In chapter four “Black Groups: Rhetoric and Reality” . author tried to turn up whether black powers i. e. activists and groups had any feasible plan to form black people or their thoughts and action were confusion with no clear docket. For this intent. he provides an penetration into the thoughts and attempts of innovator of black motion. He starts with the thoughts of Malcolm X and analyzed his “intellectual model for radical Black Nationalism” ( p. 246 ) Malcolm X asserted that psychological release and black pride are indispensable elements to determine black American into an organized whole.
But author is of the position that largely. His ( Malcolm’s ) thoughts were misunderstood or misinterpreted and therefore they were unable to act upon the black motion. He farther analyzed the thought of another innovator of black motion. Stokely Carmichael who stressed on the importance of reformation in black political orientation and advocated “independent politics”. His considered the capitalist construction as the primary cause if all unfairness and racial favoritism prevalent in the American. He developed a two-pronged scheme to counter racism and capitalistic development.
There is pronounced displacement in his political orientation after visits to several south American states and he considered guerilla warfare an of import tool to set up their right on the land. houses and stores” . Rap Brown. another president of the SNCC advocated military and armed battle in a more univocal manner. Carmichael developed a new attack after his visits to Latin universe and “in February 1968. the enemy of the inkinesss was no longer the capitalist system. The premier enemy was the white adult male. the whitey. ” ( P.
250 ) So Carmichael added racism to capitalist economy as the new enemy but his reform school attempts for reconstituting the black community and to counter these two immoralities systems were equivocal as he largely advocated in favour of socialism as the redress of these evil system. His thoughts are largely self-contradictory and author is of the position that his in-between category background torn him “between hawkish patriotism and accomodationist integrationism” ( p. 252 ) . Writer farther delves deep into the different schemes and plans of SNCC to bear down the batteries of black motion but he asserts that mere addresss and statement does non give into feasible activities.
Writer farther explores the black pupil motions and says that typically black pupils follow a businessperson mentality after their graduation and seek to absorb and place themselves with white community. This attitude of black pupils made them distrustful in the eyes of less-privileged categories of black community. As black pupil were non portion of White community so they were entangled into a quandary and this individuality crisis was more heightened in Ivy League Schools where they were labeled as “white Negroes” by their ain community.
However there was a turning bitterness in black pupils against the racial policies and they took several armed rebellions against the college and authorities governments. Writer provides comprehensive inside informations of black students’ battle in assorted college campuses across America during 1968. SNCC and other black militants were in favour a political party that would the exclusive representative of African American. The SNCC experience had taught it that both Democrats and Republican parties are non a remedy to their afflictions so they worked to set up a black political party at the national degree.
In this effort. SNCC and “black panthers” created an confederation and advocated a battle for self-government. Due to several built-in and structural differences these organisation failed to unify and turned into a political party. Writer sums up the chapter by exemplifying that although SNCC and black jaguar were non representative of the all black groups but their thoughts manifested the thoughts and activities pf groups elements during the black motion.