Highway bridges constitute a big part of the national wealth and construct up the foundation for substructure development. For the last few decennaries research workers have made extended attempt to do Bridgess safe against lay waste toing temblor and maintain them functional following a seismal event. Failure of Bridgess during past temblors ( 1971 San Fernando, 1989 Loma Prieta, and 1994 Northridge ) have accelerated the demand for Bridgess that can rarefy the seismal harm and cut down both long and short-run causalities following an temblor. Bridge sets are one of the vulnerable elements in a span, failure of which can hold ruinous effects. Bridge sets are reinforced concrete ( RC ) frames normally used to back up beams and girders. If a span set can be made smart plenty so that it can cut down the seismal harm and return to its original place after a seismal event, many of the issues associated with span direction could be eliminated. The development and executing of smart and advanced stuffs in span building non merely can heighten the public presentation of span during seismal event but besides can guarantee the post-earthquake recoverability. Shape memory metal ( SMA ) is a smart stuff that has the alone ability to undergo big distortion, but can recover its undeformed form through emphasis remotion, which brings about an added advantage in seismal parts.
Reinforced concrete Bridgess located in high seismal part are designed to hold high ductileness which in bend increases the lasting distortions. In order to increase the station temblor recoverability and cut down the care and repairing costs, decline of residuary supplantings is required. In the proposed survey superelastic SMA will be used in concurrence with regular steel in the span set. The aim of the proposed research is to develop smart span constructions with ( I ) reduced hazard of failure, ( two ) enhanced distortion capacity, ( three ) reduced residuary cleft sizes, and ( four ) negligible/ reduced lasting distortion. This research will help in developing performance- based design guidelines for SMA reinforced concrete span set.
Literature reappraisal method and database used:
In order to fix the literature reexamine the application of SMA in structural applications was explored. Then the applications were categorized in different subdivisions. As SMA is relatively new as a building stuff, how different research workers have incorporated it in their theoretical account was investigated. The database used for this literature reappraisal is compendex and web of scientific discipline. Shape memory metal, Bridgess were used as keywords for seeking paperss. Furthermore as SMA is a comparatively new stuff and considered as a smart stuff, diaries such as Smart stuffs and constructions, Journal of span technology and Engineering constructions were explored.
Shape Memory Alloy:
Shape Memory Alloys ( SMA ) is fresh stuffs that have unparallel belongingss such as superelasticity ( SE ) and shape memory consequence ( SME ) . Superelasticity is the alone phenomenon that makes SMA a smart stuff. Due to its superelasticity SMA is able to recover its original form upon emphasis remotion even from inelastic part with important energy dissipation. Superelasticity, negligible residuary strain and first-class corrosion opposition have made Ni-Ti metal most suited for structural applications. The form memory consequence ( SME ) is temperature dependant. With this distinguishable belongings SMA is able to recover its original form up to 8 % starin with negligible residuary distortion. SMA besides performs good under cyclic lading with important energy dissipation which makes it suited for structural applications in seismal parts.
Applications of SMA:
Numerous researches have been carried out on applications for which form memory metals can be used for edifice and Bridgess in seismal parts. These include as reenforcing saloon for concrete constructions such as beams, columns and articulations, as confining wires for retrofitting columns, and in span retrofitting, bolted connexions, restrainer overseas telegram and dampers in Bridgess and prestressing strands.
Reinforcing bars in concrete constructions:
Concrete, by nature is a really stiff stuff, and when exposed to seismal activity, particularly at great magnitudes, can undergo terrible harm, doing loss of life or 1000000s in fixs. To pull off this job complexs are added to beef up the concrete and do it more ductile. The chief end of planing concrete constructions for seismal design is to disperse energy while battling lasting distortions, keeping the structural unity of the members and avoid collapsing. An experimental probe conducted by Saidi and Wang ( 2006 ) showed that column reinforced with SMA in fictile flexible joint part reduced seismal harm and debauched equal sum of seismal energy. Nehdi et Al. ( 2010 ) proposed a intercrossed beam-column articulation reinforced with SMA in fictile flexible joint part which showed better public presentation under seismal burden. In an analytical probe in an eight floor reinforced concrete frame Alam et Al. ( 2009 ) demonstrated the efficaciousness of utilizing SMA in fictile flexible joint part of the beam under seismal burden.
Application in Bridgess:
Bridges are considered to be one of the most vulnerable constructions during an temblor event. In an effort to do Bridgess serviceable after seismal events and cut down their repairing cost researches have been carried out to set up the feasibleness of utilizing SMA in span building. Saiidi et Al. ( 2009 ) by experimentation investigated the effectivity of strengthened concrete span columns with superelastic form memory metal ( SMA ) support and engineered cementitious complexs ( ECC ) in plastic flexible joints. Their consequences showed that the inclusion of SMA reduced the residuary supplanting by a significant sum compared to regular steel strengthened column. In an analytical probe Roh and Reinhorne ( 2010 ) introduced SE SMA saloon at the base section of precast segmental span wharf to better the energy dissipation capacity. Andrews et Al. ( 2010 ) by experimentation and analytically demonstrated the feasibleness of wrapping span columns utilizing SMA in order to increase the strength and ductileness of span column.
Application in retrofitting of bing constructions:
Insufficient ductileness, faulty building, unequal seismal particularization makes a construction seismically lacking and raises the demand for retrofitting. As SMA possesses some alone belongingss now a twenty-four hours & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s it is considered as a possible campaigner to be used in seismal retrofitting of constructions. Soroushian et Al. ( 2001 ) practically demonstrated the usage of SMA saloon for the rehabilitation of a shear strength deficient span in Michigan. This technique of SMA station tensioning resulted in successful decrease in the cleft breadth. In an analytical survey on multi-span merely supported span with SMA restrainers by DesRoches and Delemont ( 2002 ) demonstrated that SMA restrainers can efficaciously cut down the comparative supplantings of flexible joint compared to the regular steel restrainers. In an analytical survey Andrews and Shin ( 2008 ) compared the seismal public presentation of span column retrofitted with SMA ring and FRP sheets. Their survey asserted the domination of SMA over FRP in harm decrease and decreased sidelong supplanting under dynamic burden.
Application in seismal isolation and dampers:
Dampers are considered as inactive control devices to protect constructions during a seismal event. A broad assortment of dampers such as visco-elastic dampers, viscous-fluid dampers, frictional dampers, hysteretic dampers, tuned-mass dampers etc are widely used. But these dampers have some disadvantages such as ageing and lastingness, high care cost and small or no recentering capableness. Experimental and theoretical surveies conducted by Witting and Cozzarelli ( 1992 ) , Aiken et Al. ( 1993 ) , Hodgson and Krumme ( 1994 ) Dolce et Al. ( 2000 ) have demonstrated the potency of SMA to excel those disadvantages with equal structural control. An intelligent damping device composed of SMA was developed by Adachi et Al. ( 2000 ) . They conducted experimental plan and reported its effectivity in cut downing seismal force and recovering original place ensuing from SMA & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s SE and SME. A smart damper based on SMA wires was proposed by Han et Al. ( 2003 ) for structural quiver control. They carried out experimental probe and concluded that SMA dampers efficaciously reduced structural response with equal energy dissipation capacity. Mekki and Auricchio ( 2011 ) incorporated SMA as an energy dispersing device in overseas telegram stayed span and revealed that SMA performed better in cut downing quiver as compared to conventional dampers. Isolators are filter devices placed in between the superstructure and infrastructure to cut down harm during an temblor. Graesser and Cozzarelli ( 1991 ) developed a one dimensional constituent theoretical account of SMA and experimented its possibility to be used as an isolation device. Wilde et Al. ( 2000 ) developed an isolation device composed of laminated gum elastic bearing and SMA. They found SMA based gum elastic isolation device really effectual in cut downing deck supplanting and showed good muffling belongings. Casciati et Al. ( 2007 ) developed an advanced isolation device comprising of three inclined SMA bars with two discs and one perpendicular cylinder held up by three horizontal cantilevers. Billah et Al. ( 2010 ) assessed the effectivity of SMA isolation systems in cut downing structural seismal responses has through a finite component analysis on a two span uninterrupted reinforced concrete ( R/C ) span and compared the public presentation with high muffling gum elastic bearing and lead gum elastic bearing. They showed SMA bearings satisfactorily restrained the deck supplanting and the comparative supplanting between the deck and the wharf for strong land gesture.
Current seismal design guidelines demand the structural members and systems to be malleable plenty with enhanced distortion capacity, and ability to cut down lasting supplanting. This research will be an of import measure toward implementing performance-based temblor technology for daring design of strengthened concrete Bridgess. Furthermore, this survey will measure the seismal exposure of SMA RC span set and compare it with conventional RC span set. Bridges designed based on guidelines of the proposed research will countervail significant sum of fix and care costs that is incurred with conventional main road Bridgess and will bring forth sustainable main road Bridgess in Canada.