fight for what they believed in. After the revolution, William gave Massachusetts a new royal charter. The impact that the The Glorious Revolution had on New York created more violence in the area compared to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. When news of the Glorious Revolution reached New York, some people felt that they had the right to overthrow leaders whore. Jacob Leisler led the rebellion by raising a group of militia and creating chaos in New York.
He first overthrew the governor and then seized a local fort that was under the name of William and Mary. William realized that he had lost control of New York so he appointed a new royal governor. (22) Explain Peter Zenger’s trial and how it led to freedom of the press in the colonies. In 1726 Zenger started his own shop for printing material. In 1733, Zenger was given a chance to print America’s first party newspaper, which was called New York Weekly Journal. Zenger’s paper was a success around New York. His success came to halt when Zenger wrote an article that criticized William Cosby who was the Governor of New York at that time.
Cosby had Zenger jailed. Zenger was put on trial which many people felt he would easily lose since he was going against the governor. Hamilton who was his attorney claimed that what Zenger wrote was not false, so he should not be punished. Hamilton felt it was unfair that Zenger was being put on trial for telling the truth. At the end of the trial, the jurors found Zenger not guilty on the charge of publishing lies about the governor. After the Zenger trial laws did not immediately change. People were still scared to publish there complete thoughts in the paper for fear of being put on trail.
The verdict did allow people to realize that people should have the right to criticize their government. When the Constitution was being written, the First Amendment was made to be freedom of speech and press. Though the trial was never mentioned directly in the constitution, it was clear that the First Amendment was influenced by the ideas that arose after the zinger trial. (23) Explain the Salem Witch trials. The Salem Witch Trials took place in 1692. These were not the first witch trials that occurred in the New World but never were there so many people accused of being witches at the same time.
More than 130 “witches” were jailed or executed in Salem. Historians have many reasons why The Salem Witch Trials occurred and ended so quickly. The region had recently endured autocratic rule by the Dominion of New England, a government setup by England to enforce trade restrictions. The Massachusetts charter had been revoked and its assemblies were dissolved and on top of that their governor was given powers usually only held by monarchs. The Dominion of England was removed after the Glorious revolution occurred.
In 1691 Massachusetts became a royal colony and suffrage was extended to all Protestants which weakened puritan power in Massachusetts. Also wars such as King William’s war and the war of The League of Augsburg caused tension in the area. Also many puritans felt that the current generations of puritans were not as religious the original settlers of the New World. This led to the halfway covenant. Before the halfway covenant one had to experience god’ grace for their children to be baptized but with so many losing interests in the church the clergy decided to baptize all children that had baptized parents.
The catch was for one to vote they had to experience god’s grace. All these factors religious, economic, political combined and led to mass hysteria in Salem. The hysteria ended when the accusers started to accuse some of the colonies most important people of having ties with the devil. (24) Explain the Maryland Toleration Act of 1649. Maryland was Proprietary colony granted to Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore. Calvert declared Maryland a haven of religious tolerance for all religions and it became the first major catholic society in the New World.
After a while Protestants eventually outnumbered Catholics in Maryland so Marylanders passed the Act of Toleration in 1649 that protected most Christians. The law was also passed because Calvert knew that for Maryland to prosper and flourish, he had to attract a variety of people to his colony. In 1652, radical Protestants from Virginia rebelled against the government and repealed the act. By 1658 Calvert regained power and by 1660 Charles II gained control of England, and then Maryland finally began to flourish. (25) Explain the Great Awakening of the 1740s, George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards.
The generations that followed the original settlers were usually less religious than those before them. However between 1730 and 1740 a new movement of religious revivalism was introduced and was called the Great Awakening. Two men, a Congregationalist Jonathan Edwards and a Methodists preacher are considered to be the leaders of the movement. Edwards preached the principle of predestination and was famous for his depictions of hell. He felt that the idea of hell was taken too easily by the people and so he preached the idea that hell is a real place and all sinners will end up there after death.
Whitefield preached Christianity through emotions and spirituality. The Great Awakening is seen as a response of devout people to the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment period stressed rationalism over emotionalism and spirituality. Also the Great Awakening encouraged people that they did not need to rely on Ministers for spiritual guidance when in fact they can guide themselves. In response there was a huge increase in the membership in Churches. (26) Explain the Albany Congress of 1754. In 1754, representatives from seven colonies met in Albany, New York to consider the Albany Plan of Union, which was developed by Benjamin Franklin.
The plan provide for an intercolonial government and a system for collecting taxes for the colonies defense. At that meeting Franklin also tried to negotiate a treaty wit the Iroquois. Franklin’s efforts failed to gain the approval of a single colonial legislature. The plan was rejected because the colonist didn’t want to relinquish their right to tax themselves, nor were they prepared to unite under a single colonial government. Franklin’s frustration was publicized in his political cartoon. It was a drawing of a snake separated into thirteen pieces, and under laid the words join or die.