Respiratory System and Excretory System

The air we breathe is made of 78% ___.
nitrogen
The air we breathe is made of 21% ____.
oxygen
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Why do humans need air?
for respiration
What is the function of the respiratory system?
getting oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide and water out of the body
nose
two openings of the nose divided by the septum
What divides the two openings of the nose?
septum
What produces a sneeze?
when the nose is irritated by dust and bacteria
What do the blood vessels in the nose do?
warms the air we breathe
What filters the air as it passes through the nose?
small hairs
What does the mucus in our nose do?
moistens the air and helps trap dust and bacteria
epiglottis
flap that covers the trachea when swallowing
What is another name for the windpipe?
trachea
What is another name for the voice box?
larynx
What is the larynx made of?
cartilage
Where are the vocal cords located?
inside the larynix
What does the vocal cords do?
produce voice
How is sound produced in the larynx?
by air passing by the vocal cords causing them to vibrate
What kind of cord produces low pitch?
longer cords
What kind of cord produces high pitch?
short cords
What keeps the trachea open all the time?
c-shaped rings made of cartilage
What is the purpose of the mucus that lines the trachea?
to trap bacteria and dust that gets past the nose
What happens to the dust and bacteria that is collected in the trachea?
it gets swept back up by cilia
What produces a cough?
When there is irritation from dust particles in the trachea
The trachea branches to the left and right lung – what are those branches called?
bronchi
What is the singular form of bronchi?
bronchus
In the lungs, the bronchi continue to divide and get narrower – What are these continued branches called?
bronchioles
What are the tiny sac clusters at the ends of the bronchioles?
alveoli
What is the singular form of alveoli?
alveolus
What surrounds the alveoli?
blood vessels
What is the major function of the alveloi?
where Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange takes place by diffusion.
How many approximate breathes do we take each minute?
12-18
What do we call active breathing?
inhaling
What do we call passive breathing?
exhaling
Why is inhaling called active breathing?
because energy is used
Why is exhaling called passive breathing?
because no energy is used
What cuases the rib cage to be raised up and out during inhaling?
muscles between ribs
What muscle contracts and flattens out during inhaling?
diaphragm
What causes the lungs to expand filling the space during inhaling?
chest expansion
What causes the air to rush in to fill the lungs during inhaling?
difference in air pressure inside and outside the lungs
Where is the greatest pressure during inhaling?
pressure is higher outside the lungs
Why does the rib cage fall during exhaling?
rib muscles relax
What shape is the diaphragm when it is relaxed?
dome-shaped
What causes air to rush out of the lungs during exhalilng?
difference in air pressure inside and outside the lungs
Where is the greates pressure during exhaling?
pressure is higher inside the lungs
A blocked trachea causes _____.
choking
What is the best treatment for choking?
heimlich maneuver
What can cause the trachea to swell shut
infection
What does SIDS stand for?
sudden infant death syndrome
Is there a cure for SIDS?
no
What is a poisonous gas that casues rbc’s from picking up Oxygen
carbon monoxide
What is the greek word for lung?
pneumon
What is a respiratory disease caused by a bacteria or virus that causes the alveoli to be clogged with pus and mucus?
Pneumonia
Why is pneumonia so dangerous?
it makes it difficult for Oxygen to get into the blood
A disease that can be passed on to others is called a ____.
communicable disease
What is emphysema?
a lung disease caused by the breakup and loss of alveoli
A disease that cannot be passed on oth others is called a ____.
noncommunicable
What are the three functions of the excretory system?
1. removes excess water
2. maintains homeostasis
3. rids body of metabolic waste
Why does the excretory system remove excess water?
it helps control bolld volume
What are the main organs of the excretory system?
kidneys
what is the main job of the kidneys?
filters blood
How does blood enter the kidneys?
through the renal arteries
What is the tiny filtering unit of the kidneys?
nephrons
what are the cuplike structures with a duct (located in the kidneys)
nephrons
As water, sugar, salt, and wastes pass into the nephrons what is left behind in the capillaries?
blood cells and large proteins
After leaving the kidneys, liquid is squeezed into a narrow ______.
tubule
What happens to most of the water, sugar, and salt that passes out of the kidney?
it is reabsorbed into capillaries surrounding the tubule
How does the purified blood return to the body?
through the renal veins
Where does the excess water, salts and poisonous wastes called?
urine
What is the tube through which urine leaves the kidney?
ureters
What is the muscular sac that stores urine?
urinary bladder
What is the maximum amount the urinary bladder can hold?
470 ml
What is the tube through which urine leaves the body?
urethra
What is the integumentarhy system involve?
the skin
What is the functions of the integumentary system?
1. helps maintain constant body temp
2. protects from disease
3. produces small amounts of vitamine C
4. Excretes Wastes
5. Sensory Organ (touch)
How does the skin help maintain body temp when we are hot?
As sweat evaporates from our skin – it cools the body
How does the skin help maintain body temp when we are cold?
blood vessels dialite and rise to the surface to help release heat
Under what conditions will the skin produce small amounts of Vitamin D?
When exposed to sunlight
How does the skin excrete excess wastes?
sweat
What is the outermost layer of skill called?
epidermis
What forms the top layer of the epidermins
dead cells
Where are new skin cells being constantly produced?
lower layer of the epidermis
What happens to old skin cells?
sloughed off from outer layer
The epidermis contains a pigment responsible for the darkness of skin
melanin
What happens to melanin when exposed to UV rays
turns darker
What is the layer of skin UNDER the epidermis
dermis
What does the dermis contain?
blood vessels, nerves, oil, and sweat glands
What is the purpose of the layer of fat under the dermis?
insulation
three most harmful chemicals in tobacco smoke
tar, nicotine, and carbon monoixide
How does tar affect the cilia in your respiratory system and why is this harmful?
it makes the cilia clump together so they cannot prevent harmful materials from getting into the lungs
How does inhaling carbon monoxide decrease the oxygen level in your blood?
prevents rbc’s from picking up oxygen it needs
How does bronchitis affect the respiratory system?
The bronchi connects the lungs with the trachea. The lining of the bronchi allows air to get in your body. These bronchi tube tubes can get infected and it is harder for air to flow in your body. Apart form making it very difficult to breath, the inflammation of the bronchi can also cause mucus in the airways, or phlegm.
How does emphysema affect the respiratory system?
Emphysema affects the smallest air sacs, or bronchioles, in your respiratory system. The disease causes the destruction of these air sacs. This causes difficulty in breathing and interferes with enough oxygen getting into your bloodstream.
How does lung cancer affect the respiratory system?
It starts in the lining of the bronchi and takes a long time to develop. Symptoms include a persistent cough that may bring up blood, chest pain, hoarseness, and shortness of breath.
How is smoking related to atherosclerosis?
The toxins in cigarette smoke promote plaque formation in the arteries, which leads to atherosclerosis, otherwise known as hardening of the arteries.
How does smoking affect the likelihood a person will have a heart attack?
Smoking causes a wide array of heart-related diseases because it can promote the degeneration of the cells. Smoking can cause a heart attack because the toxic substances found in tobacco, including carbon monoxide and nicotine, can cause the arteries to harden. It can also inhibit much needed bloodflow to vital organs. When a person smokes a cigarette, carbon monoxide reduces a person’s ability to receive oxygen.
a physical dependence on a substance
addiction
irritation of the breathing passages
bronchitis
a dangeous, colorless, gas
carbon monoixide
a disease that destroys lung tissue
emphysema
a drug that speeds the activities of the nervous system and heart
nicotine
inhaling smoke from other people’s cigarettes, cigars, and pipes
passive smoking
a dark sticky substance produced when tobacco burns
tar
how does respiration differ from breathing?
Respiration is the process which releases energy from the breakdown of glucose or other carbohydrates, lipids or amino acids. breathing is the process in which oxygen enters the body via the lungs and carbon dioxide is excreted from the body.
what are the two functions of the respiratory system?
getting oxygen in and carbon dioxide out
Through what structures does air pass to get to the lungs?
nose and trachea
What three ways does the respiratory system modify air before it reaches the lungs?
warms it, filters it, and moistens it
What gases are exchanged in the respiratory system?
carbon dioxide and oxygen
How do you inhale and exhale?
inhale – using muscles between ribs
exhale – uses the diaphragm
How is the sound of your voice produced?
air passing through the vocal cords – causing them to vibrate
what is the function of the nose?
* traps dust
* lets air enter
what is the large space above the roof of the mouth
nasal chamber
what is the function of the nasal chamber
warms and moistens air
What is the epiglottis
flap that covers trachea when swallowing
What is the function of the epiglottis
prevents food and water from entering trachea
What is the air tube from the nasal chamber to the lung
trachea
What is the function of the trachea
carries air to lungs
What is the job the the bronchi?
carries air from trachea to lungs
What are bronchioles?
small tubes or branches of the bronchi
What is the job of the bronchioles?
carries air to airsacs
What are the substances that the excretory system removes from the body?
waters, salts, poisonous wastes (urea)
Describe the path of urine through the body from its formation to its elimination.
urea leaves the kidney and enters into the narrow tubule. Capillaries surrounding the tubule reabsorb the water, surgar, and salt and return it to the blood
What is the main organ of excretion?
kidney
Besides the kidney, what are three other organs of excretion?
skin (sweat glands), bladder, lungs
How do kidneys maintain water balance in the body?
by removing excess water
Where in the body are nephrons
in the kidney
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