Recent Developments In The Accountancy Banking Business Sectors Accounting Essay

Overview of the department/division

I am being attached to the audit section of Chio Lim Stone Forest ( CLSF ) . The company adopts a risked based audit methodological analysis to each of the audit battle ( Please see Appendix 1 ) . The aim of a risked based audit methodological analysis is to understand clients ‘ concern operations and place cardinal audit hazards in relation to the nature of their concern.

CLSF has an extended web of clients, runing from little medium endeavors ( SMEs ) all the manner to public-listed companies such as Challenger Technologies Limited. CLSF offers a broad scope of audit services such as statutory audits, particular reappraisals, due diligence for amalgamations and acquisitions and other non-statutory audits. Under statutory audits, hearers would verify the true and equity of the fiscal statements by analyzing accounting records and back uping paperss before rendering an sentiment in conformity with international and Singapore audit criterions. In add-on, CLSF provide value-added services by assisting clients to outline fiscal statements and developing ways of bettering their efficiency. Spouses and directors are besides actively involved in the planning and executing of the audit as they are more familiar with the clients ‘ concern operations.

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Hearers besides provide non-statutory audits such as strike-off of histories and enfranchisement. A particular reappraisal is a comprehensive scrutiny of the clients ‘ concern which enables direction to concentrate on cardinal issues and decide them. Hearers besides assist clients in giving them advice on due diligence for amalgamations and acquisition.

As for the audit public presentation in the last fiscal twelvemonth ( FY 2010 ) , the charge out rate ( calculated by Billingss to clients/auditors ‘ wage ) is 2.26. It is expected to drop to 2.12 in FY 2011 due to more experient employees who expect to pull higher wages. ( Please see Appendix 2 ) .

Structure and work force of the section

Majority of the employees in CLSF are from the audit section, consisting of 166 employees and the figure is expected to increase to 180 in FY 2011 ( Please see Appendix 3 ) . The corporate rankings ranges from holiday trainees all the manner to spouses ( Please see Appendix 4 ) . In add-on, employees are spilt into 9 groups, with a few bomber groups ( delight see Appendix 5 ) .

Systems & A ; package used in transporting out the section maps

Microsoft office 2007 productiveness suite i.e. Microsoft excel and Microsoft word is built-in to every facet of audit work where it is frequently used to fix lead agendas and audit studies.

There are besides in-house developed package to ease audit work, viz. IBM Nelumbo nucifera notes, client direction system ( CMS ) , timesheet direction system ( TMS ) , occupation direction system ( JMS ) and occupation position system ( JTS ) .

IBM Nelumbo nucifera notes is a utile database where it allows sharing of information throughout the company. It maintains reference stuffs like preparation resources, manual audit programme sheets ( MAPS ) and necessary information such as electronic mails, electronic leave application, registration of preparation classs, and even room engagement.

CMS contains of import information such as clients ‘ contact inside informations, audit fees and spouses and directors who are in charge of the audit battle. TMS keeps path on staff ‘s attending and enables hearers to identify in their day-to-day agenda. JMS enables the trailing of audit files, whether it is kept in the compactus or borrowed by an hearer whereas JTS helps to ease the readying of occupation position studies runing from the day of the months of the start of audit fieldwork to the release of audit studies.

Key challenges confronting the industry ( 422 words )

The first challenge would be the ability to groom and retain experient staff particularly in little and average sized houses like CLSF. Even though many alumnuss hold an accounting grade and they join the profession upon graduation, they tend to leap ship to fiscal establishments and other companies after roll uping work experiences for a few old ages. Therefore, it is a challenge to retain experient staff as they are in demand at fiscal establishments and other companies ( Kaka Singh, 2010 ) . Staffs with a few old ages of experience are most likely to leap ship as they are extremely sought after and they can gain up to 30 % more by altering sectors ( Teo Cheow Tong, 2010 ) .

In add-on, low get downing salary, long working hours, slow calling patterned advance and less reputable profile addition the enticement to leap ship. Work-life balance would besides be the first precedence, particularly for females who want to get down a household. Since the gender ratio is extremely inclined towards females in accounting sector, there might be a talent deficit when companies do non implement flexible work agreements such as decreased work portfolio strategy or work-from-home strategy.

As such, many companies paid out immense inducements and fillips to retain these experient staff. Some companies besides seek impermanent and contract staff that has the necessary cognition and accomplishments to get by with the endowment deficit.

Another cardinal challenge faced would be the audit ‘s value to the society, particularly with the recent instances of corporate fraud where the hearers ‘ function was frequently queried. Many accused hearers for non making their occupation. However, it was non precisely their occupation as hearers were ne’er meant to descry those mistakes when the samples did non fall within the tested range.

Furthermore, audit fee have by and large been inelastic despite an addition in volume of work. Higher volume of work is caused by stringent regulations and ordinances and higher outlooks from the stakeholders. Therefore, some companies may non apportion sufficient clip to their audit battles and as such, they may overlook critical affairs and lose their professional agnosticism on occasion.

In add-on, stakeholders have higher outlooks. They expect hearers non to merely notice on the fiscal statements by publishing a two-page audit sentiment but besides concentrate on company ‘s hazards and current and future public presentation. In a manner, there would be an addition in the occupation range of hearers. However, the issue with increasing the range of hearers is auditor liability as more things could travel incorrect since hearers have to execute more work.

Indeed, it is a challenge on re-defining the function of hearers because audit is extremely valued by stakeholders and now, there are increased force per unit areas to run into market outlooks.

Recent developments in the accountancy/banking/business sectors ( 341 words )

A new accounting regulation on Singapore Financial Reporting Standards ( SFRS ) for Small Entities was introduced late on 1st January 2011. This new criterion is implemented to simplify accounting for little medium endeavors ( SMEs ) where the figure of elaborate revelation demands would be decreased. This besides helps to cut down regulative conformity costs, better companies ‘ productiveness as they have more clip, capital and resources to concentrate on their concern operations and enhance Singapore as a concern hub.

Even though this seems to be good to the smaller companies in the long tally, it would intend higher audit and preparation costs ab initio. Audited account houses have to put capital and clip in developing their staff so that they are familiar with this new criterion and they may hold to revamp some of the audit processs. Hearers would by and large make more work because they have to make a restate of comparatives from full GAAP to a little GAAP in a passage twelvemonth. ( Michael Chin, 2010 )

Another deduction to this new criterion is that some houses, particularly originative houses, may be less profitable as research and development costs would hold to be treated as disbursals, alternatively of being capitalised under the full coverage criterions ( Yin Tong, 2010 ) . However, this new accounting regulation is non compulsory. Therefore, companies should see both benefits and costs carefully earlier following this new regulation.

I have learnt that for an audit profession, hearers should non merely concentrate on executing an audit and to publish an sentiment finally. Alternatively, we should besides be cognizant of revised/new accounting criterions as this affects our work performed. It brings to my attending that it is of import to maintain myself consciously updated with this new accounting regulation on Singapore Financial Reporting Standards ( SFRS ) for Small Entities because CLSF has a broad scope of SMEs clients. In add-on, housemans like me are frequently assigned to little clients so the impact would be greater in footings of the volume of revelation demands. If there are developing classs available, I would non waver to go to to hold an enhanced apprehension.


Company degree ( non plenty words )

I would wish to foreground an issue on the charging of clip costs in the timesheet. I understand that audit fees are agreed upon first before get downing an audit battle. Sometimes, the fees have to be increased based on more work done by the hearers since fees are charged harmonizing to the sum of work performed. Therefore, timesheet is being introduced to maintain path of the clip costs and incurred.

However, I feel that the hours that were charged to the client would be inaccurate since it is merely an estimated figure. In add-on, we were merely allowed to bear down the clip costs to office disposal for a upper limit for one hr merely. Sometimes we ended up bear downing more clip costs to our client when we really incur more office disposal clip.

There are besides cases where we could undercharge our client. We could work overtime for legion yearss but we did non bear down the clip costs to our client. Another scenario would be the conveyance claims where we are non allowed to claim despite working overtime for the client. This is to understate the clip costs charged to the clients.

Therefore, I propose that there should non be a bound on the figure of hours for office disposal, particularly for new joiners who joined the company where they incur more hours making office disposal for the first hebdomad. In add-on, we should be more proactive by finishing the audit based on the deadline but if there is more work to be performed, we should bear down the clip and conveyance costs to the clients accurately.

Another cardinal issue that I would wish to place is sing external verifications i.e. debtors/creditors verifications. External verifications are valuable as they are information obtained from external parties, which is more dependable. The current state of affairs is that we would merely direct the verifications during our fieldwork and so execute alternate processs at the same time as we do non have any answers. When we did non have any answers after 2 yearss, we would direct a first reminder followed by a 2nd reminder to trail them to answer. In a manner, we are executing more work as we have to make alternate processs and besides obtain answers to corroborate the sum stated in the verifications.

As such, I feel that we could direct the verifications earlier, possibly two hebdomads in progress since we already cognize our agenda on the clients we are in charge of. This would assist to salvage clip costs as we do non necessitate to pass clip making alternate processs when we would most likely receive verifications from the major providers during the fieldwork. In this manner, the providers would hold more clip to corroborate the sums as stated in the verifications and we could besides concentrate our clip and attempt on other subdivisions of the working documents.

School degree

Internship is an built-in portion of a third instruction. Therefore, Ngee Ann engineering school should go on to implement a compulsory local/overseas internship ( either 2 months or 6 months ) for concluding twelvemonth pupils. It is effectual as it enables pupils to derive learning experiences beyond the schoolroom, with professional wise mans steering them. For illustration, I could use the audit cognition which I have acquired in school to my audit work more expeditiously. It helped to heighten my apprehension of the audit processs and averments which I performed in my audit fieldwork.

Internship gives pupils a broader exposure of sing the existent working environments where they are challenged to believe critically to work out jobs. It besides enhanced their overall acquisition by developing utile accomplishments such as interpersonal accomplishments and cognition throughout the internship. For me, I have learnt to pull off my clip good as I am frequently faced with clip force per unit areas and deadlines.

Internship is besides a platform for pupils to procure lasting occupations since they have already undergone on-the-job preparation and understand more about the company policies and processs.

What makes Ngee Ann Polytechnic unique from other third establishments would be the internship period because it is the longest among all peculiarly for accounting pupils. This gives pupils a better penetration of the calling which they might be interested to prosecute in the hereafter as they are more familiar with the jobscope and working environment.

Ngee Ann engineering school besides offers a broad scope of calling options for internship. This was merely implemented last twelvemonth where pupils get an chance to seek out what they are interested in by ranking their preferable calling options and companies. In add-on, for those who merely intend to travel for 2 months internship, there are a scope of options such as finance, international concern which they can take to analyze. Overall, Ngee Ann polytechnic provides flexible options for pupils to pick and take from, based on their ain involvements.

Another recommendation would refer to the scaling of internship faculty. Presently, it is made up of two constituents viz. company ‘s ratings ( 40 % ) and single assignments ( 60 % ) .

For company ‘s ratings, pupils will be evaluated based on their public presentation such as attitude, competence etc. This is utile because it helps to maintain path pupil ‘s public presentation and give them feedback for betterment. It besides gives pupils chances to turn out their accomplishments and some companies may establish on their public presentation to retain them. Without ratings, pupils might non handle internship earnestly and they might do grave errors since they are non graded at all.

For the single assignments, pupils have to finish 3 studies and take part in an on-line treatment. This enables pupils to reflect on their acquisition experiences and understand more about their company/industry.

I would wish to suggest a alteration in the constituents of the single assignments by merely holding an interim and a concluding study, consisting 30 % of the overall scaling standards each. I understand the importance of sharing experiences with each other and discoursing work-related issues through an on-line treatment. However, I feel that it should non be graded since most pupils would portion their experiences during tiffin clip and they would besides voice out any work-related issues they faced during an interaction session when the liaison officer visits the office.

In add-on, I think that periodic study could be excluded because it merely contributes to 5 % of the overall scaling standards and the inquiries are similar in the interim studies. In a manner, pupils can hold more clip and information to compose for their interim studies.

Not holding an on-line treatment and periodic study helps to ease the pupils ‘ work load because most pupils are exhausted after working long hours and some may hold to remain back late to finish their assigned undertakings.

Key takeaway & A ; personal accomplishment ( 395 words )

For me, the ability to pull off clip well is a important learning experience. I used to believe I can pull off my clip good as I am able to get by with both my surveies and co-curriculum activities ( CCA ) since primary school. However, I was incorrect until I performed an audit for a listed company.

As the company is public-listed, the company holds many subordinates. Therefore, every member in my squad was in charge of a peculiar subdivision and I was being assigned to finish the liabilities subdivision within two hebdomads. As usual, I planned my clip and read through last twelvemonth ‘s file to hold a clearer thought about the audit averments that I have to execute and any important affairs to be noted. Then, I continued with my liabilities subdivision by following the audit processs closely in the manual audit programme sheets ( MAPS ) .

One trouble which I encountered during the class of fieldwork would be the uncomplete listings and direction histories which the client provides. I requested from them legion times but it was merely given to me after a few hours. This affected me as I could non finish the whole subdivision on clip due to some outstanding points which the client has yet to acquire back to me.

In add-on, the direction histories which they provided us ab initio were non updated due to some accommodations passed at twelvemonth terminal. As such, I had to bespeak for the updated listings once more when the figures did non bind to the direction histories. In the terminal, I spent a batch of clip questioning and bespeaking listings from them. Worse, most of them were on one hebdomad leave before Chinese New Year and I had a difficult clip acquiring the listings from them.

This is wholly unexpected from what I had planned ab initio. As deadline has to be met, I had no pick but to subject my subdivision for my director ‘s reappraisal foremost and leave those listings as outstanding points foremost. I would so necessitate to make more follow up. This experience taught me that hearers can apportion and be after their clip good. However, the ability to make so still depends greatly on the clients ‘ effectivity and efficiency. Therefore, it is of import to set up a close relationship with them so that they are more willing to help us by replying our questions and supplying beginning paperss which we require.


Overall, I feel that the experience in CLSF opens new doors for me as it gives me a clearer thought about what is scrutinizing all about, apart from what I have learnt in school. It besides enabled me to judge myself in footings of accomplishments, whether I am able to intermix into the corporate universe.

What I liked about CLSF is that they adopt a brother and on-the-job preparation for new joiners including housemans. This is utile as it enables me to larn and develop my audit accomplishments rapidly. For illustration, I was involved in an audit battle after being introduced to the house ‘s standard operating processs ( SOPs ) and audit methodological analysis.

I enjoyed myself in this internship as I have gained much priceless cognition in the field of audit. I am besides able to derive hands-on experiences to work with different clients and expose myself to the audit field. I had the chance to manage audit battles of really little companies separately and understand the whole work flow sequence of an audit battle. In add-on, my seniors were ever at that place to steer and assist me whenever I faced any uncertainties. Their counsel has helped me to larn and derive a broader base of cognition in both audit field and concern universe.

One of the most valuable experiences I gained during my internship is interacting and set uping a stopping point relationship with the clients. It is of import to hammer a close relationship as they are more willing to collaborate in giving us beginning paperss and sharing any information that we require. This would besides guarantee that we perform a quality audit.

This internship experience has made me gain that I may desire to major in audit as I now know how an hearer ‘s life is like. I valued this learning experience and the new friendly relationship forged.

Appendix 2

Appendix 1

*Charge out rate= Billings to clients /remuneration

Appendix 3


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