Review the Research Procedures

Chapter THREE



The old chapter examined the literature important to this survey emphasizing on some of the of import findings of old research. This chapter intends to reexamine the research processs concerned in transporting out this survey. First, it explains the research design used in this survey warranting the grounds for choosing the design. Second, it considers the choice of research locations and topics for this survey. In add-on, this chapter besides underlines informations aggregation techniques, dependability and cogency ; every bit good as ethical issues.

Research doctrine

For the intent of this research, the research worker has adopted the positivism doctrine, an epistemic point of position that is concerned with the perusal of fortunes, which would enable this research to bring forth the quantifiable informations for the development of BC ‘s hereafter concern and selling scheme. ( Bryman & A ; Bell, 2003 ) In position of the current economic system recession and bad company turnover, the research worker hopes to happen out the perceptual experiences of Malaysian ‘s parents towards high-quality, costly babe merchandises ; every bit good as ways of bettering company turnover.

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Research attack

By utilizing a deductive attack, the research foremost established the theory of the recent economic system recession and limited fiscal resources plays important functions in coercing parents to buy low-quality, low-price babe merchandises ( Robson, 2002 ). Second, the theory of advertizement in printed media would ease BC in making extra consciousness to the company ‘s offerings. The research worker besides developed the theory of gross revenues publicity as a selling tool for pulling and increasing BC ‘s turnover. Subsequently, these five hypotheses were tested.

Although there were limited past surveies on consumer behavior, peculiarly on parents and infant supply industry ; there were a figure of literatures on consumer behavior and general retail industry. There were besides surveies on the effects of advertizement and in-store publicity activities on increasing shop traffic and turnover. This has allowed the research worker to set up theories and hypotheses required for the deductive attack. Research utilizing an inductive attack is likely to concern with geting cognition of the significances of worlds factors attach to the events. Therefore, it is more appropriate for survey on a little sample of topics, compared to the big figure as with this research ( Bryman & A ; Bell, 2003 ).

Research design

This will be an explanatory research, as the direction of BC would be interested in understanding the grounds of the dissatisfactory turnover and to develop a suited concern and selling scheme to rectify this ruin ( Cooper & A ; Schindler, 2003, p. 11 ).

Exploratory surveies is non appropriate for the ground that it focuses on larning what go on and look for penetrations to capable affair, without pulling any decisions to the topic under research. It is utile if the company is diffident of the nature of the job and hope to understand more clearly. In this undertaking, hapless turnover is apparent of the job faced by BC ; therefore probe and rectification would be the direction ‘s chief concern ( Adams & A ; Schvaneveldt, 1991 ). Furthermore, geographic expedition is frequently connected to subjectiveness and non-systematic design.

Descriptive surveies trades with happening replies to the inquiries who, what, when and how of a topic. It may or may non hold the chance of pulling an effectual decision, which the direction required for its hereafter schemes ( Saunders et al. , 2009 ).

Although this may be deemed as a descriptive survey, sing it is concerned with understanding the consumer purchasing behavior. However, the direction of BC is likely to necessitate this research to pull up an effectual decision, as a agency for its hereafter programs ; which descriptive survey deficiencies. However, bookmans argued the possibility of descripto-explanatory surveies for this scenario ( Saunders et al. , 2009 ).

Research schemes

The research worker uses study to roll up primary informations from a sample size of 400 populations. Surveyis normally linked to deductive attack and it is the most recognized and often used scheme in concern and direction research. It allows a research worker to roll up a big sum of quantitative informations from a ample population, in the most economical manner. Original informations direct from the samples is important to this research. With the information gathered from the feedback of clients of BC and other rivals, BC may be able to develop the most suited concern and selling scheme ( Saunders et al. , 2009 ).

A research worker may take to utilize experiment, study, instance survey, action research, grounded theory, ethnograph or archival research for aggregation of primary informations. Experiment is non suited for this research because the voluntary topics are normally divided into one or more experimental groups, which given the nature of this study, it would be a ambitious undertaking ( Hakim, 2000 ). Archival research uses by administrative records and nose count paperss as its chief beginning of informations. Data collected may non incorporate the recent or relevant for BC ‘s concern and selling scheme ( Yin, 2008 ).

Primary and secondary informations aggregation

This research uses a four-page self-administered questionnaire, which is attached as Appendix IV. The questionnaires were administered to the clients and frequenters of three babe forte shops and one departmental shop in Malaysia. This research is confined to three chief metropoliss, Petaling Jaya, Subang Jaya and Kuala Lumpur. BC ‘s ain shop in Petaling Jaya, BC ‘s ain shop in Subang Jaya, Mothercare and a major departmental shop in Kuala Lumpur. Both BC ‘s ain shops were selected for understanding the profile of ain clients and frequenters for its concern and selling scheme intents. While the two shops in Kuala Lumpur were selected for its population denseness and grade of competition.

The population was defined as ‘parents of kids under the age of five who uses babe baby’s room merchandises ‘ . Target populations were divided into groups of 100 respondents from each BC mercantile establishment, and 100 respondents from Mothercare shop and another 100 respondents from the major departmental shop. The study questionnaires were distributed personally by an interviewer who explains the purposes of the study and how to make full out the questionnaires. The respondents were allowed several proceedingss to finish the simple study, and it is return and the topographic point. Although it is similar to face-to-face interview, but it incorporate the advantages of this information aggregation method. It is less clip consuming and able to obtain a higher response rate than mail studies ( Yin, 2008 ).

The research was conducted in January and February 2011, over seven yearss per hebdomad and covering different scope of clip periods so as to get as representative a sample of population as possible. The research worker is able to roll up 118 questionnaires from the 400 questionnaires distributed to all targeted groups. Although the questionnaire is administered by the research worker personally, there were scenarios whereby the topic ‘s were loath to react instantly and promised to present at a ulterior phase. However, it did non happen. This is one of the grounds for the low response rate. Out of 118, merely 100 were able to be used for the intent of this survey ; due to incompletion of questionnaires.

The questionnaire consists of three subdivisions: subdivision 1 consists of demographic information ; subdivision 2 contains five-point Likert-style evaluation graduated table and list inquiries. Whereas subdivision 3 contains category inquiries and list inquiries ( Cooper & A ; Schindler, 2003 ).

In demographic subdivision of the questionnaire, there were some class inquiries which asked for race, instruction degree and the entire combine income degree of the respondents. This is most utile in profiling an single consumer and/or aiming selected consumer groups for marketing planning intents. Although it may look racism or favoritism for inquiring Race, but Malaysia is a state with multi-racial population. Its population consist of 50 per centum Malay, 30 per centum Chinese and 10 per centum Indian. Each race with ain written and spoken linguistic communication, and intelligence media. This would be important when make up one’s minding on the linguistic communication and media for advertisement run. One of the aims of this survey is to understand if economic system forces plays significance function in parents ‘ purchasing determinations. Hence, the inquiry for entire combine family income.

Second subdivision is in line with another aim of this survey, to set up the perceptual experiences of parents on costly babe merchandises and besides the effects of economical forces. It consist of four-question, the respondent is asked how strongly he or she strongly agree or disagree with the statement on a five-point graduated table, with respects to merchandise quality and pricing. Another four class inquiries on the same topic were asked ( Cooper & A ; Schindler, 2003 ). The recent study of natural catastrophe which affected the portion market and snowballed into fright of another planetary recession has reported lag of GDP growing. The inquiries in the subdivision aimed to look into whether these factors influence Malayan parents ‘ purchasing behavior, viz. on costly babe merchandises. In add-on, to understand their perceptual experiences on high-quality babe merchandises and their willingness to accept its high-price. BC is positioned as a high-end forte shop for imported and branded babe merchandises. It is of import for the direction to understanding the hereafter of this peculiar market section for its concern planning intents.

Third subdivision is aimed to analyze the purchasing behavior of parents, the impact of advertizement in making consciousness and the effectivity of in-store gross revenues publicities. There were seven category inquiries and one list inquiry which asked the type of publicity which respondents like the most. BC has invested to a great extent in advertizement run throughout the past two old ages, nevertheless its consequences is still dubious. The inquiries were intended to research the parents ‘ shopping penchants and their consciousness of BC ‘s merchandises and offering. BC has strictly followed the “Malaysian Gross saless Carnival” run, every bit good as its ain promotional run. And this is taken its tow on the company ‘s net income border. This study aims to look into if the parents are merely attracted to buy merely during gross revenues period or there are other implicit in grounds.

The research worker uses company past fiscal study as one of the beginnings for secondary informations. Government studies on planetary and Malaysia ‘s GDP growing rate were assessed, every bit good as statistical nose count from several authorities sections.

Quantitative and qualitative informations analysis

The research worker assumes a 95 per centum assurance degree for the different fringy mistake from the informations collected. Systematic sampling will be used to choose sample at a regular intervals from the sampling frame. This is done by ciphering the trying fraction, based on the below expression ( Figure 3.2 ). The trying fraction is hence, the research worker will choose one sample in every four instances.

Data will be input and descriptive statistical analysis will be executed by utilizing Statistical Programme for Social Science ( SPSS ). The analysis will be presented to BC ‘s direction in saloon charts, pie charts and tabular arraies.

Research restrictions

Data aggregation may be limited by the clip available to roll up the necessary informations from the respondents, as it is highly clip devouring to garner the necessary informations when population size is excessively broad ( Sekaran, 2000 ) . To administer and roll up questionnaires from clients of other rivals may bring forth conflicting issues with the rival and its clients. The research was besides limited by deficient field workers available to roll up big sample size from three different locations. There may be possibility of untruthfulness of the topic in finishing the existent information in questionnaire, particularly for inquiries such as entire household income. Due to psychological issue, respondents may supply as reply which is higher than what is existent figure.

There were limited company archival informations available due to the short period of constitution ( about two old ages ) , every bit good as past study studies on Malaysia retail industry, viz. infant supply industry. Although there were many surveies done on consumer behavior and retail industry, there were limited surveies which specifically aim at parents ‘ behavior and babe retail shops ( infant supply industry ).

Research dependability and cogency

Dependability refers to the regularity of both the questionnaires and the respondents. The questionnaires must be interpreted by all respondents in the same manner ; in order to bring forth a consistent determination at different times. Reliability is peculiarly of import for quantitative research ; sing that a quantitative research worker would be most interested in the stableness of the standards ( Bryman & A ; Bell, 2003, p.33 ).

Validity trades with the truthfulness of the decision derived from a research, and whether the findings of the research is what they seem to be. Internal cogency of the questionnaires refers to the capableness of the questionnaire to measure what the research worker program to find. Content cogency refers to the grade to which the questionnaires present sufficient coverage of this probe. Predictive cogency is concerned with the ability of the inquiries to do precise computations ( Sekaran, 2000 ).

Ethical issues

Cooper & A ; Schindler ( 2003 ) described moralss as rules and beliefs of actions that guide the moral picks in relation to our behavior. Ethical issues may originate as the research worker plans for this research. Ethical issue trades with the suited behavior of the research worker in relation with the right of the topic of this research. Therefore, research moralss is about how the research worker devise and construe the research rubric, construct the research and obtain entree, compile informations, procedure and shop the informations, evaluate the informations and describe the research findings in an honest and responsible mode ( Saunders et al. , 2009 ). The aim of research moralss is to guarantee that no 1 is hurt or digest unfavorable reverberations from the research activities.

Saunders et Al. ( 2009 ) highlighted a figure of chief ethical issues which may originate at the stages and during the class of research, and they are related to the: –

  • Privacy of possible and existent respondents.
  • Consent and possible dishonest respondents.
  • The degree of free-will of the respondents and the right to draw out partly or wholly from the procedure.
  • Protection of confidentiality of the informations given by the respondents or traceable respondents and their province of anonymousness.
  • Psychological reactions of the respondents towards the manner the research worker ‘s effort to roll up informations ; for illustration humiliation, anxiousness, edginess, injury and disturbance.

Cooper and Schindler ( 2003, p.125 ) suggested that the research worker should be responsible for the right to privateness of the possible and existent participants. The individuality of participants must be treated with rigorous confidentiality. The research will purely adhere to this. This is important in order to continue the cogency of the research, every bit good as to protect the respondents. There are a figure of ways a research worker may protect the participants ‘ confidentiality: –

  • Restricting entree to participants ‘ personal information.
  • Acquire authorised nondisclosure paperss.
  • Participants ‘ individuality should merely be disclosed with a written consent.
  • Restricting entree to the information device which shops the participants ‘ individuality.

One of the ethical issues which may originate is seeking entree from respondents. Respondents who are friends and households of the research worker may experience obligated and pressured into holding due to their relationship with the research worker ( Marshall & A ; Rossman, 2006 ). Existing clients of BC may be coerced into reacting, with the promise of particular benefits. Therefore, showing biased replies.

Consent from participants of a research is a sensitive issue, and should be obtained and the study must be conducted under voluntary mode. For general concern research, it is sufficient to obtain verbal consent from the participants ( Zikmound, 2000 ) . Participants should be good informed of the questionnaires and information must be given freely in return.

Researcher should continue its objectiveness towards the information collected, informations analysis and informations describing procedure. Researcher should non seek to act upon the replies from participants or pull strings the informations collected ( Easterby-Smith et Al, 2008 ).


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