Recession and depression


In a layperson ‘s linguistic communication, sing his emotions, the term “ Recession ” is taken to be synonymous with the term “ Depression ” . However, really the recession is a state of affairs wherein, all the economic activities like incomes, outgos, ingestions, investings and the net incomes face a critical ruin taking to a downswing in the economic system ‘s GDP growing rate consecutively for two or more than two quarters in a peculiar twelvemonth.

Recession ever leaves a negative grade on the economic system, which may be in any signifier, like – crisp addition in the degree of unemployment and the external adoptions by the authorities along with an unprompted ruin in the stock markets, therefore taking to a state of affairs where there are lesser investings and hence, less rising prices.

During the clip of recession, the net incomes of the authorities falls drastically in the signifier of the revenue enhancement grosss because of the lesser sum of income revenue enhancement and the corporate revenue enhancement paid by the industries and the industrialists. Consequently, the authorities is under terrible force per unit area to incur more outgo for the public assistance of those who are unemployed, therefore, coercing the authorities to indulge into more adoptions from outside and acquiring indebted.

As a consequence of the recession, the houses earn fewer net incomes and are non in a place to pay off to its investors, a higher rate of return, therefore paying off lesser dividends. This leads to fall in the trust of the stockholders in the company. Besides the monetary values of the portions fall due to certain expectancies sing the hereafter monetary values of the portions in stead of recession.

It is merely due to recession that the investors ‘ sentiments get shaked and they are loath to put into the portions of the company taking to the instability in the state ‘s economic growing.

What is a recession?

When the gross national merchandise or the gross domestic merchandise of an economic system faces a ruin consecutively for two quarters in a peculiar twelvemonth so it means that the economic system is come ining into the recession stage.

The chief indexs which mark the reaching of recession in an economic system are – autumn in the production form, involvement rates and decrease in the demand for money along with the rise in the figure of those who are unemployed.

In such a period of recession, the consumers start losing their trust in the public presentation of the companies or the economic growing of the state ; cut down their ingestion degrees and therefore their demands for the goods and services taking to the lowered production degrees and besides the higher rates of unemployment.

What causes it?

Normally the recession sets down in an economic system when the undermentioned incidents occur:

  • When the outgo on the portion of the consumers diminutions, as a consequence of loss of their religion in the economic growing of the state.
  • Due to the above mentioned state of affairs, the ingestion form of the consumers for the goods and services produced within the economic system i.e. it declines.
  • The reduced ingestion of goods and services by the consumers leads to lesser sum of production, lay-offs, retrenchments, really high degree of unemployment.
  • The investing on the portion of the investors in the stock markets declines because of the loss of assurance in the portions of the companies.

However, the Indian economic system has non yet faced a true image of recession still it is confronting a ‘slowdown ‘ . It seems to be the most promising economic system in footings of economic growing and development. The state of affairs is such because the Indian economic system has the 2nd largest GDP in the universe and is wholly warranting its ranking by traveling on the perfectly appropriate path of the sustainable development. Although the GDP of India has seen a ruin from 9 % to 6.5-7.5 % but it has n’t entered the stage of recession instead it is confronting a lag, unlike other western economic systems which have already entered the stage of recession.

The bank failures in the western states and the liquidness and the planetary mortgage crisis had a small consequence on the Indian economic system.

In footings of ingestion, the consumer market of India is the largest with in-between category population of around 300 million consumers. Besides in footings of the rate of nest eggs, the India is ranking on the top with the rate of around 27 % of the gross domestic merchandise. One more advantage or it can be said that one more positive facet of the Indian economic system is that it has the lowest debt ratio of around 23 % of the gross national merchandise.

Impact of recession on the behaviour of the consumers in India:

Although the Indian economic system has non been wholly affected by the recession, but still it is undergoing an economic lag due to which the behaviour of the consumers has turned in such a manner that they, as investors have stopped believing in the creditworthiness of the companies and have stopped puting in the portions of such companies. During recession the some of the companies have even undergone the settlement or have faced the state of affairs of bankruptcy due to which the assurance of the investors has been extremely shaken and much of the financess have been withdrawn from the fiscal markets taking to a ruin in such markets.

Impact On Indian Economy:

Recession in India has non hit that badly but still it has had a bad impact on the Indian economic system therefore, declining the state of affairs in both the consumer and the manufacturer markets along with go forthing the worst effects on the fiscal markets. Even in such bad times of recession the Indian economic system has been able to fair good because of the undermentioned few positive facets:

  • The Bankss in India had a small exposure to the external economic systems and its corrupt assets due to which the consequence of recession in the western states could non straight affect the Indian economic system.
  • Most of the growing of the Indian economic system has been due to the demand within the domestic boundaries and the dependance of the Indian economic system on the nest eggs from the foreign states merely amounted to 1.5 % .
  • Even the forex militias of the state are satisfactory and the recession has non affected the exports of the state that adversely.
  • As a consequence of the compulsory agricultural loaning plans even the demand of the rural population has non declined.

In malice of all the above mentioned factors India is yet to confront a proper recession as it is merely confronting an economic lag right now because the US mortgage market has a really limited integrating with the Indian economic system.

Although the trading activities of the Indian economic system with the external economic systems has increased manifold, illustration, the sum of the entire external minutess as against the gross domestic merchandise was merely 46.8 % in 1998-99 which increased enormously to 117.4 % in 2008-09 i.e. merely within a decennary, the Indian economic system has developed enormously puting aside the myths of all those who perceived the Indian economic system as one of the weakest and doubted its growing chances.

Stock Market

Both, the Indian economic system and the stock market are really closely related. Due to the economic lag come ining into the Indian economic system the Indian stock market faced a crisp ruin from 20,000 points to a depression of around 7000 points. For most of the companies, the public presentation besides faced a drastic ruin which could be clearly seen in their falling net incomes, monetary values of their portions and demand in the current financial twelvemonth. Such a drastic ruin in the Indian stock market has been chiefly due to the permutation consequence of:

  • The foreign/overseas fiscal establishments ‘ financess got dried up and could n’t put their financess in the Indian Bankss and the corporate sectors.
  • Fundss could non be raised expeditiously in the domestic capital market due to the prevalence of the bear tally.
  • Even the internal accumulations of the corporate were on a worsening brink.

So it can be justly said that the cumulative consequence of the reversal of portfolio equity flows, lesser handiness of the international debt and equity and the perceptual experiences of the investors about the rise in monetary values of equity has landed the Indian stock market into the bearish tendency.

Forex Market

The current economic crisis taking topographic point in the Indian economic system have been greatly insulated by the backdown of the foreign institutional investings ( FIIs ) , external commercial adoptions ( ECBs ) and the trade recognition.

Its clear effects were seen in September-October 2008 when the investors sucked up a record of every bit high as USD 13.3 one million millions from the forex market taking to fall in the value of rupee from Rs. 40.36 per USD to Rs. 51.23 in March 2009 demoing a depreciation of approximately 23.2 % in the fiscal twelvemonth 2008-09.

Since the 1991 crisis, the biggest of all time loss in footings of rupee was that the mean one-year exchange rate during 2008-09 was Rs. 45.99 per USD in comparing to Rs. 40.26 per USD in 2007-08. It besides led to a crisp diminution in the grosss of the capital history in 2008-09 and accordingly, the entire net capital flows fell down from USD 17.5 billion in April-June 2007 to 13.4 billion in April-June 2008.

So, after discoursing all the above mentioned facts and figures, it can be justly said that due to the sudden fluctuations in the forex rates and crisp depreciation in rupee was due to the cumulative consequence of the planetary recognition crunch and the procedure of deleveraging prevailing in the Indian forex market.

Money Market

The major components of the money market are the debt market, recognition market and the authorities securities market. These markets are entirely regulated by the Reserve Bank of India ( RBI ) so the wellness of the markets depends on the soundness of the banking system within the state.

For the intent of judging the soundness of the money market, a commission has been set up jointly by the authorities and the RBI i.e. Committee for Financial Sector Assessment ( CFSA ) and harmonizing to study submitted by this commission, the Indian fiscal markets are soiund. However, the Reserve Bank of India expects the Non-Performing assets ( NPAs ) with the Bankss to lift because of the on-set of the economic lag within the economic system.

Due to the prevalence of the tight liquidness state of affairss within the economic system in September-October 2008, the adoptions of the Bankss from the RBI shot up to Rs. 50,000 crores along with the rise in the call money rate to over 20 % right after the prostration of the Lehman Brothers.

Decelerating GDP

Although since past five old ages the Indian economic system showed a stable growing rate of 8-9 per centum but since the on-set of the economic lag the gross domestic merchandise of the state started to worsen in the first one-fourth of 2008 and so it bit by bit started worsening

The projected mid-year reappraisal of the economic system as presented in the parliament for the gross domestic merchandise at factor cost at changeless monetary values as on December 24, 2008 was 7 % but as harmonizing to the reappraisal done by the Central Statistical Organization ( CSO ) , the existent growing rate came out to be meagre 6.7 % in 2008-09.

In 2006-07, the gross domestic merchandise at factor cost at the changeless monetary values i.e. 1999-2000 monetary values in the economic system was 9.7 % , in 2007-08 it was 9 % and in 2008-09 it came out to be merely 6.7 % which clearly depicts the impact of the economic lag. In its one-year policy statement 2009, the Reserve Bank of India has projected the growing of the gross domestic merchandise at factor cost at the rate of 6 % in 2009-10.

For more clear apprehension of the decelerating down of the gross domestic merchandise, the growing rate of the GDP in the consecutive quarters of 2008-09 can be seen. The growing rate of the gross domestic merchandise in the first two quarters of 2008-09 was 7.7 % and 7.6 % severally which fell down drastically in the 3rd and the 4th quarters of the same twelvemonth i.e. to 5.8 % . It was all due to the fact that there was a drastic diminution in the fabrication, building, hotels and eating houses sector in the 3rd one-fourth of the same financial twelvemonth. The status even worsened in the 4th one-fourth because it witnessed a serious ruin in the fabrication sector due to the oncoming of the planetary recession and the economic lag taking to the lag in the domestic demand.

So from all the above mentioned facts and figures it can be justly said that due to the economic lag within the Indian economic system, most of the sectors were adversely affected like fabrication, building, hotels, substructure and eating houses taking to a crisp ruin in the growing rate of the gross domestic merchandise.

Strain On Balance Of Payments

Although there were really strong marks of the strain on the capital and the current histories of the Balance Of payments of the economic system in the twelvemonth 2008-09 because of the planetary recession and the economic lag yet the state of affairs of the overall BOP was under control.

The current history shortage, during the first three quarters of the financial twelvemonth 2008-09 i.e. from April to December 2008 was USD 36.8 billion in comparing to USD 15.8 billion for the same period during the last financial twelvemonth i.e. 2007-08.

Besides the balance in the capital history faced a important ruin and stood at merely USD 16.1 billion in the twelvemonth 2008-09 as against USD 82.58 billion for the same period during the last financial twelvemonth i.e. 2007-08.

The forex militias of the economic system stood at USD 253 billion during the twelvemonth ended March 2009.

Decrease In Import-Export

In the financial twelvemonth 2008-09 the rate at which the exports of the state grew was robust boulder clay grand 2008 but it started confronting a ruin from September 2008 and turned negative in the month of October and remained merely the same for the whole of the fiscal twelvemonth. Such worsening tendency of the exports had occurred for the first clip in the past seven old ages.

As a consequence of the planetary recession, the planetary demand had contracted and the above mentioned chart shows that the exports have declined since October 2008. In the same manner, the growing rate of the importsalso witnessed a crisp diminution in the months of October-November 2008, before the same turned negative. Besides a sharper diminution could be observed in the imports as against the exports because the ware trade shortage declined during April-May 2009.

Decrease In Employment

Whenever the recession sets in, in any economic system the first and the first impact is on the employment. It is the worst accomplished and the same has happened during the current planetary meltdown which earnestly affected the Indian service sector i.e. BPO, KPO, IT companies etc.

Harmonizing to a study given by the commercialism ministry, during the period between August to October 2008 around 109517 people lost their occupations and became idle, most of whom belong to the export associating companies in the different sectors like primary fabrics, handcrafts, nutrient processing, leather, technology etc.

A ruddy qui vive has been indicated by the economic study of India maintaining in head the current tendency of increasing figure of idle people as the after-effects of the planetary economic lag particularly in the unorganised sector and has declared an urgency on the portion of the authorities to be antiphonal in such affair:


The revenue enhancement aggregations at the Centre have been really adversely affected particularly the aggregation of the indirect revenue enhancements because of the pertinence of the economic lag within the economic system.

Although the tax-GDP ratio was on an increasing tendency from 2000-01 to 2007-08 and had increased from 8.89 % to 12.46 % but it started worsening merely because of the decrease in the revenue enhancement aggregation, particularly the indirect revenue enhancements like, imposts and the excise revenue enhancement, and fell down to around 10.98 % during the current financial twelvemonth.

Response To The Crisis

Future is ever unsure, so is the hereafter of this economic lag because it is non clear that what will go on and how it will come to an terminal? Still the Indian authorities along with the Reserve Bank of India has taken it up as a strong challenge and reacted to it in the best possible mode by shooting more liquidness into the money markets and therefore doing the Indian fiscal markets more trusty.

In response to it, the Indian authorities introduced the stimulus bundle whereas the Reserve Bank of India shifted its pecuniary policy from money fastening to money easing so that the inflationary force per unit areas are eased.

Under mentioned are the financial and the pecuniary response:

Fiscal Response

During the clip period between December 2008 and February 2009, the Indian authorities launched the three stimulation bundles which included safety-net plan for the hapless, the farm loan release bundle and the payout after the Sixth Pay Commission study came out, adding to the stimulating demand.

The challenge for financial policy is to equilibrate immediate support for the economic system with the demand to acquire back on path on the average term financial consolidation procedure. The financial stimulation bundles and other steps have led to crisp addition in the gross and financial shortages which, in the face of decelerating private investing, have cushioned the gait of economic activity.

The adoption programme of the authorities has already expanded quickly in an orderly mode by the Reserve Bank of India which would spur investing demand in the domestic market. So while the authorities will go on to back up liquidness in the economic system, it will hold to guarantee that as economic growing gathers impulse, the extra liquidness is rolled back in an orderly mode.

In India pecuniary transmittal has had a differential impact across different sections of the fiscal market. While the transmittal has been faster in the money and bond markets, it has been comparatively muted in the recognition market on history of several structural rigidnesss.

In order to turn to these issues, the authorities has to efficaciously and carefully take up the undermentioned stairss –

  • Enhance coordination and harmonisation of the regulative setup internationally, given the planetary range of the recent crises with increased crossborder fiscal integrating ;
  • Introduction of countercyclical prudential regulative policy ;
  • Design ordinance and supervising of fiscal companies for non-deposit taking fiscal entities holding the possible to do systematic instability, as evident in the current crisis ;
  • Supervision and direction of liquidness hazard and greater transparence in the fiscal sector to better better hazard appraisal by the clients and investors ;
  • Improvement in transparence in the structured recognition instruments.

The rise in macroeconomic uncertainness and the fiscal disruption of the twelvemonth 2008 have raised a job of accommodation in market involvement rates in response to alterations in policy rates gets reflected with some slowdown.

The Union Budget for 2009-10, presented against the background of persistent planetary economic lag and the associated dampened domestic demand, has placed the financial shortage at 6.8 per cent of GDP in 2009-10 with a position to supplying the necessary encouragement to demand and thereby back up a faster recovery.

Monetary Response

The RBI has taken several steps aimed at inculcating rupee every bit good as foreign exchange liquidness and to keep recognition flow to productive sectors of the economic system such as inculcating liquidness through involvement rate direction, hazard direction and recognition direction which is described in item under the undermentioned caputs: –

Interest Rate Management

In order to cover with the liquidness crunch and the practical freeze of international recognition, RBI took stairss for pecuniary enlargement which gave a cue to the Bankss to cut down their sedimentation and loaning rates. The major alterations in the involvement rate policy of RBI are given below-

  • Decrease in the hard currency modesty ratio ( CRR ) by 400 footing points from 9.0 per cent in August 2008 to 5 per cent in January 2009
  • Decrease in the repo rate ( rate at which RBI lends to the Bankss ) by 425 footing points from 9.0 per cent as on October 19 to 4.75 per cent by July 2009 ( the lowest in past 9 old ages ) in order to better the flow of recognition to productive sectors at feasible costs so as to prolong the growing impulse.
  • In order to do parking of financess with RBI unattractive for Bankss, the contrary repo rate ( RBI ‘s adoption rate ) was reduced by 275 points which presently stands at 3.25 per cent.

The above said policy alterations since mid-September 2008, enabled Reserve Bank of India to inculcate

Rs.5,61,700 crore ( excepting Rs.40,000 crore under SLR decrease ) in market in order to guarantee ample liquidness in the banking system.

Hazard Management

There has been a sustained demand from assorted quarters for exerting regulative patience in respect to extant prudential ordinances applicable to the banking sector.

As a portion of counter-cyclical bundle, RBI has already made several alterations to the current prudential norms for robust hazard revelations, transparence in restructured merchandises and standard assets such as-

  • Execution of Basel II w.e.f. March 2009 by all Scheduled Commercial Banks except RRBs which would advance closer cooperation, information sharing and coordination of policies among sector wise regulators, particularly in the context of fiscal pudding stones.
  • Further counsel to beef up revelation demands under Pillar 3 of Basel II.
  • Counter-cyclical accommodation of purveying norms for all types of standard assets ( except in instance of direct progresss to agriculture and little and medium endeavors which continue to be at 0.25 per centum )
  • Decrease in the hazard weights for claims on unrated corporate and commercial existent estate to 100 per centum ;
  • Decrease in the provisioning demand for all standard assets to 0.40 per cent ;
  • Improve and meet fiscal coverage criterions for off balance sheet vehicles ;
  • Develop counsel on ratings when markets are no longer active, set uping an adept consultative panel in 2008.
  • Market participants and securities regulators will spread out the information provided about securitized merchandises and their implicit in assets.
  • Permiting lodging loans to be restructured even if the revised payment period exceeds ten old ages ;
  • Making the restructured commercial existent estate exposures eligible for particular intervention if restructured before June 30, 2009.

Hence, RBI has ensured doggedness of prudential policies which prevent establishments from inordinate hazard pickings, and fiscal markets from going highly volatile and turbulent.

Credit Management

There was a noticeable diminution in the recognition demand during 2008-09 which is declarative of decelerating economic activity- a major challenge for the Bankss to guarantee healthy flow of recognition to the productive sectors of the economic system.

The decreased support demand on the Bankss should enable them to cut down the involvement rates on sedimentation and thereby cut down the overall cost of financess. Although sedimentation rates are worsening and effectual loaning rates are falling, there is clearly more infinite to cut rates given worsening rising prices. In order to ease demand for recognition in the economic system the Reserve Bank has taken certain stairss such as-

  • Opening a particular repo window under the liquidness accommodation installation for Bankss for on-lending to the non-banking fiscal companies, lodging finance companies and common financess.
  • Widening a particular refinance installation, which Bankss can entree without any collateral
  • Unwinding the Market Stabilization Scheme ( MSS ) securities, in order to pull off liquidness
  • Accelerating Government ‘s adoption programme
  • Upward accommodation of the involvement rate ceilings on the foreign currency non-resident ( Bankss ) and non-resident ( external ) rupee history sedimentations
  • Relaxing the external commercial adoptions ( ECB ) government
  • Leting the NBFCs and HFCs entree to foreign adoption
  • Leting corporates to purchase back foreign currency exchangeable bonds ( FCCBs ) to take advantage of the price reduction in the prevailing depressed planetary markets
  • Establishing a rupee-dollar barter installation for Bankss with abroad subdivisions to give them comfort in pull offing their short-run support demands
  • Widening flow of recognition to sectors which are coming under force per unit area include widening the period of pre-shipment and postshipment recognition for exports
  • Expanding the refinance installation for exports
  • Expanding the lendable resources available to the Small Industries Development Bank of India, the National Housing Bank and the Export-Import Bank of India

Future Outlook For India

In the terminal it can be justly concluded that the economic lag which has set in the Indian economic system is an result of the sub-prime crisis that started in the US and accordingly took many states into its trap. The effect of the puting up of such an economic lag in the Indian economic system was such that it had inauspicious effects on the GDP growing rate which continued to be same or above 9 % since the last four old ages but tend to worsen since the last one-fourth of the twelvemonth 2008 taking to a diminution in the employment rate, exports and imports, tax-GDP ratio, reduced capital influxs and important escapes etc.

In malice of the smooth liquidness place in the system, the demand for the bank recognition is take downing significantly. Lesser demands and the higher rates of the input costs have really adversely affected the net income borders of the corporate. Besides the uncertainness accompanied with the planetary crisis has profoundly affected the assurance of the possible investors in the concern which has accordingly lead to a crisp ruin in the Indian stock market and the forex market.

However, the Indian economic system has still managed to last and come out as a really stable economic system due to the fact that it has such a banking system which is non that vulnerable to the external influences due to its limited dealingss with the external economic systems, well-functioning fiscal markets sufficient forex militias and the most appropriate liquidness direction, payment and colony system.

So from all the above treatment of assorted factors, it can be clearly observed that although the uncertainness component still exists in the planetary economic environment but the contraction rate of the economic activitiesand the force per unit area on the fiscal system is decreased since the really first one-fourth of the financial twelvemonth 2009-10.


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