Review And Study On OCM Suitings Commerce Essay

Since its origin in 1924 as a maker of hand-knotted rugs, OCM has come a long manner to go one of the largest worsted suiting manufacturers, the first one to implement a customized fabric ERP solution.


A wholly vertically incorporate works, OCM has in-house production installations to change over tops to complete cloths through dyeing, whirling, weaving and completing utilizing state-of-the-art machinery. All the stuffs and procedures pass through stringent cheques at every phase and aid in presenting outstanding quality.

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At present the company ‘s capacity includes 34064 Spindles and 182 high velocity bird less looms thereby giving whirling capacity of 12000 kilogram narration and weaving capacity of 25000 Mtrs of fabric per twenty-four hours. The whirling preparatory is from NSC, France, Spindles from Zinser, Germany, Autoconers from Schlhafhorst, Germany, TFO ‘s from Leewha, Korea and looms from Lindaeur Dornier, Germany, Sulzer, Switzerland and Picanol, Belgium. Apart from this, color continuity is tested on coloring material fiting system from Gretag Macbreath, UK and fabric gets concluding coating on KD from Biella Shrunk, Rotary Press of Mario Crosta, Italy, Continuous Decatising from Speretto Rimar, Italy, Superfinish from M-Tec, Germany and Shearing machine from Xetma Vollenweider, Switzerland.


India – the Jewel in the OCM Crown:

While get downing out as the dominant makers in Persia and Turkey, it was OCM ‘s resurgence of India as a major Oriental rug beginning that foremost provided the company with the volume of ware and control over designs and colourss upon which its success in the Western markets depended.

By promoting a native trade that had begun under the Mughal Emperors of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, and uniting this built-in prowess of the weavers of Uttar Pradesh and Rajahstan with modern production methods and appropriate engineering, OCM ( through its associates E. Hill & amp ; Co. ) turned India into the universe ‘s individual largest beginning of handmade oriental rugs. While it was OCM ‘s Iranian and Turkish rugs that enjoyed the greatest popularity in the Old World of Britain and Europe, it was the far larger end product of these entirely designed Indian points, and later the company ‘s immense Chinese production, which served to derive them market leading in Canada and the USA.

Girl weavers at OCM ‘s Amritsar workshop doing the finest quality of Indian rugs


O Physical safety ;

O Promotion and protection of consumers ‘ economic involvements ;

O Standards for safety and quality of consumer goods and services ;

O Distribution installations for indispensable consumer goods and services ;

O Measures enabling consumers to obtain damages ;

O Education and information programmes ;

O Promotion of sustainable ingestion ; and

O Measures associating to specific countries like H2O, nutrient and pharmaceuticals

These countries have been translated into the undermentioned eight consumer rights by the consumers ‘ International:

1 ) Right to Basic Needs ;

2 ) Right to Safety ;

3 ) Right to Choice ;

4 ) Right to Information ;

5 ) Right to Consumer Education ;

6 ) Right to Redressal ;

7 ) Right to Representation ; and

8 ) Right to Healthy Environment

The immense wool whirling machines installed by OCM at their Amritsar mill in India

The design workshop at OCM ‘s Khamariah mill, North India


The right to nutrient, vesture, shelter, wellness attention, imbibing H2O & A ; sanitation, instruction, energy and transit come under the scope of basic demands. Without the fulfilment of these eight demands it would be impossible for any human being to populate in a dignified mode. The UN Guidelines do non explicitly mention the right to basic demands, but expect Governments to take appropriate steps so that consumers can hold easy entree to “ indispensable goods & A ; services ” .

( a ) In India, the instrument for guaranting nutrient security ( the right to nutrient ) , peculiarly for the poorer subdivisions of society, is through the public distribution system ( PDS ) . Some field degree surveies show that on an mean merely about 25 per cent of the hapless are availing the benefits of the PDS system.

( B ) Clothing is a cardinal demand and therefore it comes under the right to basic demands. One of the aims of the Fabric Policy, 1981, in India is beef uping and streamlining substructure for distribution of fabric to weaker subdivisions of the population.

( degree Celsius ) The Right to Health has been outlined in two policy statements: National Health Policy and the Drug Policy. Life anticipation at birth has more than doubled in the last 50 old ages. It increased from around 30 old ages in 1947 to over 60 old ages in 1992-96. The infant mortality rate declined from 134 babies per 1000 unrecorded births in 1977 to 72 babies per 1000 unrecorded births by 1998.

( vitamin D ) In 1998, the Government of India adopted the National Housing and Habitat Policy to guarantee the right to shelter. This policy envisaged a major displacement in the function of the Government from that of being a supplier to that of a facilitator. Soon the lodging scenario is such that between 25 to 50 per centum of the urban population is populating in stopgap shelters, homesteader colonies or slums. In rural countries, 75 per centum of the buildings are classified as that of a semi-permanent nature.

( vitamin E ) The Right to Education is mentioned in the Chapter of Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution of India. The 83rd Constitutional ( Amendment ) Act 2000 has made simple instruction a cardinal right.

OCM rugs on the first leg of their journey back to London, and from at that place to America


The right to safety means the right to be protected against merchandises, production procedures and services, which are risky to wellness or life. The UN Guidelines see two sorts of safety: Physical safety and Standards for the safety and quality of consumer goods and services.

In India there are constitutional, legislative and administrative commissariats with regard to this right. Among the constitutional commissariats, the most of import one is the protection of life and personal autonomy ( Article 21 ) . Two major statute laws are the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954, and the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986.

Loading the finished rugs on the first phase of their journey back to OCM London


The right to consumer instruction means the right to get the cognition and accomplishments to be an informed consumer. At present there is no distinct policy in India with regard to consumer instruction. Furthermore, the Government of India, through the Consumer Welfare Fund, has made commissariats to fund consumer instruction programmes undertaken by consumer groups or the province authoritiess. Despite assorted steps taken by the Government and several consumer administrations, bulk of consumers are still non to the full cognizant of all the consumer protection statute laws and its execution mechanisms.

Healthy Environment:

The principle behind this right is that the resources used in the production and ingestion of goods and services should be utilised in a healthy and ecologically sound mode. As per the Guidelines, Governments should follow steps associating to utilize, production and storage of pesticides and chemicals. The Guidelines have now been revised to include guidelines for sustainable ingestion. The luxuriant reference of these in the Guidelines now lists out both the rights and duties of the consumer. However, these are yet to be incorporated in authorities policy and/or legal steps. The Environment Protection Act, 1986, provides the guidelines for the direction of risky wastes etc. , e.g. safety study, safety audit etc. The other chief environmental statute laws include ordinance of pollution of H2O, air and dirt. The execution of the above mentioned Torahs is rather uneffective. In fact, the multiplicity of Torahs is the major ground for this, which in bend leads to a multiplicity of administrative mechanisms, corruptness and deficiency of resources to implement the Torahs dependably. Furthermore, deficiency of consciousness on the portion of consumers sing the risky nature of pesticides and chemicals and uneffective preparation of the people responsible for guaranting a healthy environment, accentuate the job. The most baleful job confronting the modern society, which particularly threatens the immature work force of the state is the HIV /AIDS infection.


There is the pathetic claim by the Government of holding created seven million new occupations during the last financial twelvemonth as against the governing party ‘s promise of making ten million new occupations every twelvemonth. There has been an dismaying diminution of employment by 8 % in the past two back-to-back old ages. About two crore workers have been thrown out of the streets and about 3 hundred thousand industries have been closed during the past decennary of economic reforms. The endangering growing of unemployment is poised to destruct the societal cloth of the state. There is besides the menace of the entry of foreign contractors even in refuses remotion, which will swell the ranks of the destitutes who will take to a life of offense.

Amendment of Labour Laws:

The Government egged on by the employers ‘ anteroom has unleashed an onslaught on the workers and their trade brotherhoods. The Govt. is all set to implement the recommendations of the Second National Commission on labor to strip the workers of their hard-earned rights.


O Medical attention: This should cover gestation, parturiency, and its effects and any disease which may take to a morbid status. The demand for pre-natal and post-natal attention, in add-on to hospitalization, was emphasized. A morbid status may necessitate general practician attention, proviso of indispensable pharmaceuticals and hospitalization.

O Sickness benefit: This should cover incapacity to work following morbid status ensuing in loss of net incomes. This calls for periodical payments based on the convention specification. The worker need non be paid for the first three yearss of suspension of net incomes and the payment of benefit may be limited to 26 hebdomads in a twelvemonth.

O Unemployment benefit: This should cover the loss of gaining during a worker ‘s unemployment period. When he is capable and available for work but remains unemployed because of deficiency of suited employment. This benefit may be limited to 13 hebdomads payment in a twelvemonth, excepting the first seven yearss of the waiting period.

O Old-age benefit: This benefit provides for the payment-the quantum depending upon an person ‘s on the job capacity during the period before retirement.-of a certain sum beyond a prescribed age and continues till decease.

O Employment hurt benefit: This should cover the undermentioned eventualities ensuing from accident or disease during employment: • Morbid status • Inability to work following a morbid status, taking to suspension of gaining ; • Entire o0r partial loss of gaining capacity which may go lasting ; • Death of the breadwinner in the household, as a consequence of which household is deprived of fiscal support.

O Family benefit: This should cover duty for the care of kids during an full period of eventuality. Periodic payment, proviso of nutrient, lodging, vesture, holidays or domestic aid in regard of kids should be provided to a destitute household.

O Maternity benefit: This benefit should cover gestation, parturiency and their effects ensuing in the suspension of net incomes. Provision should be for medical attention, including pre-natal parturiency, post-natal attention and hospitalization if necessary. Periodic payment limited to 12 hebdomads should be made during the period of suspension of net incomes.

O Invalidism benefit: This benefit, in the signifier of periodical payments should cover the demands of workers who suffer from any, disablement originating out of illness or accident and who are unable to prosecute in any paid activity.

O Survivor ‘s benefit: This should cover periodical payments to the household following the decease of its breadwinner and should go on the full period of eventuality. The ILO has suggested assorted methods of forming, set uping and financing assorted societal security strategies. For the benefit of the less developed states, it has fixed the degree of benefits reasonably low, so that the strategies may be operable.


Voluntary Retirement Scheme ( VRs ) :

In the present market scenario, in position of the on-going restructuring in the industries including OCMs, several steps for reforms and restructuring of OCMs have been taken up by the Government. Right size of adult male power in the OCMs is one of these steps adopted. Restructuring of work force may take to redundancy. In this context, it has been the changeless enterprise of the Government to safeguard the involvement of the employees in OCMs. In the procedure, the Voluntary Retirement Scheme, which was ab initio announced in October, 1988 for the first clip was farther liberalized and a comprehensive bundle was notified vide DPE ‘s O.M dated 5th May, 2000 so as to provide to the demand of the OCM to run into their aims and besides to protect the involvement of the workers affected due to assorted signifiers of restructuring.

O VRs in OCMs that can prolong VRs at their ain excess: Financially sound endeavors that have to cut down their work force in order to stay competitory may border their ain strategies of VRs and do it attractive plenty for employees to choose for it. They may offer as compensation upto 60 yearss salary for every twelvemonth of finishing service. However such compensation will non transcend the wage for the balance period of service left.

O VRs in marginally net income or loss devising and ill and unviable OCMs: Marginally gain devising or loss devising OCMs have been permitted to present an improved VRs based on Gujarat Model. Under this theoretical account an employee will have compensation as follows:

1 ) 35 yearss salary for each finishing twelvemonth of service and,

2 ) 25 yearss salary per each twelvemonth of service for the balance of service left under the superannuating topic to some conditions. Sick and unviable employees in OCM have allow to ex-gratia payment equivalent to 45 yearss for each finishing twelvemonth of service or the wage for the staying months of service left, whichever is less. However, all those who have completed non less than 30 old ages of service, are eligible for a upper limit of 60 ( 60 ) months ‘ wage as compensation topic to the sum non transcending the wage for the balance period of service left.

O Schemes of Counselling, Retaining & A ; Redeployment: Restructuring of endeavors is a planetary phenomenon, peculiarly in the context of liberalized economic system. There has been thrust on reconstituting the cardinal public enterprises both at macro every bit good as micro degree. In the procedure, rationalisation of work force has besides become a necessity. Sing the emerging demand to hold safety cyberspace, Government had established National Renewal Fund ( NRF ) in February, 1992 loosely to cover the disbursals of VRS and to supply retraining to the workers in the organized sector. However, in the background of ongoing restructuring exercisings in the cardinal endeavors, focal point was given on the demand of CPSEs. The NRF was abolished in February, 2000. The retraining activity was administered by Department of Industrial Policy & A ; Promotion till 31st March, 2001. The strategy for Counselling, Retraining and Redeployment ( CRR ) of rationalized employees of OCMs is under execution by Department of Public Enterprises since 2001-02.

The strategies for Counselling, Retraining and Redeployment ( CRR ) interalia purposes:

O to supply chance for self-employment.

O to reorient rationalized employees through short continuance programmes.

O to fit them for new by-lines.

O to prosecute them in income bring forthing self-employment.

O to assist them rejoining the productive procedure.

O Similarly, retraining strengthens their skill/expertise.

Selected preparation institutes impart need-based preparation of 20 days/30 days/40 yearss faculties.


“Labour public assistance activities benefit non merely the workers but besides the direction in term of greater industrial efficiency”

Labour plays a really of import function in the industrial production of the state. The human resource directors are truly concerned with the direction of people at work. It is necessary to procure the cooperation of labor in order to increase the production and gain higher net incomes. The labour force is possible merely when they are to the full satisfied with their employer and the on the job status on the occupation. In the class of clip with the debut of the construct of Human Resource Management, psychological researches convinced them that the workers required something more of import. In add-on to supplying pecuniary benefits, human intervention given to employee dramas a really of import function in seeking their cooperation.

It is through societal security steps that the province efforts to keep every citizen at a certain prescribed degree below which no 1 is allowed to fall. It is the security that society furnishes through appropriate organisation, against certain hazards to which its members are exposed ( ILO, 1942 ) . Social security system comprises wellness and unemployment insurance, household allowances, provident financess, pensions and tip strategies, and widows ‘ and subsisters ‘ allowances. The indispensable features of societal insurance strategies include their compulsory and conducive nature ; the members must foremost subscribe to a fund from which benefits could be drawn subsequently.

The Constitution of India ( Article 41 ) laid down that the State shall do effectual proviso for procuring the right to public aid in instance of unemployment, old age, illness and disability and in other instances of underserved privation. The Government took several stairss in conformity of the constitutional demands. The Workmen ‘s Compensation Act ( 1926 ) was appropriately revised and societal insurance programmes were developed for industrial workers. Provident financess and tip strategies were introduced in most industries, and pregnancy statute law was overhauled. Subsequently, State authoritiess instituted their ain societal aid programmes. The “provisions for old age comprise pension, provident fund, and tip schemes” . All the three commissariats are different signifiers of retirement benefits.

( Gratuity is a ball amount payment made to a worker or to his/her inheritors by the company on expiration of his/her service due to retirement, invalidness, retrenchment or decease ) .

The ILO study refers to labor public assistance as “such services, installations, and comfortss, which may be established in, or in the locality of projects to enable individuals employed in this to execute their work in healthy and congenial milieus and provided with comfortss conducive to good wellness and high morale” .


Certain cardinal considerations are involved in the construct of labor public assistance. The following are the more of import among them.

Social duty of industry:

This rule is based on the societal construct of industry and its function in the society that is, the apprehension that societal duty of the province is manifested through industry. It is assumed that labour public assistance is an look of industry ‘s responsibility towards its employees. Social duty means that the duty of the industry to prosecute those policies, to take such determinations, and to follow those lines of action which are desirable in footings of the aims and values presently obtaining in the society. Industry is expected to win the co-operation of the workers, provide them security of employment, just pay, and equal chance for personal growing and promotion, and do public assistance installations available to them.

Democratic values:

The rule of democratic values of labor public assistance concedes that workers may hold certain unmet demands for no mistake of their ain, that industry has an duty to render them assist in satisfying those demands, and that workers have a right of finding the mode in which these demands can be met and of take parting in the disposal of the mechanism of demand satisfaction. The underlying premise to this attack is that the worker is a mature and rational person who is capable of taking determinations for him/her.

Adequacy of rewards:

The 3rd rule of labor public assistance is adequateness of rewards ; it implies that labor public assistance steps are non a replacement for rewards. It will be incorrect to reason that since workers are given a assortment of labor public assistance services, they need be paid merely low rewards. Right to adequate pay is beyond difference.


The 4th rule of labor public assistance lays emphasis on the pronouncement that to cultivate public assistance is to cultivate efficiency. Even those who deny any societal duty for industry do accept that an endeavor must present all such labors public assistance steps which promote efficiency ( Marshall, 1950 ) . It has been frequently mentioned that workers ‘ instruction and preparation, lodging, and diet are the three most of import facets of labor public assistance, which ever accentuate labour efficiency.


The 5th rule of labor public assistance recognises that the duty for labor public assistance lies on both employers and workers and non on employers entirely ( Moorthy, 1958 ) . Labour public assistance steps are likely to be of small success unless mutualness of involvement and duties are accepted and understood by both the parties, in peculiar the quality of duty at the attitudinal and organizational degree.

“Totality of public assistance the concluding rule of labor public assistance is that the construct of labour public assistance must pervade throughout the hierarchy of an administration, and accepted by all degrees of officials in the enterprise”


Social welfare of labour one of the major concerns of the Government has been the betterment of labors public assistance with increasing productiveness and proviso of a sensible degree of societal security. Social Security There are a assortment of Torahs enacted and strategies established by the Central/State Governments with a position to supply for societal security and public assistance of specific classs of working people. The chief societal security Torahs enacted centrally are the undermentioned:

O The Workmen ‘s compensation Act, 1923 ( WC.Act. )

O The Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 ( ESI Act )

O The Employees ‘ Provident Fundss and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1953 ( EPF & A ; MP Act.

O The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 ( MB Act )

O The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 ( PG Act )

Though societal security programmes vary from state to state, their three major features are: they are established by jurisprudence ; they provide some sort of hard currency payment to persons to replace atleast a portion of their lost income that our due to such eventualities as unemployment, pregnancy, work hurt, invalidism, illness, old age and decease ; the benefits or services are provide in three major ways:

1 ) Social insurance,

2 ) Social aid or

3 ) Public services.

Social insurance:

O It is financed wholly by or chiefly from the common pecuniary parts of workers, employers and the province.

O The province and the employers make major part to this fund, while the employees pay merely a nominal sum.

O When there is entire or partial loss of income, these benefits, within bounds, guarantee the care of the donee ‘s minimal criterion of life.

O Social insurance benefits are granted without an scrutiny of an person ‘s demand and without any agencies trial, without impacting the sense of ego regard of the donee.

O These benefits are so planned as to cover, on a mandatory footing, all those who are sought to be covered. • Social insurance reduces the agony originating out of the eventualities faced by an person -contingencies which he can non forestall.

“Social insurance is different from commercial insurance, for the latter is voluntary and is meant for the better paid subdivision of the population, and its benefits are in proportion to the premiums paid ; it offers protection merely against single hazards and does non take at supplying a minimal criterion of livin” .

Social aid:

Social aid is provided as a addendum to societal insurance for that destitute individual who can non acquire societal insurance payments, and is offered after a means trial. The general grosss of the authorities provide the finance for societal aid payments, which is made available as a legal right to those workers who fulfil given conditions. Social aid and societal insurance travel side by side. Social aid programmes cover such programmes as unemployment aid, old age aid, public aid and national aid. Social security is the combination of societal aid and societal insurance. Social insurance, nevertheless, falls halfway between the two, for it is financed by the province every bit good as by the insured and their employers ; whereas societal aid is given gratis to the needy by the province or the community.

Public service:

Public service programmes constitute the 3rd chief type of societal security. They are financed straight by the authorities from their general grosss in the signifier of hard currency payment and services to every member of the community falling within the defined class. This sort of public service is presently available in a figure of states in the signifier of national wellness service supplying medical attention for every individual in the state, old-age pension, pension for invalidism, subsister ‘s pension to every widow or orphan, and a household allowance to every household holding a given figure of kids. Although these societal security programmes have different features, it is non ever easy to pull a line of limit among them. In many instances, two or even three programmes have common features. Apart from province there are many other bureaus which provide se4curity against contingencies.“The implicit in thought of societal security steps is that a citizen, who has contributed, or is likely to lend to his state ‘s public assistance, should be given protection against certain hazards” .

Social welfare IN OCM

OCM is playing really of import function in bring forthing and selling milk merchandises. The construct of labor public assistance is to the full adopted by the OCM suiting in order to fulfill employee demands. All the rules of labor public assistance are accepted by the OCM. Labour public assistance facets are extremely regarded with the position of human resources development. The importance of labor public assistance has been recognized by the works in order to seeking cooperation of employees.

Components of labor public assistance in OCM

Social security is the chief component of labor public assistance in OCM and another are:

O public assistance included on the job hours,

O working conditions, safety,

O industrial wellness insurance,

O workingmans ‘s compensation,

O provident financess,

O tip,

O pensions,

O protection against liability,

O industrial lodging, public toilets, canteens, creches, wash topographic points, lavatory installations, tiffins, film, theaters, music, reading suites, vacation suites, workers ‘ instruction,

O Co-operative shops, jaunts and scholarships and other aid for instruction of employees ‘ kids.


There are assorted bureaus which are established regulations related to labour public assistance in OCM accommodating ‘s these are following

1. Cardinal Government

2. State Governments

3. Worker Union

4. Employers

5. Others

Cardinal Government:

The Cardinal Government has passed assorted public assistance statute laws for the different types of workers which are same applicable in OCM some of import statute law are:

1. The Workmen ‘s compensation Act, 1923 ( WC.Act. )

2. The Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 ( ESI Act )

3. The Employees ‘ Provident Fundss and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1953 ( EPF & A ; MP Act )

4. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 ( MB Act )

5. The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 ( PG Act ) The EPF and MP Act are administered entirely by the Government of India through the EPFO. The hard currency benefits under the ESI Act are administered by the Cardinal Government through the Employees State Insurance Corporation ( ESIC ) , whereas medical attention under the ESI Act is being administered by the State Government and Union Territory Administration.

Main proviso of Torahs related with public assistance

The Factories Act, 1948:

The Factories Act, is a societal statute law which has been enacted for occupational safety, wellness and public assistance of workers at work topographic points. This statute law is being enforced by proficient officers i.e. Inspectors of Factories, Dy. Chief Inspectors of Factories who work under the control of the Chief Inspector of Factories and overall control of the Labour Commissioner, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi

It applies to mills covered under the Factories Act, 1948. The industries in which 10 ( 10 ) or more than 10 workers are employed on any twenty-four hours of the preceeding 12 months and are engaged in fabricating procedure being carried out with the assistance of power or 20 or more than 20 workers are employed in fabrication procedure being carried out without the assistance of power, are covered under the commissariats of this Act.

O Health

O Safety

O Welfare installations

O Working hours

O Employment of immature individuals

O Annual Leave with rewards etc.

WASHIN FACILITIES: ( 1 ) In every mill

O adequate and suited installations for rinsing shall be provided and maintained for the usage of the workers therein ;

O separate and adequately screened installations shall be provided for the usage of male and female workers ;

O such installations shall be handily accessible and shall be kept clean.

O The State Government may, in regard of any mill or category or description of mills or of any fabrication procedure, prescribe criterions of equal and suited installations for rinsing.


The State Government may, in regard of any mill or category or description of mills, make regulations necessitating the proviso therein of suited topographic points for maintaining vesture non worn during working hours and for the drying of wet vesture.


( 1 ) In every mill suited agreements for sitting shall be provided and maintained for all workers obliged to work in a standing place, in order that they may take advantage of any chances for remainder which may happen in the class of their work.

( 2 ) If, in the sentiment of the Chief Inspector, the workers in any mill engaged in a peculiar fabrication procedure or working in a peculiar room are able to make their work expeditiously in a seated place, he may, by order in authorship, require the resident of the mill to supply before a specified day of the month such siting agreements as may be operable for all workers so engaged or working.

( 3 ) The State Government may, by presentment in the Official Gazette, declare that the commissariats of sub-section ( 1 ) shall non use to any specified mill or category or description of mills or to any specified fabrication procedure.


( 1 ) There shall in every mill be provided and maintained so as to be readily accessible during all on the job hours first-aid boxes or closets equipped with the prescribed contents, and the figure of such boxes or closets to be provided and maintained shall non be less than one for every one hundred and 50 workers normally employed at any one clip in the mill.

( 2 ) Nothing except the prescribed contents shall be kept in a first-aid box or closet.

( 3 ) Each first-aid box or cupboard shall be kept in the charge of a separate responsible individual who holds a certification in first-aid intervention recognized by State Government and who shall ever be readily available during the on the job hours of the mill.


( 1 ) The State Government may do regulations necessitating that in any specified mill wherein more than two 100 and, 50 workers are normally employed, a canteen or canteens shall be provided and maintained by the resident for the usage of the workers.

( 2 ) Without bias to the generalization of the predating power, such regulations may supply for:

O the day of the month by which such canteen shall be provided ;

O the criterions in regard of building, adjustment, furniture and other equipment of the canteen ;

O the groceries to be served in this and the charges which may be made.


( 1 ) In every mill wherein more than one hundred and 50 workers are normally employed, equal and suited shelters or remainder suites and a suited tiffin room, with proviso for imbibing H2O, where workers can eat repasts brought by them, shall be provided and maintained for the usage of the workers: Provided that any canteen maintained in conformity with the commissariats of subdivision 46 shall be regarded as portion of the demands of this sub-section: Provided further that where a tiffin room exists no workers shall eat any nutrient in the work room.

( 2 ) The shelters or remainder suites or tiffin suites to be provided under sub-section ( 1 ) shall be sufficiently lighted and ventilated and shall be maintained in a cool and clean status.


( 1 ) In every mill wherein more than 30 adult females workers are normally employed there shall be provided and maintained a suited room or suites for the usage of kids under the age of six old ages of such adult females.

( 2 ) Such suites shall supply equal adjustment, shall be adequately lighted and ventilated, shall be maintained in a clean and healthful status and shall be under the charge of adult females trained in the attention of kids and babies.

WELFARE Military officers:

( 1 ) In every mill wherein five hundred or more workers are normally employed the occupier shall use in the mill such figure of Welfare officers as may be prescribed.

( 2 ) The State Government may order the responsibilities, makings and Conditions of service of officers employed under sub-section ( 1 ) .

Recreational Facility:

The State Government may do regulations necessitating every employer to do proviso in his plantation for such recreational installations for the workers and kids employed in this as may be prescribed.

Housing Facilities:

It shall be the responsibility of every employer to supply and keep necessary lodging adjustment:

O For every worker ( including his household ) residing in the plantation ;

O For every worker ( including his household ) residing outside the plantation, who has put in six months of uninterrupted service in such plantation and who has expressed a desire in composing to shack in the plantation:

WELFARE Military officers:

( 1 ) In every plantation wherein three hundred or more workers are normally employed the employer shall use such figure of public assistance officers as may be prescribed.

( 2 ) The State Government may order the responsibilities, makings and conditions of service of officers employed under sub-section ( 1 ) .

Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952

Employees ‘ Provident Fundss Scheme:

( 1 ) The Cardinal Government may by presentment in the Official Gazette frame a Scheme to be called the Employees ‘ Provident Fundss Scheme for the constitution of provident financess under this Act for employees or for any category of employees and stipulate the constitutions or category of constitutions to which the said Scheme shall use and there shall be established every bit shortly as may be after the framing of the Scheme a Fund in conformity with the commissariats of this Act and the Scheme.

( 2 ) A Scheme framed under sub-section ( 1 ) may supply that any of its commissariats shall take consequence either prospectively or retrospectively on such day of the month as may be specified in this behalf in the Scheme.

The Minimum Wages Act, 1948

Minimal rate of rewards

O Any minimal rate of rewards fixed or revised by the appropriate authorities in regard of scheduled employments under subdivision 3 may dwell of:

* a basic rate of rewards and a particular allowance at a rate to be adjusted at such intervals and in such mode as the appropriate authorities may direct to harmonize every bit about as operable with the fluctuation in the cost of populating index figure applicable to such workers ( hereinafter referred to as the “ cost of populating allowance ” ) ; or

* a basic rate of rewards with or without the cost of populating allowance and the hard currency value of the grants in regard of providers of indispensable trade goods at grant rates were so authorized ; or

O The cost of populating allowance and the hard currency value of the grants in regard of supplied of indispensable trade goods at grant rate shall be computed by the competent authorization at such intervals and in conformity with such waies as may be specified or given by the appropriate authorities.

Workmen ‘s Compensation Act, 1923

Employer ‘s Liability for Compensation:

O If personal hurt is caused to a workingman by accident originating out of and in the class of his employment, his employer shall be apt to pay compensation in conformity with the commissariats.

O If a workingman employed in any employment specified in Part A of Schedule III contracts any disease specified in this as an occupational disease peculiar to that employment, or if a workingman, whilst in the service of an employer in whose service he has been employed for a uninterrupted period of non less than six months ( which period shall non include a period of service under any other employer in the same sort of employment ) in any employment specified in Part B of Schedule III, contracts any disease specified in this as an occupational disease peculiar to that employment, or if a workingman whilst in the service of one or more employers in any employment specified in Part C of Schedule III, for such uninterrupted period as the Central Government may stipulate in regard of each such employment, contracts any disease specified in this as an occupational disease peculiar to that employment, the catching of the disease shall be deemed to be an hurt by accident within the significance of this subdivision and, unless the reverse is proved, the accident shall be deemed to hold arisen out of, and in the class of, the employment.

O The Cardinal Government or the State Government, after giving, by presentment in the Official Gazette, non less than three months ‘ notice of its purpose so to make, may, by a similar presentment, add any description of employment to the employments specified in Schedule III, and shall stipulate in the instance of employments so added the diseases which shall be deemed for the intents of this subdivision to be occupational diseases peculiar to those employments severally, and thereupon the commissariats of sub-section ( 2 ) shall use In the instance of a presentment by the Cardinal Government, within the districts to which this Act extends or, in instance of a presentment by the State Government, within the State as if such diseases had been declared by this Act to be occupational diseases peculiar to those employments.

Payment of Bonus Act, 1965

O Every individual ( other than an learner ) pulling salary up to RS 3,500 per month.

O Every individual pulling wage between RS 2,501/- and RS 3,500/- per month. The fillip collectible to him is to be calculated as if his wage were RS 2,500/- p.m


O Subject to other commissariats: Minimum bonus shall be 8.33 % of salary/wages earned or RS 100 whichever is higher.

O If allocatable excess exceeds the sum of minimal fillip, so bonus shall be collectible at higher rate topic to a maximal 20 % of salary/wages.

O Computation of fillip is to be worked out as per Agenda I to IV of the Act.

Payment of tip act, 1972:

The Act provides for the payment of tip to workers employed in every mill, store & A ; constitutions or educational establishment using 10 or more individuals on any twenty-four hours of the predating 12 months. A store or constitution to which the Act has become applicable shall go on to be governed by the Act even if the figure of individuals employed falls bellows 10 at any subsequent phase.

All the employees irrespective of position or wage are entitled to the payment of tip on completion of 5 old ages of service. In instance of decease or disability there is no minimal eligibility period. The sum of tip collectible shall be at the rate of 17 yearss rewards based on the rate of rewards last drawn, for every completed twelvemonth of service. i.e. 3,50,000/- .

Pay and allowances

Except every bit provided otherwise in these regulations an employee is appointed to a station shall be allowed to pull basic wage at the lower limit of the wage graduated table of the station to which he is appointed.

Traveling allowance:

Traveling allowances shall be admissible to an employee harmonizing to the TA, DA, regulations, instructions approved by RCS Punjab and adopted by board from clip to clip.


The State Government provide assorted public assistance installations to workers. The execution of many proviso of assorted labors Torahs besides rest with the province authorities. The province authorities run wellness and household planning centres, Centres for instruction, vocational counsel, recreational activities and preparation of workers and other public assistance lopes. The province authorities besides maintain a vigil on the employers that they are runing public assistance strategies made obligatory by the province or cardinal govt. The province authorities besides has been empowered to order regulations for public assistance of workers and name appropriate governments for the enforcement of public assistance commissariats under assorted Acts.


Worker brotherhood is another chief bureau of labor public assistance in the OCM suitings. He acts as a attention taker of employee ‘s rights. The worker brotherhoods in OCM held the attention of all the facets of public assistance. Worker Union ever seeks better cooperation from the employer in supplying public assistance installations. The Union may travel against the authorization if any unsound policy or regulation sing public assistance is passed.


Employer is another chief bureau of labor public assistance in the OCM. Gm of the works see labour public assistance thing of import. He is act as attention taker of all the facets of labor public assistance. In add-on of it a canteen commission is established for taking attention of quality of the nutrient. Assorted jobs related to the canteen are discussed by the committee.GM organizes a meeting of worker brotherhood after every 15 yearss in which jobs of labors are discussed. In add-on to it direction is paid half of the repast rate on voucher base system.


The another bureau of labor public assistance in OCM are

O Labour public assistance officer

O Employee public assistance commission

Labour public assistance officer:

Labour public assistance is chief consideration for development of labor. That ‘s why labour public assistance officer is appointed in the OCM. Labour public assistance officer play an of import function in OCM. He has following responsibilities which are helpful in supplying public assistance.

Duties of welfare officer: The general responsibilities of the Welfare Officer shall be:

O to guarantee regulations and Torahs are decently follow

O to determine what further public assistance installations are needed, how best they can be provided and do suggestions for their constitution ;

O to do certain that the available public assistance installations provided under the Regulation or otherwise are being decently maintained and utilized.

O to guarantee equal supervising of the comfortss provided, particularly as respects canteens, remainder suites, rinsing and lavatory installations and imbibing H2O ;

O to analyze grudges voiced by the workers in regard of public assistance installations and other comfortss ;

Employee public assistance commission: The Punjab State Co-operation constitutes an Employee Welfare Fund. For the intent of it a commission is constituted which has following members

1 Administrative Manager ( HR director )

2 Directors ( MIS )

3 Deputy Manager Histories

4 Working Union Members

Role of employee public assistance fund in public assistance of employee:

O At the clip of accident 1000-2000 Rs. are paid to employee from this fund.

O A party is organized at the clip of retirement of employee from this fund.

O A ring of gold and ‘kumble” is given to employee at the clip of retirement.


“Social justness is the best manner to guarantee sustainable peace and eradicate poorness. And I believe in people coming together forming, fall ining forces, doing their voices heard.”

Ratification state of affairss of Major ILO Conventions:

The Govt of India has ratified the following nucleus labour criterions:

O Convention No 29 – Forced Labour.

O Convention No 105- Abolition of forced labor.

O Convention No 100- Equal remuneration- Equality & A ; Non Discrimination.

O Convention No 111- Discrimination ( Employment & A ; Occupation ) .

Our national centre HMS has performed many field activities for publicity of Core labor criterions even presentations are held at province constituency & A ; Parliament for demand to sign conventions, which relate to CLS.

Government of India have non ratified following Major ILO Convention as these are already available in Constitution and Labour Torahs but Trade brotherhood pressurized to Govt to rectify these conventions.

O Convention No. 87 right to Freedom of Association

O Convention No.98 right to collective bargaining,

O Convention No.138 minimal age of kid labor

O Convention No.182 worst from kid labor

The ILO accomplishes its work through three chief organic structures, all of which comprise authorities, employer and worker representatives.

O International Labor Conference:

The member States of the ILO meet at the International Labour Conference in June of each twelvemonth, in Geneva. Two authorities delegates, an employer delegate and a worker delegate represent each Member State. Technical advisers assist the deputations, which are normally headed by Cabinet Ministers who take the floor on behalf of their authoritiess.

O The Regulating Body:

The Governing Body is the executive council of the ILO and meets three times a twelvemonth in Geneva. It takes determinations on ILO policy and establishes the programme and the budget, which it so submits to the Conference for acceptance. It besides elects the Director-General. The ILO Governing Body is composed of 28 authorities members, 14 employer members and 14 worker members.

O The International Labour Office:

The International Labour Office is the lasting secretariat of the International Labour Organization. It is the focal point for ILO ‘s overall activities, which it prepares under the examination of the Governing Body and under the leading of a Director-General, who is elected for a five-year renewable term.


1 ) Greeks show how rough societal security cuts

12:00 AM CDT on Tuesday, May 11, 2010

Europe is demoing the universe that a national debt crisis can coerce drastic societal security alterations overnight. Greece is paying a high monetary value for exigency authorities loans to stave off its creditors. An over-generous pension strategy is doing a U-turn. Some Grecian retired persons are confronting pension cuts of 14 per centum. All retired persons are confronting a three-year freezing in benefits. The retirement age for adult females will be raised to 65 to fit the retirement age of work forces. Both work forces and adult females will hold to wait until age 60 to take early retirement, with a smaller pension. The authorities is cutting the figure of “ risky ” occupations, such as hairdresser, that allow Greeks to retire on a full pension every bit immature as 50. Pensions will be indexed so that a longer mean lifetime means a smaller monthly cheque.

Gross saless revenue enhancements on many goods are lifting to 23 per centum. Excise revenue enhancements on fuel, baccy and intoxicant are spiking every bit good. About one in five Greeks is over age 64. These steps will hit them difficult. They will besides destroy the retirement programs of still more Greeks. Spain, France, U.S. Spain and France, two of Europe ‘s other generous pension remunerators, are besides heading for problem. They one time shared a theory that early retirement would take down joblessness among the immature. With more Europeans populating into their 80s, that theory is making more jobs than it solves. Spain, already to a great extent in debt after a U.S.-style lodging prostration, could be forced to move fast. There ‘s no urgency about maintaining the U.S. Social Security system low-cost. Even though 52 million Americans already receive Social Security cheques and retiring babe boomers will swell the axial rotations, the system is solvent for at least 25 old ages.

But American debt is turning. Creditors every bit varied as the Chinese authorities and single rescuers could endorse off. Richard Jackson, caput of the planetary ripening enterprise at the Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies, says clip is critical to success. The two chief holes for pensions are working longer and seting aside more private nest eggs. Both require tonss of clip.

“ The 3rd option is to hammer much better dealingss with your childs, ” Jackson said. “ But portion of the whole intent of authorities pensions was to disassociate old-age security wholly from dependance on your ain kids. ”

Some economic experts are pressing the authorities to beef up Social Security now to demo planetary markets that the United States is serious about cutting its debt.

Making things worse

Cuting pensions and detaining retirement autumn hardest on those with the most physically demanding and least-paying occupations. They already have more wellness jobs and unrecorded shorter lives. “ If we cut down Social Security benefits, we exacerbate a turning job: What are we traveling do about retirement in this state? ” said Lawrence Mishel, president of the Economic Policy Institute, a Washington think armored combat vehicle focused on economic jobs among lower- and middle-income Americans.

Raising revenue enhancements is another manner to repair the system. Jackson points out that middle- and upper-income Americans already acquire less in Social Security benefits than they pay in. But what ‘s difficult now becomes harder and more painful with hold. Economist Jacob Kirkegaard of the Peterson Institute for International Economics says Europe ‘s debt crisis is the merely the beginning of a “ long, difficult slog ” for many states that countered the fiscal crisis with borrowed money. “ Fiscal markets and investors are stating, ‘We do n’t swear authoritiess to go on to run these sorts of shortages any longer ; hence, we need more financial asceticism now, ‘ “ he said

2 ) Ways to increase your Social Security benefits

by Bruce Tyson

If you are traveling to have societal security, you could acquire more money: about twice every bit much, in fact. It seems unusual to be sing acquiring more money at a clip when everyone knows that there is no money, but such is the instance. By proroguing your retirement until you reach 70 ( instead than retiring at 62 ) , you can acquire up to twice the monthly income while giving yourself more clip to gain money without incurring punishments. This derived function is great plenty to do consideration of your options worthwhile. First, allow ‘s see why retired persons are dying to acquire their retirement cheques.

Decades ago, after the authorities had frivolously spent all the money that was supposed to be held for retired persons, the plan became a monolithic ponzi strategy that puts Bernie Madoff to dishonor ( if Madoff is in gaol, where the politicians should be? ) . You see, they promised you the money, but the money is n’t at that place. To work out this, they started taking societal security money from workers and utilizing it to fund retired person ‘s, go forthing workers with no retirement money. When those workers go to retire, their benefits will hold to be drawn from the payroll checks of the following coevals of workers ( and so on ) . This strategy has gone on for a long clip, but with so few remunerators, it may non be sustainable.

Back in the 1950 ‘s, 16 workers were paying into what they thought was their Social Security history ( but in world those 16 were back uping one retired person ) . That was bad plenty, but now there are merely 3.3 workers to back up you if you are retiring ( That explains why Social Security and Medicare revenue enhancements are so outrageously high, does n’t it? ) . Soon there will merely be two workers back uping each retired person. Besides paying out the wazoo for current retired persons, those workers have to set money in their ain private retirement program because they know that they wo n’t acquire anything when they reach retirement age. The turning fury of workers bearing the burden of retired persons and the unstable place of the United States Government make a batch of people wonder if they will acquire anything at all from Social Security: that ‘s why many opt to get down having cheques every bit shortly as they can.

If, nevertheless, you are able to take the hazard that Social Security will still be around when you hit 70 old ages old, you will be able to hard currency in a batch more than if you retired early. An adept working for T. Rowe Price has calculated that under the present regulations, retired persons will roll up duplicate the money per month from Social Security by get downing at 70 than they would at 62. This would ensue in more than $ 219,000 of extra payments you would have through age 85. Another thing that is good about proroguing your retirement until 70 is that you get to gain as much money as you like without being penalized by the Social Security plan. Right now, the punishment starts one time you earn merely over $ 14,000 and you lose it all if you earn over $ 43,000. This means that if you are in good wellness, you can gain a batch more money between age 62 and 70, go forthing you in a much better place for retirement.

Is retiring at age 70 best for everyone? No. Those who have wellness issues and are unable to work may hold no other option. Besides, those unwilling to wager on the viability of the federal authorities for another 8 old ages might desire to get down roll uping now… while they can.


O Rules and ordinances are purely followed. Everybody is invited to set forward their thoughts for the betterment of the works good at many things which make it one of best of all such mills in India.

O There is a Co-operative work civilization.

O Workers are motivated in good manner.

But still I felt some of the things and countries where there is really required some kind of betterment. For this some of the suggestions are:

O Foremost of import suggestion is that should supply trainees with proper preparation and should give the cognition sing existent working in the HR section as it is the nucleus section of any organisation.

O A little more cleanliness is required in the country canteen.

O There are some of the parts in the works where electricity is wasted. This thing should be taken attention of. Gesture detectors are suggested by me in such countries which will work out the job of energy scarceness.

O Particular plan must be started for making consciousness among the employee related to labor Torahs

O There is a demand of advancing recreational activities.



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V G. Ramanuja Das: AP Labour Laws ( ID & A ; Factoreis Act Rules etc )

V P. Rami Reddy & A ; P. Srinivas Reddy, AP Shops & A ; Establishments Act,1990, asia Law House, Hyderabad,2006


5 National Family Health Survey ( NFHS ) . 2000. Health and Family Welfare, India: 1998: 1999 ( Mumbai, International Institute of Population Studies ) .

5 National Sample Survey Organisation ( NSSO ) . 1998. Attending and Educational Institution in India: Its degree, nature and cost [ NSS 52nd Round ] ( New Delhi, Government of India ) , Report no.439.

V Prabhu, K. S. 1996. “ Health Security for India Workers ” , in The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 39 ( 4 ) .

V Burgess, S and Stern, N. 1991. “Social Security in Developing States: What, Why, Who and How? “ , in Ahmad et. Al. Social Security in Developing Countries ( Oxford, Clarendon Press ) .

V Chattterjee, Mirai. Et. Al. 1994, “ Forming for Social Security- Some experiences of Self – Employed Women Workers ” in Social Security in Developing States, ( Social Security Association of India, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, New Delhi )

V Chelliah, R. J. and Sudarshan, R. 1999. Income Poverty and Beyond: Human Development in India ( New Delhi, Social Science Press ) .

V Datta, R.C. 1998. “ Public Action, Social Security and Unorganised Sector ” , in Economic and Political Weekly, 33 ( 22 )

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