Review of literature addressing individual performance appraisal Essay


Armstrong ( 2006, p. 497 ) defines public presentation as ‘a affair non merely of what people achieve but how they achieve it ‘ and Williams ( 2002 ) adds ‘performance is something that people really do and can be sealed in footings of each person ‘s proficiency. Performance consists of end directed actions that are under the control of the person, irrespective of whether they are cognitive and motor or interpersonal. ‘

Both Armstrong ‘s and William ‘s definitions of public presentation clearly indicate that public presentation is more than approximately end products or consequences, it is besides pertains to the actions or behaviors displayed or illustrated to accomplish consequences.

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The LGPS has a demand to pull off public presentation as the Ministry of Education in its strategic program has set benchmark criterions in its thrust for ‘Quality Education For All’.A A In this program the focal point of authorities ‘s policy is a comprehensive modern instruction system backed by cognition, accomplishments and aptitudes attained by persons. As indicated in the background the school has non been accomplishing desired and agreed consequences. In footings of end product the school has been below norm and it is believed by the disposal of the school that the consequences of the school are contributed by the behavior of the instructors.

Due to the issues with public presentation at LGPS ‘measurement is an of import construct. It is the footing for supplying and bring forthing feedback, it identifies where things are traveling good to supply the foundations for constructing farther success, and it indicates where things are non traveling so good, so that disciplinary action can be taken. ‘ Armstrong ( 2006 ) This definition may assist LGPS strongly based on the service provided at the school. It identifies strengths and how to prosecute them every bit good as the failings and how to develop and capitalise on them. Performance understandings besides play a polar function in mensurating and pull offing public presentation besides as they ‘define outlooks in the signifier of a function profile that sets out function demands in footings of cardinal consequence countries and competences required for effectual public presentation. It describes what persons are expected to make but besides indicates what support they will have from their director. ‘ ( Armstrong 2006, p. 504 ) It is a method that can be used for set uping outlooks, answerability and effects for non run intoing a criterion of excellence. The purpose therefore of these understandings is to set up and guarantee quality public presentation standards are met. Harmonizing to Armstrong and Baron ( 1998 ) ‘many organisations use SMART ( Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic, Time related ) standards to mensurate public presentation.

At LGPS the public presentation understanding is known as the course of study which must be completed at the terminal of the school ‘s twelvemonth. The course of study outlines what is required to be taught in each capable country for every category. Once a instructor agrees to learn a peculiar category ; both the principal and instructor so hold on the actions the instructor will put to death and hold on the expected consequences from put to deathing those actions. Although this procedure is seen as a psychological contract between the parties, it gives clear function definitions, answerability and staff development to better public presentation and their calling patterned advance, in future ( Fletcher 2004 ) . The construct of psychological contract is supported by the positions of ( Boxall and Purcell 2003 ) who province that ‘it could be utile in analyzing the quality of single employment relationships within the house. ‘ Consequences or censure should follow if the performing artist does non present as agreed.

Two alternate ways of mensurating public presentation are the competence based attack which is based on three phases ; cognize how, know and know when ( Rauls, 2001 ) and the balanced mark card ( Kaplan and Norton 1992 ) .

Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

‘People frequently confuse public presentation assessment and public presentation direction believing that they are one and the same. ‘ ( Bacal, 2004, p.5 )

Armstrong ( 2006, p.500 ) outlines ‘performance direction is a uninterrupted and much wider construct than public presentation assessment, more comprehensive and more natural procedure of direction that clarifies common outlooks, emphasizes the support function of directors who are expected to move as managers instead than Judgess, and focuses on the hereafter. ‘

Performance direction system takes into consideration the aims of the organisation hence giving a holistic position of an employee ‘s public presentation. On the other manus public presentation assessment is an built-in portion of this system as it is indispensable to accomplish the organisation ‘s desired end products. Performance assessment identifies and allocates duty to the appropriate individuals with the corporation that can recognize the organisation ‘s ends in the short and long footings.

Harmonizing to a CIPD ( 2005 ) study public presentation assessment is frequently the cardinal pillar of the public presentation direction procedure. It was discovered that 65 % of organisations study used single one-year public presentation assessment and 27 % twice annually.

LGPS public presentation direction system is known as Performance Management Appraisal Process ( PMAP ) . During the school twelvemonth there are regular “ category cheques ” . This is where the chief visits the instructor ‘s category and there is a reappraisal of what has been taught in the schoolroom and if it is in line with the course of study and how are the pupils reacting.

Another component of the PMAP system is the public presentation assessment which is conducted yearly by the principal and frailty principal with instructors.

The research worker is of the position that if the disposal of the school does non to the full understand the differences neither of the systems will be effectual. The disposal of the school should observe that public presentation assessment is the vehicle by which the organisational ends and aims are translated into single aims ( Fletcher 2004 ) .

Bacal ( 2004, p.5 ) argues that a director should pass on about public presentation all twelvemonth long. At LGPS the decision makers can see to portion information about work advancement, possible barriers and jobs, and how the director can assist the employee. ‘ ( Bacal, 1999, p.69 )

From the organisation position, successful public presentation direction is cardinal to achievement of corporate ends. It is argued that public presentation assessment is the cardinal constituent of public presentation direction, and so it must be that for an organisation, the intent of assessment is attainment of corporate ends.

Performance Appraisal

Armstrong ( 2006, p. 500 ) defines public presentation assessment as ‘the formal appraisal and evaluation of persons by their directors at, normally, an one-year reappraisal meeting. ‘ This position is expounded by Coens and Jenkins ( 2000, p. 14 ) add that ‘performance assessment is a mandated procedure in which, for a specified period of clip, all or a group of employees ‘ work public presentation, behaviours or traits are separately rated, judged or described by a individual other than the rated employee and the consequences are kept by the organisation. ‘

From the above definitions public presentation assessment can be viewed as a structured and formal treatment between a superior and a subsidiary that occurs at least yearly in the signifier of an interview where the subsidiary ‘s public presentation for the period is reviewed.

At LGPS this procedure occurs yearly. The public presentation assessment signifier is known as the “ confidentiality signifier ” . This signifier is filled out by the principal and frailty principal about the instructors. Discussions are so held with each person teacher about their public presentation.

In research conducted by Bolce & A ; Kilner ( 1997 ) they alluded to the fact that although companies both in the private and public sector had different methodological analysiss in the application of public presentation assessment systems the most successful all had similar features.

It was stated by Marsdon ( 1999 ) that any public presentation assessment system that did non systematically measure work public presentation accurately can non be considered an effectual 1. LGPS may necessitate to see how public presentation is measured at the school. The research worker is of the position that measuring may non be consistent. Armstrong ( 2006 ) identified the undermentioned as the standards for measuring public presentation in the public presentation assessment procedure:

“ Accomplishments in relation to aims

The degree of cognition and accomplishments possessed and applied ( competencies ) ;

Behaviour in the occupation as it affects public presentation ( competences ) ;

The grade to which behavior upholds the nucleus values of the administration ;

Day to twenty-four hours effectivity. ”

One of the most of import elements of an effectual public presentation assessment system is unfastened and honest communicating.

Purpose of Performance Appraisal

Kleiner ( 1997 ) suggest ‘the overall intent of public presentation assessment is to allow an employee cognize how his or her public presentation compares with director ‘s outlooks. ‘ Fletcher ( 2006 ) takes a more balanced position, proposing that for ‘performance assessment to be constructive and utile, there needs to be something in it for the valuator and appraise. ‘

In Trinidad and Tobago harmonizing to the joint commission on criterions for instruction rating ( 1998 ) ‘performance assessment is done in order to carry through the demands of province legislative acts, board and policy and brotherhood contracts. ‘

Yonungcourt, Levia and Jones ( 2007 ) suggest that ‘the common intent of public presentation assessment tends to be aimed at the measuring of persons, and see that this focal point is deficient.

Caruth and Humphreys ( 2008 ) add to this position point by proposing ‘it is a concern jussive mood the public presentation assessment system includes features to run into the organisational demands and all its stakeholders. ‘ Bach ( 2000 ) suggests that ‘one of the implicit in rules of public presentation assessment schemes is to arouse corporate conformity. ‘

Murphy and Cleveland ( 1995 ) suggest ‘a cardinal intent of public presentation assessment is to find wage and other fiscal compensation ‘ .

It can be concluded that the intent of public presentation assessment is to accomplish the organisation ‘s ends, set employees ‘ aims, evaluate single public presentation against aims, better public presentation and wages employees.

The intent identified in the literature is similar to those outlined in the PMAP System of LGPS which states “ If the assessment is to be effectual, staff must see the procedure trying to run into their demands otherwise the system will non work. Performance assessment should ensue in benefits for the instructor, the decision makers and the establishment. ”

Although public presentation assessment is progressively considered one of the most of import Human Resource patterns ( Boswell & A ; Boudreau 2002 ) critics suggest that the procedure is inherently flawed. For case, ( Reid, Barrington and Brown 2006 ) province that ‘performance assessment is non ever an effectual replacement for constructive feedback overtime by a director. ‘ Not all organisations provide such a positive managerial environment, but it is a start, this should be done through group treatments and participative attacks so that the system assesses standards like preparation.

Mistakes were besides identified which can falsify the cogency of the public presentation assessment procedure. Grint ( 1993 ) identified the job of the ‘horn consequence ‘ , Furnham ( 1993 ) states that there are a assortment of deformations which can originate from the assessment procedure which surround the human interface between the appraise and the valuator. Besides, another job identified was the ‘halo consequence ‘ ( Bach 1998 ) .

Some appraisal mistakes that occur at LGPS are the “ contrast mistake ” , “ cardinal inclination ” and “ personal prejudice ” . Harmonizing to Ivancevich ( 2004 ) a contrast consequence ‘is a evaluation mistake that occurs when a rater allows an person ‘s anterior public presentation or other late evaluated persons to impact the evaluations given to an employee. ‘

Cardinal inclination is ‘a evaluation inclination to give rates an mean evaluation on each standard ‘ ( Ivancevich 2004 ) . For case at LGPS there is a evaluation graduated table of 1- 5 and most people receive a combination of two ‘s and three ‘s. Another common mistake is that of personal prejudice which is ‘the prejudice a rater has about single features, attitudes and backgrounds that influence a evaluation more than public presentation ‘ ( Ivancevich 2004 ) .

There is much research which suggests that assessment is non practiced good or welcomed in some instances. Roberts and Pregitzer ( 2007 ) suggest that public presentation assessment is a annual rite of transition that triggers dread and apprehensiveness in the most experient, conflict hardened directors. Brown ( 2001 ) cites major jobs in Towers Perrin Performance Appraisal patterns. He cites deficiency of preparation for directors peculiarly of import.

Fletcher ( 1993 ) cites a survey where 80 % of respondents were dissatisfied with their appraisal strategy, in peculiar with multiplicity of aims. Rees and Porter ( 2003 ) citation that a common job is that strategies have excessively many aims.

Many organisations try to acquire excessively much from one assessment strategy, and seek to utilize one strategy to carry through all three intents. This is improbable to work, and normally consequences in the strategy falling into discredit. ( Foot and Hook 2002 ) . The research worker agrees with this position and it may be that at LGPS excessively much accent is placed on public presentation and small on preparation and development and wagess.

What is consistent with all literature is that aims of public presentation assessments are a combination of backward / frontward planning.

Reviewing public presentation

LGPS has a formal Performance Appraisal system is known as PMAP.

Armstrong ( 2006, p.509 ) states that ‘performance reappraisals provide a focal point for the consideration of cardinal public presentation and development issues and the reappraisal should be rooted in the world of the employee ‘s public presentation. It is concrete, non abstract and it allows directors and persons to take a positive expression together at how public presentation can go better in the hereafter and how any jobs in run intoing public presentation criterions and accomplishing aims can be resolved. ‘ ( p.509 )

Rogers ( 1999 ) high spots that puting aims and marks remain the nucleus activity of public presentation assessment, but in pattern is ill conducted with small respect for guaranting that organisation and single aims are aligned every bit closely as possible.

If people do non cognize what is expected of them, there is a good opportunity that their behavior will non conform to outlooks ( Youngcourt , 2007 ) . Simmons ( 2002 ) cited research on assessment in universities which suggested that their assessment was non peculiarly successful in increasing lucidity of occupation duties.

LGPS may see ‘that the intent of reexamining public presentation is to better the school ‘s public presentation through the enhanced public presentation of instructors. ( Fisher 1996, p.11 )

The public presentation reappraisal meeting

Harmonizing to ( Armstrong, 2006, p. 510 ) there are 12 aureate regulations for carry oning a public presentation reappraisal meeting. They are be prepared, work with a clear construction, create the right atmosphere, supply good feedback, usage clip fruitfully, usage congratulations, allow persons make most of the speaking, ask for self – appraisal, discourse public presentation non personality, promote analysis of public presentation, do n’t present unexpected unfavorable judgments and agree mensurable aims and a program of action. ‘

The assessment interview should be conducted in an unfastened and non endangering mode to assist cut down anxiousness or uncertainty appraises may hold ( Harrison & A ; Goulding 1997 ) . Trust between valuator and appraise is an of import factor. This is even more of import when there seems to be a reluctance or inability to collate nonsubjective information to inform the assessment procedure ( Piggott – Irvine 2003 ) .

Rating Performance

There are different methods that can be used to measure public presentation. A broad scope of methods are used to carry on public presentation assessments, from the simplest of ranking strategies, to complex competence and or behavioral anchored evaluation strategies ( Snape, Redman & A ; Bamber 1994 ) . LGPS uses the ranking method which can be considered the simplest of all and harmonizing to Nel et Al ( 2001, p. 524 ) ‘ranking involve the ordination of persons harmonizing to overall virtue or selected public presentation factors, from the best to the worst performing artist. ‘

The evaluation system at LGPS staff is simplistic. Staff are deemed to hold either 1, 2, 3, 4 & A ; 5.



1- Outstanding

Exceeding alike in personality, capacity and public presentation

2 – Very Good

A really able and effectual officer

3 – Good

An efficient officer

4 – Carnival

Performs responsibilities reasonably

5 – Unsatisfactory

Decidedly non up to the responsibilities of the class

It is human nature that employees themselves by and large do non desire to hear bad intelligence, particularly about themselves ( Ashford 1999 ) .

Fairness of the system is considered of import. At LGPS some of the instructors frequently express how unjust the assessment system is particularly with the cardinal inclination and personal prejudice evaluations. In a research by Cook and Crossman ( 2004 ) it was suggested that the sensed equity of the system contributes to overall perceptual experience of equity. The principal of the school may follow this method to increase the overall position of equity at the school. There are other surveies on assessment equity particularly with the rightness of evaluation systems. For case a survey Henderson ( 1984 ) suggested that ‘almost all employees are highly wary of public presentation evaluations. ‘ Besides a survey by Harrison and Goulding ( 1997 ) revealed that ‘subjectivity can be a job where valuators and appraises are co-workers, besides directors may be uncomfortable with knocking staff they work closely with, and a inclination towards centralised evaluations could use ‘ .

Bacal ( 1999 ) argued that ‘managers tend to avoid confrontation by hiting liberally ‘ and Rees and Porter ( 2003 ) stated ‘giving unfavorable judgment in a constructive manner can be a really delicate topic ‘ . Further research by Armstrong and Murlis 1998 and Brumbach 2003 suggest that the evaluations system can be perceived as a dishonorable one-year rite.

Although it is outlined in the PMAP the description of each evaluation it appears that the disposal of the school has their thoughts on the descriptions and instructors are frequently confused about the evaluations which are given.

An option to the traditional feedback mechanism is the 360 degree feedback.

Results of the system

Bettering Performance / Training and Development

Rogers ( 1999 ) suggests that one of the cardinal constituents of public presentation assessment is work outing jobs ; that is bettering public presentation. There are developing programmes and workshops in different countries such as topics, struggle direction but do non hold the coveted consequences as they are non implemented or designed decently. Therefore, Pigott – Irvine ( 2003 ) cited research that suggested ‘the demand to distance assessment and disciplinary procedures. ‘ This idea is really of import particularly at LGPS where instructors claim that there is personal prejudice at the assessment interview.

Research by Wilson and Western ( 2000 ) suggest that valuators take the lead in finding the preparation and development to take topographic point. If this is the instance, it is of concern, as personal development demands may take a hapless 2nd topographic point to immediate on the occupation preparation. Rees and Porter ( 2003 ) suggest that attention needs to be taken in set uping realistic precedences and to recognize the possible struggle between single and organisational demands.

In order for preparation and development to be successful the decision makers need to place with persons of the organisation and non the organisation itself. Establishing or implementing organisational directed ends alternatively of single directed ends can do bad lucks.


The usage of public presentation assessment fundamentally entails seeking to honor employees for their past work, while trusting that the inducement of a good wages will promote other employees besides to endeavor to work harder in the hereafter. In recent old ages many organisations have sought to actuate their employees by associating wagess, utilizing a system like public presentation related wage, to first-class public presentation at work. ( Foot and Hook 2002 )

Performance Related Pay ( PRP ) is best described ‘as the expressed nexus of fiscal wages to single, group or company public presentation ( Armstrong and Murlis 1991 ) . The current LGPS public presentation assessment system is linked to pay. Based on the consequences of each instructor ‘s public presentation assessment they receive an increase depending on their salary scope.

There are different ideas refering PRP.

Harmonizing to Stiffler ( 2006, p. 106 ) ‘without a nexus between single steps of public presentation and appropriate wagess for accomplishing success, there is no effectual manner to maneuver an administration. Kirkpatrick ( 2006, p.6 ) is of the sentiment ‘that directors need to give workers encouragement in order to execute, ‘ and Armstrong and Murlis ( 1996, p.28-29 ) states ‘it is widely believed that money is the best motive. ‘

The followers is a list of standards which were critical to successfully associating assessment to fiscal wagess.

“ Wagess are clearly lined and proportionate to attempt and consequences

Clear, just and understood standards are used to judge public presentation

Clear and meaningful marks are set

Employees and directors can easy supervise public presentation against marks

The wages strategy is decently designed, implemented and maintained

The strategy is designed to guarantee persons can non have hyperbolic awards unrelated to their public presentation

Employees are involved in the development and operation of the strategy ” ( Rogers 1999 )

There is much research on the topic of assessment taking to pay. Research by Simmons ( 2002 ) uncovered strong resistance from respondents in the Higher Education ( HE ) and Further Education ( FE ) sectors associating assessment to pay, mentioning dissentious standards and the impact on squads public presentation in peculiar. Marsden and French ( 1998 ) undertook research at the Inland Revenue on the impact of an appraisal strategy linked to public presentation related wage. They found that the strategy had the general consequence of cut downing motive and teamwork.

Miller ( 2006, p.43 ) ‘managers should non presume that money is the ultimate inducement for public presentation. ‘ Managers should advantage their organisation ‘s inducement programmes. Directors and squad leaders besides need to cognize what element their squads are motivated to maneuver each individual toward the applicable organisational inducement with a position to maximizing its effectivity on the employee ‘s public presentation.

Williams ( 2002 ) suggested formal citations and awards, favorable reference in the company publications, freedom refering occupation responsibilities and or hours, increased duty and more engagement in puting ends as non fiscal wagess for employees.

Motivation and occupation satisfaction

Poon ‘s ( 2004 ) detailed research into this country concluded that use of evaluations or inconsistent evaluations did hold an consequence on occupation satisfaction. However, a well developed and executed public presentation assessment system can hold a positive impact. Research by Langridge ( 2004 ) concluded that new systems of public presentation assessment and direction development have helped to revitalize a UK Housing Association. The system implemented separated out fiscal fillips from the single public presentation reappraisal, which was overpoweringly supported by all staff.

Harmonizing to Armstrong ( 2001 ) , motive is concerned with the factors that influence people to act in certain ways.

Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman ( 1957 ) identified two types of motive ( intrinsic and extrinisic ) which we still recognize today. Armstrong ( 2001 ) elaborates as follows:

Intrinsic motive – the ego -generated factors that influence people to act in a peculiar manner or to travel in a peculiar way. These factors include duty, liberty, range to utilize and develop accomplishments and abilities, interesting and disputing work chances for promotion.

Extrinsic motive – what is done to or for people to actuate them. This includes wagess, such as increased wage, congratulations, or publicity, and penalty, such as disciplinary action, keep backing wage or unfavorable judgment.

Influential Theories of Motivation

As Armstrong ( 2001 ) stipulated, several theories of motive have been accepted in literature

Instrumentality theory, which argues that wagess or penalties ( carrots and sticks ) serve as a agency of guaranting that people behave or act in coveted ways.

Content theory, which focuses on the content of motive. It states that motive is basically about taking action to fulfill demands and identifies the chief demands that influence behavior ( Maslow 1954 ; Herzberg, 1957 ) .

Process theory, which focuses on the psychological procedures which affect motive, by mention to outlooks ( Vroom 1964 ) ends ( Latham and Locke 1979 ) and perceptual experiences of equity ( Adams, 1965 ) .

Armstrong and Murlis ( 1996, p. 29 ) are of the sentiment that ‘reward procedures are more likely to better motive, public presentation and committedness if they are operated reasonably and wagess are just in the sense that they are commensurate with the value of the occupation and of the individual to the administration. ‘


It is portion of human nature to experience aggrieved when employees are non recognised or rewarded sufficiently for good public presentation. Nel ( 1997 p. 214 ) points out that a grudge is defined as an happening, state of affairs or status that justifies the single housing a ailment. This definition applies good at the school as it is viewed from the point of an employee being aggrieved after a public presentation assessment procedure.


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