Religion is a critical portion of the development of every known society in history. Equally shortly as civilisation begins to develop. one of the first things to happen is that the “shaman” category of priesthealer-magician-leaders diverges. and an organized priestly category begins to develop along with an organized opinion category. Because the development of civilisation in Macondo is cardinal to the secret plan of Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s One Hundred Old ages of Solitude. and the development of civilisation in Santa Monica de los Venados comprises a cardinal portion of Alejo Carpentier’s The Lost Steps. the function of the freshly emerging faith plays an of import portion in both plants. The function of faith has many similarities between the two plants. Because both plants are written by Latin American writers. and both metropoliss are located in the South American jungle. the dominant faith in the meeting societies is Roman Catholicism.
In One Hundred Old ages of Solitude. it is represented by a series of secular ( intending non-monastic ) priests. get downing with Padre Nicanor Reyna. In The Lost Steps. it is represented by a Capuchin mendicant. the gnarly old Fray Pedro. In both plants. the reverends have come to evangelise to non-Christians: Padre Nicanor to the irreligious town of Macondo. Fray Pedro to the heathen Indians of Santa Monica. Both are invited to their several towns by the governor. the governing category: the Adelantado invites Fray Pedro. because he feels the town is big plenty to necessitate a church ; Don Apolinar Mascote. the magistrate of Macondo. invites Padre Nicanor to Macondo from the nearby swamp to execute the nuptials of Rebeca Buendia and Pietro Crespi. and seeing the irreligious province of Macondo.
Nicanor decides to remain. Both of the priests represent a greater degree of civilisation in the towns: the towns have of course acquired an organized priestly category as they have grown larger and more complex. Both besides impose themselves on the public: Fray Pedro and Padre Nicanor each draftee labour ( and money. in the instance of Nicanor ) from the public in order to construct big church edifices ; and both impose new moral limitations on the people. as Padre Nicanor tries to coerce the people of Macondo into the heavy ritualism of Catholicism. and Fray Pedro angrily urges the Narrator to get married his consort. Rosario. As the Narrator of The Lost Steps says. “The bonds beneath the Samaritan’s robe have been revealed. Two organic structures can non take their pleasance together without black-nailed fingers desiring to do the mark of the cross over them” ( 223 ) . The revivalists in both plants represent civilisation with an organized priesthood. by enforcing themselves on the public. by showing new moral restraints. by proselytising to a non-Christian people. and by stand foring the Roman Catholic religion.
However. they differ in that Fray Pedro is sincere in his religion where the Military chaplains are hypocritical ; Fray Pedro is welcomed by the public. where the Padres’ Gospel falls on deaf ears ; and the Fraile adheres to a rigorous. cloistered religion. while the Padres represent what Fray Pedro denounces as “the worldly priests. those he termed new Sellerss of indulgences. dreamers of cardinals’ chapeaus. tenors of the pulpit” ( Carpentier 168 ) . The faith of Fray Pedro is the faith of Jesus and the adherents. of giving up all worldly ownerships and taking to the route to distribute the Word. The faith of Father Nicanor is the faith of the Renaissance Popes and the Sellerss of indulgences. of centralised faith supported by the money and labour of the people. Their differences represent the differences between their attacks to faith ; in both works the falsity of modern society is reflected as the simple. cloistered. crude religion of the Fraile is contrasted against the ruse and sophistication of the modern religion of the secular clergy.
The lip service of the Padres is apparent in their patterns ; in order to convert the people of Macondo to allow him the money to construct his church. Padre Nicanor must fall back to parlor fast ones of levitation. go throughing them off as “undeniable cogent evidence of the infinite power of God” ( Garcia Marquez 85 ) . Padre Antonio Isabel spends every bit much clip raising contending cocks—a symbol of all that Jose Arcadio Buendia had left behind in the civilised universe when he and his followings founded Macondo—as he does evangelising ; when he grooms Jose Arcadio Segundo for the priesthood. “He was learning him the catechism as he shaved the cervixs of his roosters” ( Ibid. 191 ) . The Sexton Petronio confesses to Jose Arcadio Segundo that some members of Macondo’s church overcome the stenosiss of Church-enforced celibacy by “ [ making ] their concern with female donkeys” ( Ibid. 191 ) .
Padre Nicanor even ceases to evangelise to Jose Arcadio Buendia ; at foremost. “He [ Jose Arcadio Buendia ] was so obstinate [ in necessitating a daguerreotype of God to believe ] that Father Nicanor gave up his efforts at evangelization and continued sing him out of human-centered feelings” ( Ibid. 86 ) . and so as Jose Arcadio Buendia “tried to interrupt down the priest’s religion with positivist tricks” ( Ibid. 86 ) . “concerned about his ain religion. the priest did non come back to see him [ Jose Arcadio Buendia ] and dedicated himself to travel rapidlying along the edifice of the church” ( Ibid. 87 ) . Fray Pedro. on the other manus. is sincere and rigorous in his religion ; he “has served a forty-year apostolate in the jungle” ( Carpentier 168 ) . The Fraile bitterly denounces the “worldly priests” ( Ibid. 168 ) and tells scaring narratives of his function theoretical accounts. ghastly martyrdoms. “priests torn limb from limb by the Maranon Indians ; one Blessed Diego barbarously tortured by the last Inca ; Juan de Lizardi. shooting through with Paraguayan pointers ; and 40 mendicants who had their pharynxs slit by Protestant plagiarists. ” The Fraile finally joins that atrocious host ; despite full cognition that the folk to whom he left Santa Monica to evangelise was “The lone perverse and bloody-minded American indians of the region” ( Ibid. 206 ) and that “No
missionary had of all time returned” ( Ibid. 206 ) . he however goes to evangelise to them ; “His organic structure. pierced with pointers and with the thorax split unfastened. had been found by one of the Yannes brothers” ( Ibid. 265 ) . The aged Fraile ne’er allowed his cause to discontinue. despite cognizing full good the likely effects. and so he “had found the supreme wages a adult male can confabulate on himself: that of traveling to run into his decease. withstanding it. and falling in a combat which. for the vanquished. is the arrowed triumph of St. Sebastian. the mob and concluding licking of death” ( Ibid. 263 ) . The ruse of the secular clergy is shown through the lip service and self-seeking behaviour of the Padres. while the Fraile’s committedness and ultimate martyrdom confirm the sincere and unswerving religion of the primitive. cloistered clergy. The Fraile’s and Padres’ attacks to faith are exemplified by the churches they construct. Padre Nicanor “decided to set about the edifice of a church. the largest in the universe. with lifesize saints and stained-glass Windowss on the sides. so that people would come from Rome to honour God in the centre of impiousness.
He went everyplace imploring alms with a Cu dish. They gave him a big sum. but he wanted more. because the church had to hold a bell that would raise the drowned up to the surface of the water” ( Garcia Marquez 85 ) . Fray Pedro. on the other manus. requires a big edifice which requires much work. but is still content with a primitive. clay and wattle edifice. without even Padre Nicanor’s beloved bells: “It was a broad. unit of ammunition cabin. with a pointed roof like that of the huts of thenar fronds over a model of boughs. topped by a wooden cross. Fray Pedro was determined that the Windowss should hold a Gothic air. with pointed arches. and the repeat of two curving lines in a clay and wattle wall was. in this distant topographic point. a precursor of the Gregorian chant. We hung a low bole from the bell-tower. and in stead of bells I had suggested a sort of teponaxtle” ( Carpentier 201 ) . Padre Nicanor must construct a immense. ornate church to do his message seem more glorious. but Fray Pedro is willing to
settee for clay and lappet. a wooden cross. and a roof of palm fronds: the message entirely should be glorious plenty. The natural effect of the lip service of the Padres is that their evangelism falls on deaf ears. and the people are about apathetic to their presence. When Nicanor decided to remain in Macondo to establish Catholicism. “no one paid any attending to him. They would reply him that they had been many old ages without a priest. set uping the concern of their psyches straight with God. and that they had lost the immorality of original sin” ( Garcia Marquez 84-85 ) . He has to fall back to his levitating fast ones to pull the people’s attending. and when the 17 Aurelianos are convinced by Amaranta to go to services on Ash Wednesday. they were “More amused than devout” ( Ibid. 222 ) . When Padre Nicanor holds an alfresco mass in his impermanent church with an jury-rigged communion table. “Many went out of wonder. Others from nostalgia. Others so that God would non take the contempt for His intermediary as a personal abuse. ”
No-one comes out of religion in the Church or regard for the priest. The rigmarole and ruse of the secular clergy renders the people detached and unreceptive to their evangelism. The pretentious show and complex ritualism— “baptizing their [ the people of Macondo’s ] kids or consecrating their festivals” ( Ibid. 84 ) . the reprobating Macondo’s “prospering in the thick of dirt. topic to natural law” ( Ibid. 84 ) . “ [ giving ] sacraments to the dying” ( Ibid. 84 ) —sticks out like a sore pollex against the crude background of developing Macondo. The Fraile’s attack. nevertheless. of course agrees with the countrified. simple Indians of Santa Monica de los Venados. and they are receptive to his message. Fray Pedro and the Padres of Macondo are likewise in their societal place. rigorous moralization. Catholic faith. and evangelic mission. Where they differ. they differ over earnestness and committedness. and over artifice versus genuineness. show versus action. The Capuchin mendicant is
content with countrified adjustments. and spreads his message non merely by prophesying with his lips. but by demoing with his action. He exemplifies Jesus’ commandment to be like a metropolis on a hill. The secular priests of Macondo are content to consequence the visual aspect of religion. to teach through prophesying while beliing themselves through behaviour. and to replace decadent shows for existent spiritual leading. Much like the contrast of Mouche against Rosario. or Ursula against Fernanda. the differences between these two attacks to religion expose the struggle of countrified simpleness against modern pretence.