Review for Genetics and DNA test

Question Answer
Heterozygous (hybrid) has both dominant and recessive allele. ALWAYS has DOMINATE phenotype.
homozygous (purebred) same alleles (dominant or recessive). ex. RR or rr
dominant allele capital (big) allele represents dominant trait.
recessive allele lowercase (small) allele represents recessive trait. hides if dominant allele is present.
Base pair rules of DNA sequencing Cytosine (c) goes with Guanine (g). Adenine (a) goes with Thymine (T).
Base pair rules of RNA Cytosine (c) goes with Guanine (g). Adenine (a) goes with Uracil (u). NO THYMINE!
What controls the production of proteins? genes control the production of proteins.
genotypes letter combination of the alleles. for example, BB, Bb, or bb
phenotypes the form of the trait that an organism displays or looks like. for example, tall or short, purple or white, smooth or wrinkled.
shape of DNA molecule double helix
punnet square a tool used to show all the possible gene combinations from both parents.
What is a trait? a characteristic that an organism can pass to its offspring.
Who is the father of genetics? Gregor Mendel
What makes up the proteins in our cells? 20 amino acids
What two molecules make up the sides of the DNA ladder? sugar and phosphate
How many alleles do each sex cells give? 1 (from both female and male)
What is the study of genetics? Heredity
Which pair of chromosomes make a male offspring? xy
Which parent's genes decides if a human baby will be boy or girl? Father because he can give xy. Mother can only give xx.

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