Research Proposal in Tqm Essay

Chapter Four Research Methodology………………………………………………………………56 4. 1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………. 56 4. 2 Research design………………………………………………………………….. 56 4. 3 Data collection……………………………………………………………………58 4. 3. 1 Secondary data…………………………………………………………………. 58 4. 3. 2 Primary data……………………………………………………………………. 59 4. 4 Interview…………………………………………………………………………. 59 4. 5 Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………….. 61 4. 5. 1 Designing questionnaire……………………………………………………….. 61 4. 5 2 Reason of choosing questionnaire……………………………………………… 62 4. 6 Data analysis ……………………………………………………………………. 63 4. Reliability and validity of data………………………………………………….. 63 4. 8 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………. 65 CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4. 1 INTRODUCTION There are increasing number of organisations which are adopting quality measures such as Total Quality Management as their management strategies are not only for meeting increasing demands for quality services from their customers and regulatory bodies but also for a distinct and strategic competitive advantage. This chapter will concentrate on the research design and methodology relevant to identify the Total Quality Management system of Sainsbury’s.

It will also focus on the research methods used to fulfil the purpose of the thesis. A description of the problems associated with the research together with an assessment of their implication on this research will also be highlighted in this chapter. “Research can be defined as something that people undertake in order to find out things in a systematic way, thereby increasing their knowledge”(Saunders et al. , 2002). 4. 2 RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analysing the needed information. It is a framework of the research plan of action.

We will write a custom essay sample on
Research Proposal in Tqm Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

The objectives of the study determined at the early stages of the research are included in the design to ensure that the information collected is appropriate to solve the problem. The researcher faces a number of crucial design choices. These can be summarised in a categorisation of research design types. Some major ones are: ? Experiment ? Survey ? Case study ? Grounded theory ? Ethnography ? Action research ? Cross section and longitudinal studies ? Exploratory, descriptive studies. Source- Saunders et al. , 2003 Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill (2003) state that there is no one best research design for all situations.

There are no hard and fast rules for good research. It means that the researcher has many alternative methods for solving the research problem. “There is never a single, standard, correct method of carrying out a piece of research. Do not wait to start your research until you find out the proper approach, because there are many ways to tackle a problem. ” Source- Zikmund, 1994. In this research multi method approach will be used for the data collection. This approach and strategy obviously do not exist in isolation, and therefore can be mixed and matched. It is quite useful for a single study to combine and use primary and secondary data.

Based on the past study on the research design it can be said that there are two major advantages to employ multi methods in the same study (Saunders et al. , 2003). Firstly, different methods can be used for different purposes in a study. As in this research for example, interviews will be conducted to get a feeling for the key before embarking on the most important issues. The second advantage of using this method is that it enables triangulation to take place. Triangulation refers to the use of different data collection methods in one study in order to ensure that the data is backing up the aims and objectives of the research.

For example as in this case the semi structured interviews may be a valuable way of triangulating data collected by questionnaires. 4. 3 DATA COLLECTION Once the research design has been formalised, the process of gathering data from respondents can begin. In this dissertation the multi method research technique will be used. There are four basic methods for data collection namely, observation, focus group and depth interview, survey and experiments (Kotler, 2001). The use of data collection method is dependent on the nature of research topics and there is no absolute answer. 4. 3. 1 SECONDARY DATA

Secondary data are data gathered by someone else prior to the current needs of the researcher. These data are usually historic, already assembled and do not require access to respondents or subjects. Secondary data include both qualitative and quantitative data and they can be used in both descriptive and explanatory research (Saunders et al. , 2003). Secondary data can provide a background to primary research. Even if it does not fulfil exactly what is needed, it might help to determine key variables that any subsequent primary research will have to investigate; it may help determine sampling methods or sample sizes.

The secondary data is used in this dissertation for a literature survey of published article, newspaper, internet and books discussing theories. Most of the secondary data will be taken from text books, journals, newspaper and internet. Some facts and figures will be extracted from the quality records of Sainsbury’s. 4. 3. 2 PRIMARY DATA Primary data is data that is collected at source. It is collected to fulfil the demands of the current research project. Primary data is collected through experiments, observations, interviews, survey etc.

In practice there were various methods, which could have been adopted for gathering the primary data for this particular research. Through careful examination the author decided to use structured questionnaires and personal interview methods to gather primary data. 4. 4 INTERVIEW Interviewing is a method of collecting data in which selected participants are asked questions in order to find out what they do, think or feel. An interview is a powerful discussion between two or more people (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2002). The use of interviews can help to gather valid and reliable data that are relevant to the research objectives.

Interviews can be highly formalised and structured, using standardised questions for each respondent or they may be informal and unstructured conversations. Interviews can be classified as following types: • Structured interviews • Semi- structured interviews • Unstructured interviews Source- Saunders et al. , 2003 Structured interviews use questionnaires based on a predetermined and standardised or identical set of questions. Each question will be read out and then the response will be recorded on a standardised schedule. By comparison semi- structured and unstructured interviews are non-standardised.

In semi- structured interviews the researcher will have a list of themes and questions to be covered although these may vary from interview to interview. One aspect of semi structured interviews is that the issues discussed, the questions raised, and the maters explored, change from one interview to the next as different aspects of the topic are revealed. This process of open discovery is the strength of such interviews, but it is important to recognise that emphasis and balance of the emerging issues might depend on the order in which interviewer and interviewee participate.

The author has selected semi structured interview method because it is the best way to know the view of the managers of Sainsbury’s about TQM. In semi structured interview method the interviewer have the chance to introduce different questions in different situations. As the researcher is not aware about the TQM of Sainsbury’s this type of interview method will help him to evaluate the present situation. 4. 5 QUESTIONNAIRE A questionnaire is a list of carefully structured questions, chosen after considerable testing, with a view to eliciting reliable responses from a chosen sample. ( Hussey & Hussey, 1997 ).

Typically a questionnaire is only one element of a data collection package that includes fieldwork procedures, such as instructions for selecting, approaching and questioning respondents. The aim of questionnaire is to find out what a selected group of participants do, think or feel. Questionnaires are the most popular data collection method in business research. The majority of the questionnaires are descriptive and analytical. The descriptive questionnaires are used to gather information related to attitude and opinion. This will enable the author to identify and describe the variability in different phenomena.

Although questionnaires can be used as only a method of data collection, they are usually linked to other methods. This research questionnaire can be used to discover employee opinion and attitudes, and can be supplemented by in depth interviews to explore and understand those attitudes. In addition questionnaires normally require less skill and sensitivity to administer than semi- structured or in depth interviews (Saunders et al. , 2003). 4. 5. 1 Questionnaire design For this research the researcher has decided to prepare two sets of questionnaire: one for the employees of the Sainsbury’s and the other for the customers.

The questionnaire for the employees will target to assess the awareness of the employees towards TQM, job satisfaction, and understanding of their duties and responsibilities. The questionnaire of the customer will concentrate on the expectation of the customer, their experience about shopping at Sainsbury’s and the quality of service they get. The questions will be designed in such a way that every respondent will understand it properly as it is very important to get a reliable data. The questions will not be open ended and there will be multiple choice of answers which will enable the respondents to select the answer close to their opinion. . 5. 2 REASONS OF CHOOSING QUESTIONNAIRE As per Jill Hussey and Roger Hussey (1997) state, a questionnaire survey is cheaper and less time consuming than conducting interviews, and large samples can be taken (Hussey & Hussey, 1997). Open ended questions offer the advantage that the respondents are able to give their opinions as precisely as possible in their own words but they can be difficult to analyse. Open questions may deter busy people from responding to the questionnaire. Closed questions are very convenient for collecting factual data and are usually easy to analyse, as the range of answers is limited.

The drawback of multiple choice answer questionnaires is that it does not reflect the opinion of the respondents in their own words. So the researcher cannot be certain about how closely it matches their opinion. However it can sometimes be useful for dealing with sensitive issues, since it identifies different responses. It can also be useful as a means of cross checking other questions by presenting the situation in a different way. 4. 6 DATA ANALYSIS This research will contain both qualitative and quantitative data. Once data collection has been completed the phase of data analysis begins.

All the quantitative data will be analyzed by using tabulation and statistical analysis. For this all the data need to be coded and entered into a standard form. Coding involves the assigning of numerical codes to responses so that they can be stored in the data field, interpreted and manipulated for statistical and tabular purpose (Wilson, 2003). After coding and data entry frequency of each question will be calculated. Frequency distribution shows the number of respondents who gave each possible answer to each question.

The author will use cross tabulations as well to analyze the data as it examines the responses of one question relative to the responses of one or more questions. The qualitative data will be analyzed by using the annotation method. The annotation method involves the researcher reading through the transcripts and annotating the margins with codes or comments to categorise the points being made by respondents (Wilson, 2003). 4. 7 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Validity is the extent to which the research findings, accurately represents what is really happening in the situation (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2002).

An effect or test is valid if it demonstrates or measures what the researcher thinks or claims it does. Research errors, such as faulty research procedure, poor samples and inaccurate or misleading measurement can undermine validity. There are a number of different ways in which the validity of research can be assessed. The most common is face validity which simply involves ensuring that the test or measures used by the researcher do actually measure or represent what they are supposed to measure (Hussey & Hussey, 1997). Another form of validity, which is important in business research, is internal and external validity.

Internal validity refers to the extent to which the researcher can infer that a casual relationship exits between two or more variables (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2002). External validity relates to what extent the findings can be generalized to particular persons, settings and times, as well as across types of persons, settings and times (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2002). For example when conducting an election poll, external validity is usually used as a basis for generalizing the number of voters. In this research questionnaire will be sent to those employees who work in Sainsbury’s.

Precautions will be taken during the preparation of the questions so that everybody understands the questions clearly. To get a valid data following precautions will be taken: • Interview will be carried out by the researcher himself. • Those people who meet the requirement of the survey will be interviewed. • The interview will be conducted in correct location and manner as these factors might affect the response. • All the questions will be asked to the interviewee. • Precaution will be taken to find out if the respondent is unhappy about anything.

Reliability refers to the consistency in reaching the same results when the measurement is made over and over again (Proctor, 2000). On the contrary, validity is the extent to which any measuring instrument measures what it intends to measure. In this dissertation no tests or experiments were taken. Hence reliability of the measurement employed to collect the data is irrelevant. Since the dissertation is of descriptive nature, the data that has been collected from secondary source need to be accurate and valid. In accordance with this principle all data will be taken from recent publications. 4. 8 CONCLUSION

This chapter has given an idea about the research methodology the researcher is going to adopt in this thesis. It also critically analyses the reasons of selecting any particular method for collecting data. The researcher has decided to carry out two types of questionnaires; one for the customers and one for the employees of Sainsbury’s to collect primary data. The author will conduct semi-structured interviews with the managers of Sainsbury’s to gather primary data about the management policy of the organization. The next chapter will analyse the collected data and concentrate on individual consequence. CHAPTER FIVE

DATA ANALYSIS 5. 1 INTRODUCTION Previous chapter analysed the research design and the reasons of choosing questionnaire and semi structured interview for this research. This chapter will contain an intensive analysis of the acquired data. This chapter will be divided into three parts. In the first part there is an analysis based on staff questionnaire, each questionnaire findings will be analysed in this part based on previous related theory of literature review. In the second part findings of customer questionnaire will be analysed in the same process and finally the interviews will be evaluated based on recent academic theory . . 2 ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRES Data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure and meaning to the mass of collected data (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2002). Descriptive statistics is used to analyse the data because it helps to summarise the characteristics of large sets of data using only a few numbers and it is also useful in analysing data with more than one variable (Wilson, 2003). Frequency distribution is used to show the number of respondents. In addition to frequency distribution the author has calculated the percentage of those responding who selected each response.

Cross tabulations are another powerful analysis technique as they examine the responses to one question relative to the responses to one or more other questions (Wilson, 2003). In addition to cross tabulation (Refer to appendix-1 & 2 for details) the researcher has presented the data in a variety of graphical formats using pie charts, bar charts, these can help in the communication of results and patterns in data. Two software are used to complete this analysis, firstly Microsoft XL, secondly Microsoft word. |Sample type |Total no. of questionnaires sent |No. f responses |Response rate | |Customer |100 |65 |65% | |Employee |75 |60 |80% | Table: 2. – Response of questionnaires 5. 3 ANALYSIS OF STAFF QUESTIONNAIRES (Refer to appendix- 1) Question no. 1- Sex [pic] Fig. 10- Male/ female ratio The sample is biased towards male with 59. 5% response. It is very difficult to make any conclusion based on sex, because sample size is very small.

But there are some significant changes found between men and women analyzed the question 4 and question 12. (Please see appendix). From there it is clear that men do change frequently for example, they are using Sainsbury as their platform of experience, so after one or two years they are switching to a new job, on the other hand women are not very frequent to change their existing job. After analysing question 12 it can be said that women like to choose easy method but men mostly prefer difficult than women to use TQM as a system. Question no. 2- Age [pic] Fig. 1- Age group/ employees percentage chart The respond to this question shows a clear skew towards younger people with 25% aged less than 25 years, 50% between 25 to 35 years, 15. 5% between 36 to 45 years and 9. 5% more than 45 years. There is a higher level of support for TQM in younger staffs but the older age group are against any technical change. Question no. 3- Work category The graph shows that higher number of people responded this question were from shop floor replenishment and customer service. The reason could be that there are more employees in these two categories compared to others.

The trend identified in this group, are as follows- • Management and office worker show higher level of acceptance to TQM than shop floor replenishment and customer service employees. • In respond to question no. 12 shop floor replenishment and customer service employees have selected the method which is easy to use but the other two groups were biased in their respond. • Management and office employees showed their acceptance towards higher level of communication. [pic] Fig. 12- Work category/ employee percentage Question no. 4- Service duration

This graph is showing that after six months experience most of the employee want to switch their job. Before six months they are very much efficient but if they get any opportunities they want to quite the job, even when they are quite matured they want to leave the job but percentage is lower than previous three levels. So it is very important for Sainsbury’s to find the reason why employees tend to leave, as senior employees are motivated and participate fully in different programmes lead by the management. It is expensive for an organisation to train up an employee (Refer to appendix- 1). pic] Fig. 13- Service duration/ percentage of employee Question no. 5- Part time/fulltime [pic] Fig. 14- Part time/ full time Among the employees 64. 2% are part time workers, where about 29. 8% are full time workers. From the research it has revealed that part time employees are less motivated to work than full time employees, but there is a time provision for part time workers when they are really motivated. Question 4 is showing that most of the workers want to leave the job after six months or one year job experience. There could be some reasons behind taking their decision. . Part time employees also don’t participate fully in different programmes introduced by top management to increase customer satisfaction. 2. They feel less motivated as they know they cannot take any decision for the company. 3. They don’t have any stability, they know at any time they can lose their jobs. In respond to question number six about understanding of responsibility they show a skew from ignorant to confident. They also tend to work properly if supervised; this is revealed in the answer to question number seven (Refer to appendix- 1).

Question no. 6- Understanding of responsibility [pic] Fig. 15- Understanding of responsibility The answer to this question is very important in the understanding of the responsibilities of employees. Sainsbury’s will have to make sure that all the employees understand their basic responsibilities, which will help them to perform their duties properly. Question no. 7- Dedication to responsibility From the graph it is clear that most of the employees are dedicated to their responsibilities. 35. 30% employees perform their duties properly if they are supervised.

But half of the employees do believe that they can do better in their field they get freedom to do their into their own ways. People do not like supervision especially if they are matured in the job. But good performance only came from high level of supervision so Sainsbury will get a good customer service if employees are dedicated enough and be supervised. [pic] Fig. 16- Dedication to duty Question no. 8- Attitude towards change. Change is the key factor to get competitive advantages than other super markets. People don’t like changes especially those are old aged.

Research showing that men are accepting changes better than women. From this survey it can be said that employees from Sainsbury are enthusiastic about changes and they are not hostile. [pic] Fig. 17- Attitude towards change Question no. 9- Attitude to TQM 80. 80% employee do believe that TQM system is an effective and planned way to improve customer service so need to use them for increasing job efficiency. In respond to question number 9. b. 90. 20% of the employees believe that training can help them to do better job. So training will enable them to understand their responsibility and enjoy their job.

So this attitude surely help Sainsbury to make any changes into their TQM. On the response of the question no 9. c. 77. 9% employees strongly believe that TQM system will make their job easier and 74. 60% employees believe that introduction of new TQM system might change the organizational structure and may provide more opportunities for them. So after analysing question no. 9 it can be said that employees of Sainsbury will warmly accept any changes because they are enthusiastic enough to accept any changes as a result new TQM can be really effective from the employees point of view. pic] 9. a Fig. 18- Attitude towards TQM [pic] 9. b Fig. 18- Attitude towards TQM [pic] 9. c Fig. 19- Attitude towards TQM [pic] 9. d Fig. 20- Attitude towards TQM Question no. 10- Resistance to TQM This question aimed to identify how the employees will express their resistance if they are not satisfied with the TQM system of the company. The graph shows that most of the employees do not tend to express their resistance openly. In this situation it will be difficult for the management to know the view of the employees about any changes introduced by them.

For this type of attitude the employees will not participate fully with changes and the organisation will not achieve its target. [pic] Fig. 21- Resistance to TQM Question no. 11- Change in work [pic] Fig. 22- Change in work The aim of this question was to find out the extent of changes the employees will accept in their work place regarding their responsibility and mobility. In the graph 1 represents a little change and 5 for lot of changes. From the graph it is clear that most of the employees do not expect lots of changes in the way they work.

The answer to this question will help the management to decide the extent of changes they can introduce in the organisation. Question no. 12- Expectation from TQM From the research carried by the author it is revealed that about 60. 2% of the employees expect TQM method to be easy and which will fulfil their basic needs. Mainly part time workers and women are against any technical change, they always prefer the method which is easy to use. But young employees and full time employees have chosen the method which fulfils every need (Refer to appendix- 1). pic] Fig. 23 – Expectation from TQM Question no. 13- Attitude towards organisation [pic] Fig. 24- Attitude towards organization This question was based to find out the view of the employees about the organisation regarding employee communication. The graph shows a skew from low to high rate of communication. Office and management staff, think the rate of employee communication is high in the organisation but the shop floor replenishment and customer service workers are biased between low and high rate (Refer to appendix- Part 1). . 4 ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMER QUESTIONNAIRES (Refer to appendix- 2) 1. SEX: this is really hard to do an analysis based on sex. From the questionnaire for customers it can be said that most of the attendee are male that is 60%. On the other hand 40% are female. |Male |60% | |Female |40% |

Figure: 25 sex[pic] And if we see the next question 2 and if we analyze the answer then it’s clear that most of the young males are participated frequently. But it doesn’t mean that males are going for shopping frequently. (Refer to appendix- 2) 2. Age: |15-25 |25-35 |35-45 |More than 45 | |55% |20% |20% |5% | [pic] Fig: 26 Age

After analyzing the age group it can be said that 55% of the people go to Sainsbury very frequently and there age range is 15 – 25. Following that 20% of both mature people from age range 25 – 35 and 35 – 45 are going Sainsbury fulfilling their need but they are not very frequent like young adults. And finally 5% people use to go Sainsbury for shopping and they are more than 45 years old. So from this analysis it can be said that if Sainsbury wants to target its customer they can concentrate on young adults. (Refer to appendix- 2) 3. Reasons for Shopping Sainsbury: | | | | |Quality |Service |Price |Brand Loyalty | |45% |25% |20% |10% | [pic] Fig: 27 Reasons for Shopping Sainsbury Most of the people like Sainsbury only for its quality products. People do believe that they are getting fresh and original product from Sainsbury.

On the other hand 25% of people think that Sainsbury is the place where they can get real services. 20% of the people think that Sainsbury is really good for its price because those people are price sensitive. 10% people think that Sainsbury is a very good brand and they want to shopping there because they are really loyal to Sainsbury as they feel Sainsbury is such a brand where they can get perfect quality, service and price and they can trust Sainsbury closing their eyes. (Refer to appendix- 2) 4. People visiting Sainsbury in a week: 1-2 days |2-4 days |4-6 days |Everyday in a week | |10% |25% |65% |0% | [pic] Fig: 28 People visiting Sainsbury in a week Most of the young aged people frequently visit Sainsbury with the amount of 65% with a range of 4 – 6 days. Then 25% people use to visit Sainsbury 2 – 4 days. And 10% people visit Sainsbury 1-2 days. But there is no one who visit Sainsbury everyday in a week. (Refer to appendix- 2) . How convenient for finding desired items in Sainsbury? | Easy level 1 |Easy level 2 |Easy level 3 |Difficult | |50% |20% |20% |10% | [pic] Fig: 29 How convenient for finding desired items in Sainsbury 50% people think that it is really easy to find a product that customer desire. On the other hand 20% believe that it is easy but sometime it is difficult to find their desired items.

Following that 20% people think that it is not really easy to find their desired items in Sainsbury. Finally 10% people think that it is really hard to find their desired items in Sainsbury. (Refer to appendix- 2) 6. Satisfaction of quality products: |Yes |No | |70% |30% | [pic] Fig: 30 Satisfaction of quality products

Most of the People are really happy and satisfied because of its high quality, so according to this analysis 70% are really satisfied with the product service and quality of product. On the other hand 30% of people do not like Sainsbury because they are not satisfied with the performance of Sainsbury. (Refer to appendix- 2) 7. satisfaction with the service of Sainsbury: |Yes |No | |65% |35% | pic] Fig: 31 satisfaction with the service of Sainsbury Most of the people are satisfied with the service of Sainsbury its showing that its maintaining its quality. So employees are trying their level best to satisfy the customers But unfortunately 35% of them do not agree with the majority proportion because they think, Service level of Sainsbury is not really appreciable. As a result Sainsbury must concentrate to those sectors where customers are not satisfied. So TQM group of Sainsbury should keep in mind those issues. (Refer to appendix- 2) 8. Performance of Sainsbury: Good |Very good |Excellent |Bad |Very Bad | |20% |65% |15% |0% |0% | [pic] Fig: 32 Performance of Sainsbury Analysis of the performance of Sainsbury is showing a positive result of Sainsbury as 65% of customers think that performance of Sainsbury is really good. Where 20% think Sainsbury is really performing good and 15% customers think that performance of Sainsbury is excellent. (Refer to appendix- 2) 9.

Customers are shopping other supermarkets? |Yes |No | |95% |5% | [pic] Fig: 33 Customers are shopping other supermarkets Majority of the customers are shopping others supermarkets rather than Sainsbury. So Sainsbury cannot make monopoly among customers. So Sainsbury must bring those issues as it is loosing customers. (Refer to appendix- 2) 5. 5 CONCLUSION

This chapter analyses the data gathered by questionnaires and interview. Analysis of these data is very important to evaluate the total quality management of Sainsbury’s and also to find out the areas of further development. Following points can be concluded from the analysis: • There is significant difference between age, sex and employee category in their view towards total quality management. • Older age group employees tend to stay long in the organization compared to younger age group and most of the women are against any technical change. • Most of the employees support TQM. Employees support TQM as it makes job easier and offers more opportunities. • Employees tend to express their resistance covertly. • Young and new employees are less motivated towards their duty. • Shop floor replenishment and checkout employees are less interested to TQM compared to management and general office employees. • Male and female customers have different view to the TQM of Sainsbury’s • Customers shop in Sainsbury’s for good quality products. • It’s difficult for women and older age group customers to find out the product they are looking for. Most of the customers are satisfied with the quality of the products. • About 30% customers are not happy with the availability • Women have a tendency to shop in other supermarkets. • From the semi-structured interview it is revealed that almost all the managers think that Sainsbury have a very good TQM policy. Most of the employees are motivated to their duty. All the managers think that training and communication are very important to ensure employee participation. 5. 6 Case study of J. Sainsbury Plc: J. Sainsbury Plc is one of the leading retail company in uk. The company is recognizable in the uk stock exchange.

Sainsbury operates a chain of 509 super markets and 276 convenience stores and also operate a bank. The convience stores are under 15,000 sq ft and among the 509 stores 159 stores are over 40,000 sq ft, 158 stores are under 40,000 sq ft. (Sainsbury’s official website,Investors, accessed time: 11 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/index. asp? pageid=4 ) The board of sainsbury comprises three exicutive directors and six non executive directors and the responsiblities between the chairman and cheaf executive are clearly devided all the non executive directors are indipendent.

The chairman is responsibl for leadership of the board setting its agenda and monitoring its effectivenss. (Sainsbury’s official website,Investors, accessed time: 11 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/index. asp? pageid=4 ) The board has the responsiblity for the system of internal controls includings risk management. They system of internal control is designed to manage rather than illiminate risk. The processs use to assess the effectiveness of the internal control are on going enabling a cumulative assessment to be made.

The system of internal control and risk management is embedded into the operations of the company and the opinion of the company and the actions take into mitigate any weakness is carefully monitored. Corporate responsiblity is an everyday part of how the company does businesses and is coordinated by the “ Corporate responsibility strieeting”, group, which reports on a regular basis to “the operating board”, twice annually to the board. In sales terms the company is massieve. In 2007, profits are ? 8,518 m and in 2008 sales are ? 19,287m which means gross sales growth is ? 769m and which is including VAT. Profit before tax in 2007 is ? 77m and 2008 ? 479m, which has a growth of ? 2m. And profit after tax in 2007 is ? 324m and 2008 ? 329m. Earning per share in 2007 is ? 14. 70 and 2008 is ? 19. 60 which has the growth of ? 4. 9 per share. The same case as in dividend payable, in 2007 dividend per share is ? 9. 75 and 2008 is ? 12. 00 which also had a growth of ? 2. 25. (Sainsbury’s official website,Investors, accessed time: 11 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/index. asp? pageid=4 ) Sainsbury has five agenda over its customer and employee, they are- 1. Best for food and health: ? 1% milk ? healthier break-fast ? Sainsbury’s organic food Improving basic range ? Multiple traffic light lebelling (Sainsbury’s official website,corporate responsiblity, accessed time: 11 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/cr/index. asp? pageid=46) 2. Sourcing with integrity: ? Freedom for chicken ? Knowing where its food comes from ? Faretrade forth night ? “ Responsiblity sourced” scottish salmon (Sainsbury’s official website,corporate responsiblity, accessed time: 11 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/cr/index. asp? pageid=46) 3. Respect for our environment: ? New text service to help customers kick their “Bag habits” ? The UK’s greenest store Food deliveries run on rabbish ? Helping customers make the difference ? The UK’s greenest depot ? Plastic ain’t my bag ? Entrepreneurs sign up to help us tackle carrier bags ? Plastic wine bottle ? Helping customers have a greener christmas ? Innovating technology to minimize waste (Sainsbury’s official website,corporate responsiblity, accessed time: 11 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/cr/index. asp? pageid=46) 4. Making a possitive difference to our community: ? Safer and fitter with the “walking bus” ? Colleague goes back to school ? Local heros in the community ? Supporting customers in crisis Sainsbury’s official website,corporate responsiblity, accessed time: 11 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/cr/index. asp? pageid=46) 5. A great place to work: ? Sainbury’s and v-commit ? 300k to boost scout voluntters ? Working with MENCAP ? Skills pledge (Sainsbury’s official website,corporate responsiblity, accessed time: 11 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/cr/index. asp? pageid=46) Sainsbury is maintaining their Quality in Total management by adopting above five agenda and shows the responsiblities to the customers and the whole community towards a greener and cleaner country.

Not only they are obtaining their responsiblities towards the customers and the commnity but as well as they are giving their share holders a good chucnk of money of their investment back per year which shows above. Its profit are growing per year as well the dividend returns and retain earnings as shown above. Sainsbury also care for the stuffs like no other else, they are providing the struffs safer environment of work and providing them good food and product in less money by providing them “discount cards”. CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION

In this chapter researcher will analyze the main research question based on literature review and data analysis. This chapter will evaluate “the importance of TQM in developing Sainsbury and the areas for future development”. This chapter will show the improvement of Sainsbury in TQM and how can it improve more. Finally some recommendation analyzing the findings. Then research limitation will focus on the obstacles are faced by the researcher while working into this research and at last but not least for further research into this area. 6. Discussion of findings and Recommendation: the researcher has worked basically on the importance of TQM in the development of Sainsbury and to evaluate the areas for future development. For that researcher has used questionnaire, interview method for primary data and case study for secondary data. Questionnaire are divided into two one is for customer and one is for employee to know the real situation of TQM in Sainsbury. Literature review part will support for taking decision because after analyzing primary data some issues came those are really sophisticated for Sainsbury.

Literature reviews are collected from books, journals, newspaper and official website of Sainsbury. According to Sparks ( 1992b: 174) “ the customer is crucial to your pay packet. If the company and staff don’t deliver what the customer requires, then the future is going to be bleak” so customers questionnaire is very much important to know customers need and want. And after analyzing customer’s questionnaire this is clearly showing that customers are satisfied with the quality of Sainsbury but still 30% are not happy.

So its showing that those product they are manufacturing cannot satisfy fully customer as a result, Sainsbury should take immediate action to identify its weak point and recover them as soon as possible. Quality is very much important because most of the customers are visiting Sainsbury they are quality sensitive not price sensitive as 45% people are visiting Sainsbury only for quality and 20% for price. After quality service is very much important as 25% people believe that they are visiting Sainsbury because they like the employee of Sainsbury and their special service.

But unfortunately 35% people are still not happy with the service of Sainsbury. So Sainsbury should take initiative for improving service sectors as the questionnaire of employees are showing that employees of Sainsbury does not want to work more than 1-2 years and after this time most of the male employee change their work place because most of the employee are using this platform as their first career platform but this issue is really harmful for Sainsbury as it has a very good reputation for good service.

Most of the part timers think that they are temporary so providing a special service to customers is not their duty but this is the only duty of the full timers so customers are losing their interest to Sainsbury. Implementation of TQM will inevitably face resistance, which should be addressed directly by change agents. Question number 8, 10 and 12 in data analysis chapter shows the resistance to TQM by the employees. A key element of TQM is working with customers, and the notion of soliciting feedback or expectations from customers and collaborating with them.

There are several tactics, which can be helpful in dealing with resistance to TQM implementation. Generally, they have to do with acknowledging legitimate resistance and changing tactics based on it, using effective leadership to enrol people in the vision of TQM, and using employee participation. Employees or their representatives could be involved in decision areas ranging from the scope and overall approach of the TQM process to teams engaging in quality analysis and suggestions for improvements. They also could be involved in ancillary areas such as redesign of the organisation’s structure, information system or reward system.

Involvement of formal employee groups such as unions is a special consideration, which can greatly aid TQM implementation. If employees have more involvement in decision-making, managers will have less. In fact, one principle in employee involvement is that each level will be more empowered, and managers lose none of their fundamental authority. There will undoubtedly be changes in their roles; however they will spend less time on control and more on facilitation. This transition will require training, self reflection, and time as well as assurances from upper management that they are not in danger of being displaced. . 2 Limitation of the study: Time was the main limitation for this study because six month is really not enough for getting a fruitful result. On the other hand need to travel several places like different libraries, different stores of Sainsbury. Needed to take appointment with various ranked employees and finally customers took lot time to express their views. After that money was a big limitation. As a student it is very difficult to collect primary data, Even secondary data are not free.

There are very few books published on Total Quality Management, so Literature review are based on the earliest edition, as a result references are not up-to date. Following that customers are not willing to express their views, sometimes they don’t want to fill the questionnaire and sometimes they are biased with their personal feelings. So it is really difficult to find out the real truth from their hidden mind. To get appointment with employees was really difficult because they are really busy and they are not getting money or anything from this survey as a result they were not interested enough for supporting the researcher. . 3 Scope for Future Research: After analyzing the whole scenario it can be said that employee can be more motivated and effective for the organization if weaknesses are solved. This study is showing weaknesses and strengths of Sainsbury and opportunities of total quality management. Future research can show a better platform for Total Quality Management that will help to increase reputation of the following organization thus competitive advantages. 7. REFERENCE Reference Part-1: (From Books) 1. Oakland S. , (2003), “TQM Text with cases”, 3rd edition, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford. 2. steingard, D. S and Fitzgibbons, D.

E (1993) A postmodern deconstruction deconstruction of total quality management, journal of organizational change management, 6 (5): 27 – 42 . Stevens, M. (1992) workplace industrial Relations Survey (computer File) ESRC data arcive. 3. Evans, J, and Lindsay, W. (1993) The Management and control of Quality, Minneapolis: West Publishing. 4. Wilkinson A. , Redman T. , Snape E. , & Marchington M. ( 1998), “ Managing with Total Quality Management theory and practice”, Macmillan Business, London 5. Wlikinson, A. (1992) The other side of quality: soft issues and the human resource dimension, total quality managemnt, 3(3): 323-9. . Oakland S. , (2003), “TQM Text with cases”, 3rd edition, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford. 7. Oakland S. , (2000), “TQM Text with cases”, 2nd edition, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford. 8. Bounds. G, Yorks. L, Adams. M; & Ranney. G (1994), “ Total Quality Management” McGrawhill. 9. Porter,M. (1985) Competitive advantage, New york: Free press. 10. Proctor T. , (2000), “Essentials of Marketing Research”, Prentice Hall, Harlow, U. K. 11. Palmer A. , (1998), “Principles in services marketing”, McGraw-Hill, London. 12. Robson M. , (1985), “Quality circle in action”, Gower publishing Co. Ltd. , UK. 3. Rampresad H. , (2001), “TQM an executive guide to continuous improvement”, 14. Saunders et al. , ( 2002), “ Research Methods for Business Students”, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Harlow 15. Stebbing L. , (1994), Quality Assurance- The Route to Efficiency and Competitiveness”, 3rd edition, Ellios Harwood, Chichester. 16. Wilkinson A. , Redman T. , Snape E. , & Marchington M. ( 1998), “ Managing with Total Quality Management theory and practice”, Macmillan Business, London 17. Bank, John (1992), The Essence of Total Quality Management, Prentice Hall International Ltd, London. 18.

Burrill, Claude W. & Ledolter, Johannes (1999), Achieving Quality Through Continual Improvement, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. USA 19. Cooper, Donald R. & Schindler, Pamela S. (2006), Business Research Methods (9th edition), McGraw-Hill, USA. 20. Joyce, Michael E (1995), How to Lead Your Business Beyond TQM, Pearson professional Ltd, London Reference Part- 2: (From Articles & Journals) 1. Soltani. E, Meer, R. V. D & Williams, T. M (2005), “A contrast of HRM and TQM approaches to performance Management: some Evidence”, British Journal of Management, Vol. 16, 211-230. 2. Yen. H. J, Krumwiede, D.

W & Sheu, C (2002), “A Cross- culture comparison of top management personality for TQM implementation” Total quality Management, Vol. 13, No. 3, 3. Hafeez. K, Malak. N & Abdelmeguid, H, (2006) “A Framework for TQM to achieve Business Excellence,”, Total Quality Management, vol, 17, No. 9, 1213-1229, November. 4. Warwood. S & Robert Paul. A. B, (2004), “A survey of TQM success factors in the UK”, Total quality management, vol-15, No. 8, 1109-1117 October. 5. Bennett, L. M & Kerr. M. A (1996), A systems approach to the implementation of total quality management”, Total Quality Management, Vol-7, No. 6, 631-665. 6. Lakshman.

C, (2006)“A Theory of Leadership for Quality: Lessons from TQM for Leadership Theory”, Total Quality Management, Vol-17, No. 1, 41-60. January. 7. Venkateswarlu. P & Nilakant. V, (2005), “Adoption and persistence of TQM programs –Zealand Organizations”, Total Quality Management, Vol. 16, No. 7, 807-825. 8. Zairi, M. (2002), “ Beyond TQM implementatio the new Paradigm of TQM sustainability”, Vol-13, No: 8, 2002, 1161-1172. 9. Soltani. E, Chun Lai. P, & Gharneh, N. S, (2005), “ Breaking through barries to TQM effectiveness: Lack of commitement of upper-level Managemnt. ”, vol-16, No. 8-9, 1009-1021, October –November. 10. Wali.

A. A, Deshmukh,S. C, & Gupta, A. D, (2003), “ Critical Success factor of TQM: a select study of Indian organizations”, Product planning & control, Vol,. 14, No. 1,3 – 14. 11. Oakland. J (2005), “From quality to excellence in the 21st century”. Total Quality management, Vol. 16, No. 8-9, 1053-1060, October-November. 12. Palo. S & Padhi. N (2003), “Measuring effectiveness of TQM training: an Indian study” International Journal of training and development 7:3 ISSN 1360-3736. 13. Dick, S. , (1994), Customer loyalty: toward an integrated conceptual framework, Journal of the academy of marketing science, vol. 2, pp. 99-113 14. Harrington S. (2003), “A survey for the Grocer reveals the extent of the recruitment crisis that is dogging the shop floor”, The Grocer, pp- 42 15. Beardwell J. & Britton C. , (2003), Look who’s talking: the impact of HR on workplace communication, Peoples Management- the Magazine of the Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development, vol-9 issue-20, pp- 56. 16. Flamholtz E. & Hua W. ,(2003), Searching for the competitive advantage in the black box, European Management Journal, vol. – 21, issue- 2, pp- 225. 17. Grocer today, (2003), “The birthday card”, The Grocer, Vol. 226, No. – 7620, pp -35 18. Ravald A. & Gronroos C. , (1996), “The aim of relationship marketing”, -European journal of marketing, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 19-30. 19. Grocer today, (2003), Sainsbury needs more loyalty”, The Grocer, Oct. 2003, pp 23. 20. Idris. M. A & Zairi. M, (2006), “ Sustaining TQM: A synthesis of literature and proposed reserach framework”. Total Quality Managemnt, Vol, 17. No. 9, 1245-1260, November 2006. Reference Part – 3: ( From Internet) 1. Sainsbury’s official website,Our history, accessed time: 10 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/index. asp? ageid=188 2. Sainsbury’s official website,corporate responsiblity, accessed time: 11 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/cr/index. asp? pageid=46 3. (Sainsbury’s official website,Investors, accessed time: 11 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/index. asp? pageid=4 ) 4. (Sainsbury’s official website, Goals and values, accessed time: 10 am. Date: 13. 02. 09) http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/index. asp? pageid=203 5. (Company overview, accessed time: 1 am. Date: 14. 02. 09, http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/index. asp? pageid=202 ) 8. Appendix:

Part 1: Questionnaire for employee: My name is Mostafizur Rahman and I am doing my dissertation on Total Quality Management on Sainsbury’s UK. This questions will be used for research and academic purpose only. 1. Are you male or female? Male Female 2. Please specify your age group? Less than 25 25 – 35 35-45 More than 45 3. In which work category you are in? Shop floor replenishment Customer service/ checkout Supervision/Management General office 4.

How long have you been working in Sainsbury’s? Less than 6 months 6 Months – 1 Year 1-2 Years More than 2 years 5. Are you working full-time or part-time? Full-time Part- time 6. To what extent you understand your responsibility? (indicate 1 for ignorant and 5 for confident) Ignorant 1 2 3 4 5 Confident 7. How would you describe yourself in performing your duty? (indicate 1 for dedicated to duty and 5 for well if supervised) Dedicated to duty 1 2 3 4 5 Perform well if supervised. 8.

To what extent would you accept any changes in your workplace? (Indicate 1 if enthusiastic and 5 if hostile) Enthusiastic 1 2 3 4 5 Hostile 9. Changes are planned to improve the service quality of the organisation. Please indicate your view by indicating A for agree or D for disagree from the following list. a) TQM system is planned to improve A D customer service so you need to use them to help you to improve your job prospects. b) The training provided will enable you A D to understand your responsibility and njoy your job more. c) The use of TQM system will make A D your job easier. d) Introduction of TQM might change A D the organisation structure and provide more opportunities for you. 10. If you are not satisfied with the TQM system of the company how would you express your resistance? (indicate 1 if covertly and 5 if openly) Covertly 1 2 3 4 5 Openly 11. TQM system might change your work condition (eg. Job responsibility, working in different department or people etc. ).

Please express your view by indicating which is most appropriate to you. (Indicate 1 for a little change of responsibility and 5 for lot of changes) A little change 1 2 3 4 5 A lot of changes of responsibility 12. What do you expect from TQM as a system? System which fulfil most of my basic requirements but easy to use System which fulfil all the needs but difficult to use 13. How would you rate the organisation in employee communication? (indicate 1 for low and 5 for high) Low 1 2 3 4 5 High. Part 2: Questionnaire for Customers

My name is Mostafizur Rahman and I am doing my dissertation on Total Quality Management on Sainsbury’s UK. This questions will be used for research and academic purpose only. 1. Are you male or female? Male Female 2. Please specify your age group? Less than 25 25 – 35 35-45 More than 45 3. Why do you like to shop in Sainsbury? Quality Service Price Brand Equity . How Many times do you like to shop in Sainsbury? One day 2- 3 days 4 – 5 days Everyday in a week 5. Is it convenience for finding your desired items? (Please circle 1 for easy and 5 for difficult level) Easy 1 234 5 Difficult 6. Are you satisfied with the quality of product? YesNo. 7. Are you satisfied with the quality of products? Yes No. 8. Please rate Sainsbury according to its performance. Good very good Excellent Bad Very Bad . Do you shop in any other super markets? Yes No. ———————– 0. 00% 10. 00% 20. 00% 30. 00% 40. 00% 50. 00% 60. 00% 70. 00% Male Female 0. 00% 10. 00% 20. 00% 30. 00% 40. 00% 50. 00% Less than 25 25 to 35 36 to 45 More than 45 Age in years Percentage 0. 00% 10. 00% 20. 00% 30. 00% 40. 00% 50. 00% Shop floor Replenishment Customer Service/Check Out Supervision/M Management General office 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Less than 6 months 6 Months to 1year 1 to 2 Years More than 2 years 0. 00% 10. 00% 20. 00% 30. 00% 40. 00% 50. 00% 60. 00% 70. 00% Part time Full time


Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out